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picture of ' The Death of Csesar,' which was much
admired. Soon afterwards, the ariival at Rome
of the great French artist David excited Camuc-
cini's emulation, and he undertook to produce a
series of pictures on subjects taken from the
history of ancient Rome, and painted in the
classic manner. Among these were :

Horatius Codes.

The Departure of Regulus for Carthage.

The Continence of Scipio (in the Palazzo Reale, Naples).

The Death of Virginia. ( ).

The Death of Csesar. ( ).

He also painted :
The Incredulity of St. Thomas (in mosaic, in St. Peter't,

at Rome).
The Presentation in the Temple (in San Giovanni, at

Piacenza ; esteemed one of his finest works).
The Death of the Magdalen.

The Entombment (painted for Charles IV. of Spain).

241



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



The Apparition of Christ in Limbo (painted in 1829 for

the Association of the Patriotic Friends of Art of

Prague).

Mission of the Benedictine Monks to England. 1833.
The Conversion of St. Paul (a colossal picture executed

in 1834/0)- the Basilica of San Paolo fuori le Mwra

at Rome).

These serious subjects he diversified -with a
' Betrothal of Psyche,' and, jointly with Landi,
he painted, in fresco, the ceiling of the Torlonia
Palace. As regards composition and design,
Camuccini in these works is considered by his
fellow-countrymen to have been entitled to stand
in comparison with the great masters of painting
of the later period of the Revival ; but in colouring
he is admitted to have been very deficient. As a
portrait painter he attained considerable eminence ;
amongst the best he produced are those of

Pope Pius VII. {now in the Gallery at Vienna).

The Duke de Blacas, Ambassador from France at Rome.

The King of Naples, and the Queen of Naples.

The Countess Schouvaloff, and the Countess von Die-
trichstein. 1829.

Several of his works have been engraved by
Bettelini, and some have been lithographed by
Scudellari, and published under the title of 'I Fasti
principal; della Vita di Gesii Cristo,' with text in
Italian and French, at Rome, in 1829. Camuccini
was appointed inspector-general of the Museums
of the Pope, and of the Factory of Mosaics, and
director of the Neapolitan Academy of Rome. He
was a member of the Institute of France, and
during some years president of the Academy of
St. Luke. Pope Pius VII. conferred upon him
the title of Baron, with hereditary succession, and
the Emperor Francis I. the order of the Iron
Crown. He died at Rome in 1844. But it was
not merely as an artist that Camuccini was distin-
guished. Recognized as a man of superior taste,
and having amassed a considerable property, he
expended no small portion of his wealth in the
purchase of a fine collection of pictures and other
objects of art. On this collection coming to be
sold, in 1856, the greater portion of the pictures,
upwards of seventy in number, were purchased by
the Duke of Northumberland, who removed them
to Alnwick Castle. They consist principally of
the works of the Italian masters living in the
16th and 17th centuries, with some specimens of
an earlier date, and a few others of the Dutch
and Flemish painters of the 17th century. One
by Raphael, known as 'The Madonna with the
Pink,' is the most noted of them.

CAMULIO, BARTOLOMMEO DI, flourished at
Genoa in the middle of the 14th century. A
Madonna painted by him, in the year 1340, is in
the Palermo Gallery.

CAMUS. See DUVAL LE CAMUS.

CANAL, ANTONIO, commonly called CANALETTO,
was born at Venice in 1697. He was the pupil of
his father, Bernardo Canal, who was a decorator and
scene painter. Antonio first confined his atten-
tion to theatrical decorations, but in 1719 went
to Rome, where he spent some time in drawing
and copying the antiquities of that city and its
vicinity. Returning to his birthplace, he exclus-
ively occupied himself in producing views of
Venice, which for their great truth to nature, and
for their extraordinary effect, perspective, and
colour, met with an immense success, and are Btill
most highly esteemed. The figures in his views
are almost all painted by Giovanni Battista Tie-
polo. In 1746 Canaletto visited London, and re-

242



mained two years, during which time he painted
many of its most striking views. It is com-
monly thought that he was the first artist who
used the camera lucida for his pictures. The prin-
cipal public and private galleries of Europe possess
examples by this master ; but his works must not
be confounded with those of his nephew, Bernardo
Bellotto, who is also called Canaletto. His finest
works are at Berlin, Dresden, London, Munich,
Paris, and Vienna. Many of Antonio's paintings
have been engraved by Vicentino, and he himself
has etched thirty-one plates of ' Views in Venice.'
His death occurred in that city in 1768. The
following are his principal works :
Bergamo. Ac. Carrara. A View of Venice.
Berlin. Gallery. View of Santa Maria della Salute,

Venice.
n View of the Doge's Palace,

Venice.

