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St. John the Baptist in the Wilderness, holding his

Cross, and a Cup.

St. John in the Wilderness, sitting on a Stone.
St. Sebastian, with an Angel presenting the Palm of

The great St. Anthony of Padua kneeling before the

Infant Jesus.

The little St. Anthony of Padua.
St. Benedict curing a Demoniac ; after Lad. Carracci.
The Guardian Angel leading a Child.
Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto doing homage to Cardinal

Borghese; fine; for some time thought to be by

The Eape of Europa ; fine and scarce ; marked G. Renus

in. et fee.

Mercury and Argus ; fine and scarce.
Mars, Venus, and Cupid ; after Paolo Veronese.
\ iius and Adonis.
Fortune, represented by a Female with her foot on a

globe; after Guido Reni; marked G. Benin in. etfec.

CANTI, GIOVANNI, was a native of Parma, and
was born about the year 1650. According to
Lanzi, he resided chiefly at Mantua, where his
battle-pieces and landscapes were much sought
after. He also attempted historical subjects, but
never rose above mediocrity, and seemed to imagine
himself able to make up for every other requisite
by his promptness and facility of execution. He
died in 1716.

CANTINI, GIOVACCHINO, an engraver of note in
Florence, and one of Raphael Morghen's most suc-
cessful pupils, was born about 1780, and died about
1844. The following are his best works:

The Virgin and Child, with St. Sebastian and St.

Anthony ; after Fra Hartolommeo : his chef-d'oeuvre.
The Virgin with her hands folded ; after P. Hatoiii.
The Holy Family ; after Leonardo da Vinci, for the

Musee Napoleon.
Judith with the Head of Holofernes ; after Allori;


St. Peter walking on the Sea ; after L. Cigoli.
Michelangelo Buonarroti ; after Vasari.

CANTOFOLI, GINEVRA, a lady artist, was a
native of Bologna, and Zani says that she was
bom in 1618, and died in 1672. According to
Malvasia, she received her instructions in art from
Elisabetta Sirani, and achieved some reputation as
a historical painter. She executed several works
for the churches of her native city: amongst others
the following :



Bologna. S. Procolo. The Last Supper.

S. Giacomo Maqgiore. St. Thomas of Villa-

Xa Morte. St. Apollonia.

CANTON, FRANZ THOMAS, an Austrian landscape
painter of repute, was a native of Udine. He was
born in 1677, and died at Vienna in 1733.

CANTON, JOHANN GABRIEL, who was born at
Vienna in 1710, studied under his father, Franz
Thomas Canton, and became known as a painter
of battles, landscapes, and animals. In the Belve-
dere, Vienna, is a 'Landscape with peasants dancing '
by him. He painted the animals in the landscapes
of Orient and the battles in some large pictures of
Martin von Meytens, and died at Vienna in 1 753.

engraver, born in Paris in 1768, was a pupil of
Delaunay. He engraved the series of ' Costumes
des troupes franyaises de 1792 a 1816,' many
theatrical and other portraits, and a large number
of plates of animals and plants for the ' Description
de 1'Egypte,' Cuvier's 'Iconologie du Regne
animal,' the ' Museum d'Eistoire naturelle,' Du-
perrey's ' Voyage autour du Monde,' the ' Flore
des Antilles,' and other works. The date of his
death is unknown.

CANUTI, DOMENICO MARIA, a painter and etcher,
was born at Bologna in 1620. He studied art
under Guido Reni, and subsequently founded a
school of his own in his native city. He went to
Rome, and remained there for some years, and also
visited Mantua and Padua. He is the painter of
the frescoes in the library of San Michele in Bosco.
His best frescoes are those in the Palazzo Pepoli at
Bologna, in the ducal palace at Mantua, and in the
Colonna Palace at Rome. His paintings exhibit
much imagination and skill in foreshortening, and
are finished in the style of Guido Reni, after whose
works he has left several etchings and engravings.
The church of the Olivetan Fathers at Bologna
possesses a very fine painting by him, representing
' The Descent from the Cross,' with a moonlight
effect ; and in the church of San Bernardino in the
same city are two Madonnas with Saints and Angels
by him, of one of which he has left an etching.
In the Bologna Gallery is a 'Death of St. Bene-
dict' painted for Santa Margherita in that city.
He died at Bologna in 1684. The following en-
gravings are by him :

Portrait of Lodovico Carracci.
Agostino Carracci.