View of the Dogana, Venice.

Darmstadt. Gallery. Venetian Scene.
Dresden. Gallery. Views in Venice (six).
Florence. Uffizi. The Ducal Palace, Venice.

The Rialto, Venice.

Frankfort. Stddtl Coll. Venetian Scenes.
Hampton Ct. Palace. The Colosseum at Rome.
Isleworth. St/on House. View of Northumberland House.
Fjondon. 'Nat. Gall. View in Venice.

The Grand Canal, Venice.

The Scuola di San Rocco (with

figures by Tiepolo).
Regatta on the Grand Canal.

The Piazzetta of St. Mark, Venice,

from the Quay.
London. Nat. Gall. Ducal Palace and Column of St.

Mark, Venice.

Eton College. 1746.

On the Canal Reggio, Venice.

San Pietro di Castellu, Venice.
Soane Mas. View on the Grand Canal,

Venice.
Montagu Ho. View of Whitehall.

Dudley Ho. View in Venice.
Devonshire Ho. View in Venice.
Wallace Gall. Twenty pictures by him and his
nephew, the Grand Canal
being a fine and notable work
by Canale.

Munich. PinrikotJiek. Views of Venice.
Naples. Museum. Twelve Views of Venice.

Paris. Louvre. View of Santa Maria della Salute,

Venice.
Petersburg. Hermitage. Reception of Count Gergi at

Venice.
,, The Marriage of the Doge with

the Adriatic.

Rome. Ac. di S. Luca. A Scene.
Turin. Pinacoteca. View in Venice.
Venice. Accademia. Portico of a Palace.

Museo Correr. The Grand Canal, Venice.
Vienna. Gallery. Views of the Schottenkirche.

f "^'7;' 1 Views in Venice.
stein Coll. J

Windsor. Castle. Two Views on the Thames.
Views in Rome.

CANALE, GIUSEPPE, an Italian designer and
engraver, was born at Rome in 1725. He was in-
structed in engraving by Jacob Frey, and also
frequented the school of the Cavaliere Benefiale.
In 1751 he was invited to Dresden to assist in
making the drawings and engraving the plates
of a part of the pictures in the Gallery, and was
appointed engraver to the Court. He died in 1802.
We have by him the following prints :

Maria Mattia Perini ; after M. Benefiale.

Maria Antonia, Electress Dowager of Saxony ; after a

drawing by the Princess herself.
Archbishop Bonaventura Barberini.
Maria Josephina, Queen of Poland.



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PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Prince Xavier of Saxony.

The sepulchral Monument of Cardinal Spinola.

The Philosopher ; after Spagnoletto.

The Glory ; after Domenichmo.

A Sibyl ; after Angelica Kaufmann.

Paris and CEnone ; after Van Loo.

Adam and Eve driven from Paradise : after Albam.

Christ and St. John ; after Van der Werf.

Christ appearing to St.'Thomas ; after Mat. Preti ; this

plate was finished by Beauvarlet.
A Turkish Woman ; after Dietrich.
Spring ; after the same.

CANALETTO. See BELLOTTO, and CANAL.

CANDEHRON, BERNARDINO, was a Spaniard
who, assisted by Fray Felipe and Alonso Vazquez,
painted a missal enriched with miniatures in six
volumes for the cathedral of Toledo. This work
he executed between 1514 and 1518 by order of
Cardinal Ximenes. It is considered the most beau-
tiful work of the kind ever executed in Spain.

CANDIDO, MARTINO DI. See under TOLMEZZO.

CANDIDO, PIETRO, (or PIETER CANDID). See
DE WITTE.

CANE, CARLO, was born at Gallarate, a small
town in the Milanese, in 1618, and was instructed
by Melchiore Gilardini. He copied the works of
Morazzone with success, and became a historical
painter of some note, particularly in fresco. His
best works are ' St. Ambrose ' and ' St. Hugo.'
painted in fresco in the Certosa at Padua. He
also painted landscapes and animals, which he
touched with great spirit. He died at Milan in
1688. There was also a CARLO CANE, of Trino,
who is mentioned by Irico, in his ' History of
Trino,' as having painted in 1600 two altar-pieces
for the Benedictine abbey of Locedia.

CANELLA, GIUSEPPE, who was born at Verona
in 1788, was a painter of architectural scenes and
sea-pieces ; he worked at Milan, and died at Flor-
ence in 1847. Amongst his best productions are :

Views of Paris and the Boulevards.

The Cathedral at Milan.

The Harbour at Honfleur.

The Church of Santa Croce in Florence.

New Street in Venice.

View of a Village moonlight (in tht Brera, Milan).

CANERIO, ANSELMO, was a Veronese painter
who flourished between 1560 and 1575, and pro-
duced a number of works in oil and in fresco at So-
ranzo. Castelfranco, Vicenza, and Verona. He was
a follower of Paolo Veronese. There is a frieze of
his to be seen in the palace of Count Murani, and
a ' Pharaoh's Daughter ' in Signor Ridolfi's mansion
both at Verona.

CANETI, FRANCESCO ANTONIO, an Italian minia-
ture painter, born at Cremona in 1652, was a pupil
of G. B. Natali. He afterwards became a Capuchin
monk, and died in 1721.

CANINI, GIOVANNI ANGELO, or GIANNANGIOLO,
a historical painter, was born at Rome in 1617.
He was first the pupil of Domenichino, and after-
wards of Barbalonga. He was received into the
Academy of Rome in 1650, and was eventually
appointed Court painter to Queen Christina of
Sweden, for whom he executed some considerable
works. Though possessed of much talent as an
artist, he devoted more of his time to archieology,
and published two works on that subject. There
is an engraving by this artist of Cardinal Mazarin,
touched with a light hand, and showing much
feeling and spirit. Two paintings by him repre-
senting the martyrdoms of SS. Steohen and Bar-
it 1



tholomew are in the church of San Martmo ai
Monti, Rome. He died in Paris in 1666

CANINI, J. B. L. MAES. See MAES CANINI.

CANLASSI, GUIDO, commonly known as IL
CAGNACCI, a surname given to him on account of
his deformity, was a painter of the Bolognese school,
born at Castel San Arcangelo, near Rimini, in 1601 '
He was a pupil of Guido Reni, whose style he
imitated in a somewhat too methodical manner ;
still his work was careful, and has something of
his master's delicacy. He worked at Rimini and
Bologna, but did not execute many paintings in
Italy, as he went in early life to the Court of the
Emperor Leopold, where he laboured with consider-
able industry. Beauvarlet, Cunego, Magalli, and
Prenner have engraved after his works. He died
at Vienna in 1681. The following are among his
extant paintings :

Cassel. Gallery. Lucretia.

Dresden. Gallery. The Penitent Magdalen.

Florence. UJp:i. Jupiter and Ganymede.

fttti Pal. The Assumption of the Magdalen.

Munich. Pinakothek. The Magdalen.

,, Mater Dolorosa.

Paris. Louvre. St. John the Baptist.

Petrsbrg. Hermitaye. The Assumption of the Magdalen.

Rome. . Luca Accad. Tarquin and Lucretia.

Boryhese Pal. A Sibyl.

Vienna. Gallery. Death of Cleopatra.

,, ,, Madonna and Child.

Liechtenstein Coll. Jacob and Luban.