Annibale Carracci.

The Virgin in the Clouds, with Christ } bfh , hi
standing by her side . \- [ df .

St. Roch. )

St. Francis praying ; after Guido.

CANY, JEAN BAPTISTE DE, a French historical
painter, is known only by a 'mai,' representing
' The Conversion of St. Denis at Athens,' which he
painted in 1671 for the cathedral of Notre-Dame at

CAPANNA, Puccio, was a Florentine painter of
the 14th century, who was admitted a member of
the Florentine Guild in 1350. He was a pupil of
Giotto, and enriched with frescoes of Scriptural
subjects, in the manner of his master, the cities
of Florence, Rimini, Pistoja, Bologna, and Assisi.
There are some pictures of the Passion on the
vaulting of the Lower Church at Assisi, which are
attributed to him. The paintings in the chapter-
house of S. Francesco at Pistoja, representing scenes
from the life of St. Francis, and from that of our


Lord, are still in a good state of preservation :
some are from the hand of Capanna, who died at

torical painter, born at Perpignan in 1795, was a
pupil of Berthon. He was the founder of the
Museum of Perpignan, inaugurated in 1833, and
was also professor of drawing in the free school
of that town. He died in Paris in 1836.


CAPELLANI, ANTONIO, was an engraver, and
born at Venice about 1730. He was a pupil of
Wagner, and engraved several plates both at Rome
and Venice. The greater part of the portraits in
the edition of Vasari, published by PJottarini at
Rome in 1760, were engraved by Capellani. He
also engraved several of the plates for the ' Schola
Italics Picture,' under the direction of Gavin
Hamilton. The following are his principal prints :

Portrait of Michelangelo Buonarroti.

The Drawing School ; after Dam. Maiotto.

Diana and Endymion ; after the same.

Apollo and Daphne ; after the same.

The Creation of Eve ; after Michelangelo.

Adam and Eve driven from Paradise ; after the same.

Marriage of St. Catharine ; after Correggio.

The Repose in Egypt ; after Barocci. 1772.

View of the Portico of the Villa Albani ; after Panini.


CAPELLI, FRANCESCO, was a native of Sassuolo
in the province of Modena, and was educated in the
school of Correggio. He flourished about 1568. In
the church of San Sebastian at Sassuolo is an altar-
piece of the ' Madonna and Child in Glory, with
attendant Saints,' which is executed by him in the
style of his master, and bears a strong resemblance
to a picture in the Dresden Gallery, which is also
by him. He was also called CACCIANEMICI, but
must not be confounded with another Francesco
Caccianemici, who was a pupil of Primaticcio, and
lived about the same period.

Brescia in 1664. He was first instructed by Pom-
peo Ghiti ; he afterwards visited Bologna, where
he studied some time under Lorenzo Pasinelli, and
finally went to Rome, where he frequented the
school of Battista Gaulli, called Baciccio. He
painted historical subjects, and his works in fresco
were held in considerable estimation ; they are
chiefly in the public edifices at Brescia. Zani is of
opinion that he was born in 1669 and died in 1741.

or IL CALZOLARETTO (the little shoemaker), from
his having first pursued that trade, was a native
of Ferrara, who flourished about 1520, and is said to
have been induced to attempt painting, and to have
become a scholar of Dosso Dossi,from having been
complimented by that artist on the elegant shape of
his shoes. His pictures imitate those of his master
so skilfully that they are often taken for those of
Dossi. In the church of San Francesco at Ferrara
is a picture by him of ' St. Peter and St. James,'
and in San Giovannino the principal altar-piece,
representing ' The Virgin and Infant, with several
Saints,' is by him.