CANO, ALONSO, a Spanish painter, architect, and
sculptor, was born at Granada in 1601. He ac-
quired the knowledge of architecture from his
father, Miguel Cano, and then went to Seville,
where he learned sculpture from Juan Martinez
Montanez, and studied painting under Pacheco and
Juan del Castillo. In 1630 he completed the altar-
piece which his father had commenced at Lebrija,
where his statue of the Virgin and Child is con-
sidered a masterpiece. In consequence of a
quarrel he left in 1637, and made his way to
Madrid, where he was employed by Count Olivarez
in the decorations of his palace ; he also painted
the monument for the Easter Week in the church
of St. Giles, and the triumphal arch erected at
the solemn entry of Maria of Austria into Madrid.
In 1643 he unsuccessfully applied for the post of
architect to the cathedral of Toledo, but was called
upon in 1650 to direct the works there. In that
same year he painted for the church of Porta Coeli
in Valencia a ' Nativity,' ' Christ scourged at the
Pillar,' and a ' St. John the Baptist.' Although s'ince
1647 steward of the Brotherhood of Our Lady of
Seven Dolours at Madrid, he joined a religious
order in Granada in 1652, in order to devote him-
self more entirely to his art. Although he had
never visited Italy, yet his style had a noble, clas-
sical simplicity, which he had acquired from his
careful study of the antiques in the collection of
Count Alcala at Seville. His sculptures manifested
a strong resemblance by their energy and vigorous
treatment to those of Michelangelo, and in addi-
tion a most extraordinary grace and delicacy. As
a painter he combined clear and brilliant colouring
with decision in drawing and great power of ima-
gination. He died at Granada in 1667. Nearly
all the churches of Granada are enriched by his
paintings, and examples may be found in many
other churches of Spain. We may especially
mention :



Berlin. Gallery. St. Agnes.



243



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Dresden.
Granada.
Madrid.



Malaga.
Munich.
Petrsbrg.



Seville.



Gallery.

Cathedral.

Gallery



'. Fernando \
Academy. )
S. Gines.
Cathedral.
Pinakothfk.
Hermitage.



Cathedral.
Museum.



St. Paul.

The Virgin in Solitude.

Madonna in Adoration.

The Scourging of Christ.

The Dead Christ.

St. Benedict in Meditation.

St. John the Evangelist.

St. Jerome.

A Crucifixion.

Christ seated and stripped.
The Virgin of the Bosary.
St. Anthony of Padua.
Virgin and Child.
Infant Christ and St. John.
Apparition of Saints to a Domin-
ican.

Portrait of Alonso Cano.
The Madonna and Child.
Souls in Purgatory.



CANO, JOAQUIN JOSEF, a Spanish painter, was
born at Seville, and became a pupil of Domenico
Martinez. He excelled in copying the works of
other masters, and so skilfully imitated the ' Vir-

fins ' of Murillo that his copies may be mistaken
3r the originals. He was secretary of the School
of Design at Seville, and died in that city in 1784.

CANO DE AREVALO, JUAN, a Spanish painter of
fans, was born at Valdemoro in 1656, and became
a scholar of Francisco Camilo. After wasting
much of his time in idle company, and much of
his energy in fencing, by secluding himself for a
whole winter, and bringing out his accumulated
labours in the spring, he succeeded in making his
beautifully-painted fans the fashion, as newly-
imported French ones. The discovery of the trick
did not destroy their well-earned popularity, and
Cano was appointed abaniquero (fan-maker) to
the queen. Although his chief excellence lay in
miniature painting, he executed some larger works :
several in distemper for the chapel of the Rosary
in the church of his native town, and a singular
allegorical piece, painted on the death of Queen
Maria Louisa, representing that queen as a winged
spirit surrounded by a halo of rays, each contain-
ing a text allusive to her virtues. It was hung
like a canopy over the coffin within the grotesque
catafalque of Churriguera. It was engraved by
Gregorio Fosman for the work of Vera Tassis,
the plate bearing Cano's curious monogram. He
also assisted a brother artist in some altar-pieces
for the Jesuits, and for the church of Santa Maria
at Alcala. He was treacherously assassinated in a
duel at Madrid in 1696.

CANON, HANS, (or JOHANN VON STRASCHIBIPKA,)
a German painter, of Polish descent, was born in
1829. In 1853 he dropped his unpronounceable
Polish name for that by which he was afterwards
known. He began life in the army, but in 1853
studied under Rahl, and subsequently worked in
Paris under Delaroche and Horace Vernet. He
first attracted attention as a satirico-political
draughtsman, then as a painter of portraits and
military subjects. He eventually took to historical
painting on an enormous scale, and in a preposter-
ously exaggerated style. He lived successively at
Carlsruhe, and at Vienna, where he died in 1885.

CANON, PIERRE LAURENT, a French miniature
and landscape painter, was born at Caen in 1787.
He exhibited his works at Lille and Douai, but in
Paris at the Salon of 1831 only. He died in Paris
in 1852.

CANOT, PIERRE CHARLES, a French engraver,
was born about the year 1710, and came in 1740
244



to England. He was elected an Associate-En-
graver of the Royal Academy in 1770, and died
at Kentish Town in 1777. He engraved a great
number of landscapes and sea-pieces, many of
which have great merit. Some of his best prints
were executed after the works of Richard Paton.
The following are his most esteemed plates :

A Slight Breeze ; after Bakhuisen. A Fresh Breeze ;
A Calm ; and A Storm ; after W. van de Velde.
.Returning from Market ; after P. de Laer. The
Amorous Toper ; and The Dutch Smokers ; after D.
Teniers. The Dutch Cottage; Autumn; Winter;
after Pillement. A Dutch Merry-making; after
Ostade. Pyramus and Thisbe ; after L. Bramer.
The Tempest; after S. de Wiegher. An Italian
Landscape ; after Gaspard Poussin. A Landscape ;
and Sunrise, a marine ; after Claude Lorrain. Two
Pastoral Subjects ; after Rosa da Tivoli. Two Views
of Westminster Bridge and London Bridge; after
Scott. Seven Fox-hunting Subjects; after fP'ootton.

CANOVA, ANTONIO, the celebrated sculptor, who
was also a painter, was born at Possagno, near
Bassano, in 1757. His paintings show a careful
study of the Venetian masters, and are slightly
finished as to their general colouring. In 1798 he
produced 'The Dead Christ, with St. Mary, St.
Joseph, and Nicodemus,' for his native town. The
Museum of Nantes has a picture of ' Godefroid de
Bouillon,' presented by the artist to M. Cacault in
1803. Canova died at Venice in 1822.

CANOZZI, CRISTOFORO, the brother of Lorenzo
Canozzi, was born at Lendinara about 1426. His
works up to 1477 are mentioned in the notice
of his brother. After Lorenzo's death he carried
on business partly at Parma and partly at Modena.
He was the author of a panel of a ' Virgin and
Child ' in the Gallery of Modena, signed and dated
1482 : in the same Gallery is a ' Crucifixion, with
SS. Jerome and Francis,' that may be attributed to
him. The date of his death is uncertain.

CANOZZI, LORENZO, called LORENZO DA LEN-
DINARA, was born at that town in 1425. Both he
and his younger brother Cristoforo were painters,
mosaicists, modellers in terra-cotta, and printers
of books. They flourished at Modena and Padua.
Paciolo declares Lorenzo to have been a complete
master of perspective. Between the years 1460
and 1470 these brothers finished the carving and
inlaying of ninety stalls in the choir of the
Santo, Padua ; and in 1465 they executed the stalls
in the choir of the cathedral of Modena. The
first mentioned, with four exceptions, all perished
by fire in 1749. At Modena four of the panels
representing the Doctors of the Church, still remain.
Between 1472 and 1476 the two brothers executed
the mosaics of the presses in the sacristy of the
Santo, Padua, from designs by Squarcione, of
whom Lorenzo at least was a pupil ; these have
been much damaged by restorations. Lorenzo is
also thought to be the author of the frescoes of SS.
Jerome, Ambrose, Gregory, and Augustine in the
Eremitani Chapel at Padua. His death occurred in
1477, and after that the business was carried on by
Cristoforo. A ' Madonna and Child ' in the Modena
Gallery bears his name, and the date 1482.

CANTA-GALLINA, REMIGIO, was an Italian
designer and engraver, born at Florence in 1582.
He frequented for some time the school of the
Carracci, though he does not appear to have
distinguished himself as a painter. He was in-
structed in engraving by Giulio Parigi. His pen
drawings possess great merit, and are highly
esteemed. We have a number of plates by him



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



of landscapes, theatrical decorations, and triumphal
entries. This artist has the credit of having been
the instructor of Callot and Stefano della Bella.
He died at Florence about 1630. His mark is
and the following are his principal prints.