Genoa in 1580, and studied painting under Giovanni
Battista Paggi, of whose manner he was a success-
ful imitator. His style is less noble than that of
his master, but he possessed other qualities of the
art that render his works interesting, as is evident
in his ' Death of St. Francis ' in San Niccolo at


Genoa, and his 'St. Francesca Romana' in San
Stefano. He died in 1651.

CAPET, MARIE GABRIELLE, a French painter
of portraits in oil, water-colours, and miniature,
was born of humble parentage at Lyons in 1761,
and became a pupil of Madame Vincent. She ex-
hibited first in 1781, and from that time onwards
produced a large number of portraits, of which the
best known are those of Mesdames Adelaide and
Victoire, Madame Vincent surrounded by her pupils,
Mile. Mars, and Houdon the sculptor. Mile. Capet
died in Paris in 1818.

CAPITELLI, BERNARDINO, was a painter and
etcher who was born at Siena in 1589. He
became a pupil of A. Casolani, and then of R.
Manetti, and between the years 1622 and 1637 was
actively engaged in his profession, both at Rome
and at Siena. His etchings, though somewhat
hard and deficient in harmony of tone, are distin-
guished by careful drawing. He died in 1639.
Amongst his etchings may be mentioned :

Portrait of Alessandro Casolani ; B. Capitelli fecit.

St. Anthony of Padua ; B. Capitelli fee. 1637.

Marriage of St. Catharine ; after Correggio,

The Repose in Egypt, a night scene ; after Butilio Ma-

Lot and his Daughters ; after the same.

Ceres drinking in the Cottage of the old Woman. The
game subject which Count Goudt engraved after Els-

A. set of twelve plates of the Life of St. Bernard of

A set of friezes and bassi-rilievi, among which is the
Aldobrandini Marriage from an antique painting.

graphical engraver, was born in Paris in 1779. He
was a pupil of Blondeau, and exhibited at the Sa-
lon of 1827 a drawing of ' St. John's, Newfound-
land.' He also engraved a number of maps for
the D^pot de la Marine. The date of bis death is
not known.


CAPOLONGO, ANTONIO, was a Neapolitan painter
who flourished about the year 1580. He was
a pupil of Giovanni Bernardo della Lama, and,
according to Dominici, painted the principal altar-
piece for the church of San Diego, Naples repre-
senting 'The Immaculate Conception, with SS. Fran-
cis of Assisi and Anthony of Padua.' The church of
San Niccol6, in the same city, possesses a ' Madonna
and Child in a Glory of Angels, with attendant
Saints,' by this artist.

CAPON, WILLIAM, the son of an artist, was born
at Norwich in 1757. and in early life practised as a
portrait painter. He went to London, and was
employed on the decorations of Ranelagh Gardens
and the Italian Opera-house. He was afterwards
employed by John Kemble as scene painter foi
Drury Lane Theatre, which was rebuilt in 1794.
In after years he became celebrated as an archi-
tectural draughtsman ; and occasionally exhibited
at the Royal Academy. He died at Westminster
in 1827.


CAPORALI, BARTOLOMMEO, was an inferior
painter of Perugia, who flourished there towards
the close of the fifteenth century ; he painted from
1472 to 1499. A ' Madonna and Saints ' done by him
in 1487, for the church of Santa Maria Maddalena
at Castiglione del Lago, is still preserved in that
town, and is thought by Messrs. Crowe and Caval-
caselle to be the only specimen of his skill that has
any claims to authenticity.