K*



Two landscapes; one with a bridge, the other with

buildings ; both dated 1603.
The Immaculate Conception ; after Callot.
A set of four landscapes ; dated 1609.
A set of six landscapes.
A set of twelve landscapes ; octagon ; marked with his

cipher.

A set of six landscapes ; with his cipher ; dated 1624.
A set of plates of the Scenes of fta Opera ; after the

designs of Giulio Farigi.
A set of plates, called the Palazzo della Fame ; dated

1608.

CANTARINI, SIMONE, called SIMONE DA PESABO,
or IL PESARESE, painter and engraver, was born at
Oropezza, near Pesaro, in 1612. He was instructed
in design by Giovanni Giacomo Pandolfi, and after-
wards studied under Claudio Eidolfi. But the works
of Guido Reni were at that time so much the objects
of admiration, that, although he had gained already
no little celebrity by his picture of ' St. Peter,'
painted for a chapel at Fano, near that in which was
placed Guide's picture of ' Christ giving the Keys to
St. Peter,' he resolved to become a student in the
school of Guido, where he remained until his inso-
lence and malevolence, not only to his instructor,
but to Domenichino and Albani, obliged him to
quit Bologna, and seek shelter in Rome, where he
employed some time in studying the works of
Raphael. On his return to Bologna, not finding a
residence there agreeable to him, he went to
Mantua, where he was taken into the service of
the duke, and was employed to paint his portrait
But whether he had not been accustomed to that
branch of art, or from some other cause, he was
entirely unsuccessful. This disappointment, prey-
ing on a disposition naturally morose and irritable,
is supposed to have occasioned his death at Verona
in 1648. Baldinucci considers Cantarini as another
Guido ; but although his merit is undoubted, and
though he is allowed to have approached nearer
to him than any other of his imitators, he has little
claim to originality ; and for all that we admire in
his best works, many of which possess great beauty,
he is evidently indebted to his great model.

The following are his principal paintings still
extant :



Bologna. Pinacoteca.

Dresden. Gallery.

Fano. 5. Pietro.

S. Ignazio.

Genoa. Dura::o Pal.

Madrid. Gallery.

Milan. Jirera.



Modena.
Munich.



Paris.



Museum.

Pinakotkek.



Louvre.



Petrsbrg. Hermitage.



Borne.
i>

Vienna. Gallery.



Corsini Pal.
Colonna Pal.



The Assumption.

The Chastity of Joseph.

Miracle of St. Peter.

St. Thomas of Villanuova.

The Flight into Egypt.

Holy Family.

Holy Family.

The Transfiguration.

Christ at Emmaus.

Christ appearing to theMagdalen.

The Incredulity of St. Thomas.

St. Cecilia.

Eepose of the Holy Family (St.
Joseph seated).

Eepose of the Holy Family (St.

Joseph sleeping).
Holy Family.
Eepose in Egypt.
His own Portrait.
St. Sebastian and the Holy

Women.

Tarquin and Lucretia.
Madonna and Child.



As an engraver the etchings of Cantarini are in
very high estimation. They are very masterly and
spirited ; but in them his imitation of the etchings
of Guido is even more apparent than in his paint-
ings, and it would not be easy to distinguish them
if the plates by Guido did not show a superior
marking of the figure, particularly in the extremi-
ties. There are about thirty-seven etchings by him
known, of which the following are the principal :

Adam and Eve eating the forbidden Fruit.

The Eepose in Egypt; falsely marked G. Rentis in. fy

fee.
Another Eepose in Egypt, the Head of thi! Virgin in

profile, with St. Joseph sitting near her.
Another Eepose in Egypt, the Head of the Virgin in

front, with St. Joseph in the distance ; very fine.
The Holy Family, with St. John.
Another Holy Family, with St. John ; marked S. C. da

Pesarefe.
The Virgin Mary, with a Glory, and the Infant Jesus ;

marked .!?. C. da Pesarefe.
The Virgin, with the Infant Jesus holding a Bird by a

String.

The Virgin sitting in the Clouds, with the Infant Jesus
The Virgin, with a Glory, crowned by two Angels.
Christ bearing His Cross, with Joseph of Arimathea.



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