BITTI, a diminutive of his Christian name, by
Vasari, who names him erroneously Benedetto, was
the son of Bartolommeo Caporali, and was born at
Perugia about 1476, and died about 1560. He wae
the scholar and imitator of Perugino, and also
an architect, and built a palace near Cortona
for Cardinal Silvio Passerini, which he likewise
decorated with frescoes, in the execution of which
he was aided by Tommaso Barnabei, better known
as Maso Papacello. His paintings exhibit a bold-
ness and freedom of style, and occasionally are
finished after the manner of Signorelli, and are
deservedly esteemed. Many of the churches in
Perugia and its neighbourhood possess works by
Caporali. Other examples may be found as under :

Cortona. *"- J Sixteen Classic Scenes.

Rome. S. Croce in (The Eternal Father in Glory

Gerusalemme. ) surrounded by Saints.
The Crucifixion.

Panicale. Cathedral. The Nativity.

S. Salvatore. Christ between S3. John the

Baptist and Peter.

CAPPELLA, SuiriONE, an Italian historical
painter, was a pupil of Solimena. He lived in
the 18th century, and copied his master's paintings
with such success that when retouched by the
latter they passed for originals.


See CAPF.LLI, &c.

horn at Skien in Norway in 1827. He went to
Diisseldorf, where he studied under Gude. There
is a capital mountain landscape by him, in the
Christiania Gallery, the scene of which he took
from the neighbourhood of Thelemark. His paint-
ings were characterized by breadth and originality,
combined with much poetical feeling. He died
at Dusseldorf in 1852.

called, from the melancholy sweetness by which
hia pictures were distinguished, RAFFAELLINO DEL
GABBO (and also variously known as ' Raffaellino
de Caponibus,' ' R. de Florentia,' 'R. de Carolis,'
and ' R. Karli '), was a Florentine painter who is
stated to have been born in 1476. He was a dis-
ciple of Filippino Lippi, whom he soon surpassed,
and for some time he gave promise of extraordin-
ary ability. He accompanied Filippino to Rome,
where he was employed in the Cappella della Mi-
nerva, and painted in the vault some beautiful
angels, which were more admired than the prin-
cipal work by his master. On his return to Flor-
ence, he painted for the church of Monte Oliveto a
picture of ' The Resurrection,' in which the grace-
ful heads, the characteristic expression of the
numerous figures, and the beauty of the colouring
exceeded any production of the time. Another
fine picture, painted in the early part of his life, is
in the monastery of San Salvi, and is highly com-
mended by Moreni in his ' Notizie istoriche dei
Contorni di Firenze." He is the author of a 'Virgin
and Child ' between SS. Francis and Zenobius and
two kneeling patrons, which is signed and dated
1500, and is now in the Hospital of Santa Maria
Nuova, in Florence. Messrs. Crowe and Caval-
caselle have also assigned to this artist an altar-
piece in the church of San Spirito, Florence, repre-
senting ' The Virgin and Child, with four Saints,



and Satan bound ; ' also altar-pieces in Santa Maria
degli Angeli of Siena, and an altar-piece to be seen
in the Academy of Pisa. Rosini has given a print
of 'The Resurrection of Christ,' from the picture in
the Academy at Florence (plate 104), and it justifies
the praise bestowed upon the painter, but contains
only seven figures. The cares of a large family
eventually proved fatal to the growing reputation
of Capponi, causing him to sink into a state of list-
lessness and apathy, so that his later productions
were extremely feeble. He is said to have died at
Florence in great poverty in 1524, but the dates
of both his birth and death are perhaps open to
question. The following is a list of his best extant
paintings :
Berlin. Gallery. Virgin between two draped Angels.

Florence. S.Maria I The Miracle o f the Loaves-.Fma>.

Maddalena. J
The Annunciation.

St. Roch.

St. Ignataas.

& Spirito. The Trinity adored by SS. Cath-

arine and Mary Magdalene.
Virgin surrounded by Saints. 1505.

S.Loren:o. The Nativity.
Academy. The Resurrection.

Paris. Louvre. Coronation of the Virgin.


CAPRIOLI, ALIPBANDO, was a Florentine en-
graver who worked at Rome somewhere about
1580, producing portraits and historical subjects
in the style of Agostino Carracci.

CAPRIOLI, DOMENICO, was a painter born at
Treviso in 1495. He produced portraits in the
style of Giorgione, which were well conceived, and
rendered in a skilful manner. There is a fine por-
trait by him in the Pinakothek at Munich. His
monogram was a deer.

CAPURRO, FRANCESCO, was born at Genoa, and
was a scholar of Domenico Fiasella. On leaving
that master he went to Naples and Rome, where
he attached himself to the works of Spagnoletto,
whose strong and vigorous style was then admired.
He was employed some time at the Court of Mo-
dena, and, according to Soprani, died at Genoa, in
the prime of life, of a malignant fever. He flour-
ished about 1690.

CAQUET, JEAN GABRIEL, a French engraver, was
born in Paris in 1749. He engraved ' L'Innocence
en Danger,' after Lavreince, ' La Soiree du Palais-
Royal,' and illustrations to the ' Contes ' of La Fon-
taine, after designs by Fragonard. He died in
Paris in 1802.



known as BATTISTELLO, a Neapolitan painter, was
born in 1580. He studied under F. Imparato and
Caravag^'io, devoting himself later to the style
of the frescoes by Annibale Carracci in the Far-
nese Palace, Rome : he generally painted in the
manner of Annibale Carracci, but his pictures
were at the same time tinged with much of the
influence of the naturalistic tendency of his con-
temporary Spagnoletto. He died at Naples in
1641. Among the works which he painted for the
churches of Naples were the following :

Naples. S. Martina. Mary Magdalene anointing the

Feet of Christ.
S.Mariadella) a .
Solitaria. ) bt '

., S. Niccolo. St. Anthony of Padua.

. Cecilia.

,, S. Anna de* \ The Assumption.

Lombardi. y Death of the Virgin.
S. Agnello. St. Charles.

torical painter, who also etched, was born in Paris
in 1762. He was a pupil of Lagrenee and of
David. He visited Rome, and subsequently
travelled in Turkey ; but at the outbreak of the
Revolution he returned to France, and became so
active a member of the club of the Jacobins that
he was imprisoned from 1794 to 1797. He ex-
hibited in 1799 a picture of ' Hope supporting
Misfortune to the Grave,' which was much praised,
and in the following year one of ' Love, abandoned
by Youth and the Graces, consoling himself on the
bosom of Friendship,' which was purchased by
the wife of the First Consul. In 1802 he quitted
France for an appointment at the Court of St.
Petersburg, where he remained until 1812, and
painted for Prince Yusupov ' The Oath of the
Horatii.' He eventually returned to Paris, and
died in that city in 1822.

or as below,) an Italian designer and engraver,
was born at Parma in 1498 or 1500, and was a
pupil of Marc Antonio Raimondi. His drawing
is very correct ; he gave a fine expression to his
heads, and his extremities are marked in a mas-
terly manner. Caraglio holds an eminent rank
among the engravers of his country. He was
much employed in the engraving of gems, and
executed several medals, by which he gained great
reputation at the court of Sigismund, King of
Poland. He flourished as an engraver on copper
from 1526 to 1551. In the latter part of his life
he returned to Italy, and, after working for a time
at Verona, settled on his own estate near Parma,
where he died about 1570. He is also called
which names he sometimes inscribed on his plates.

The following are the best of the sixty-nine
plates he is known to have left :

A Battle, with the Shield and Lance ; after Raphael.

Alexander and Roxana ; after the same.

Diogenes; offer Parmigiano.

Martyrdom of SS. Peter and Paul ; after the same.

Portrait of Pietro Aretino ; after the same.

Marriage of the Virgin ; after the same.

The Virgin and Infant, under an Orange Tree ; Jacobui


The Virgin kneeling, with the Infant and St. Ann
The Holy Family ; after Raphael ; the same subject as

the fine print by Edelinck.
Another Holy Family, with St. Elizabeth; after


The Annunciation ; after Titian.
The Punishment of Tantalus ; after the same.
The Rape of Ganymede ; after Michelangelo.
An Anatomical Figure, holding a Skull ; after Rosso.
Hercules piercing with his Arrows the Centaur Nessus ;

after the same.

Hercules slaying Cacus ; after the same.
Nymphs and Young Men in a Garden ; after the same.
Twenty, of Divinities with their Attributes, in niches ;

after the same.
Twenty, of the Metamorphoses of the Gods ; after Rosso

and Perino del Vaga.
The Triumph of the Muses OTer the Pierides ; after

Perino del Yaga. 1553.
The Death of Meleager ; after the same.
The Creation ; after the same ; semi-circular.
The Rape of the Sabines ; after Rosso ; unfinished.
The School of an Ancient Philosopher,




CARAVAQUE, Louis, a French portrait painter,
was a native of Gascony. He went to Russia, and
in 1716 painted at Astrakhan the portrait of Peter
the Great, which has been engraved by Massard
and by Langlois. He again painted the Czar in
1723, and subsequently the Empresses Anne and
Elizabeth. He died in Russia in 1752.

Piedmont, and flourished about 1673. He is said
to have been a scholar of Guercino, but Lanzi
doubts this, observing that his lights are less lucid
and his shadows less deep than those of the
genuine followers of that master. Notwithstand-
ing this fault, his pictures please by their quiet
colour and their originality in design. His best
painting is the ' Last Supper,' in the church of
Corpus Domini, Turin.

BAJAL,) a Spanish painter, was born at Toledo
in 1534, and died at Madrid in 1613. He was
a pupil of Juan de Villoldo, and was appointed
court painter to Philip II. in 1556. He executed
numerous paintings in the Escorial which show
firm drawing, good colouring, and great power of
religious expression. His best performance is the
high altar-piece in the church of the Minimi at
Toledo, painted in 1591. A 'Circumcision of
Christ ' by him is in the Hermitage, St. Peters-
burg, and in the Madrid Gallery are a ' Penitent
Magdalen' and a 'St. Nicholas of Tolentino. '

CARBONE, LUIGI, a Neapolitan landscape
painter, who flourished about 1660, was a native
of Marcianisi. He went to Rome, and after study-
ing under Paulus Bril, visited Venice, and finally
settled at Naples. His landscapes usually portray
scenes of storm and flood, and the figures in them
are particularly charming.

CARBONI, FRANCESCO, was a Bolognese, and
the pupil of Alessandro Tiarini. He afterwards
showed himself an admirer of Guido, and imitated
the graceful and elegant style of that master. Hs
died in 1635. Among his works are noted :

Bologna. S. Martina ) Crucifixion, with St. Theresa and

JUagaiore. J other Saints.
5. Paolo. The Entombment of Christ.
Sfrvite fathers. The Decollation of St. John the

Albaro, near Genoa, was born in 1614. He be-
came a scholar of Giovanni Andrea de' Ferrari,
and obtained a great reputation in his day, both
as an historical and portrait painter. In the latter
branch it is said that he painted much in the
manner of Van Dyck. He died at Genoa in 1683.

CARDENAS. BARTOLOME DE, was, according to
Palomino, a native of Portugal, born in 1547, who
when very young went to Madrid, where he be-
came the pupil of Alonso Sanchez Coello, and
achieved a deservedly high reputation. He
painted the greater portion of the cloisters of the
convent of Nuestra Senora de Atocha, at Madrid.
In the latter period of his life he went to Valla-
dolid, where he painted many altar-pieces, and
decorated the cloisters of the convent of San
Pablo. He died at Valladolid in 1606.

CARDENAS, Fray IGNACIO DE, was a Spanish
engraver, who executed, about 1662, the arms of
the families of Cordoba and Figueroa, and some

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