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prints of sacred images revered in Cordova.

CARDENAS, JUAN DE, was the son and pupil of



Bartolome' de Cardenas. He flourished at Valla-
dolid about 1630, and distinguished himself in.
painting landscapes as well as fruit and flowers.

CARDI, LODOVICO, called CIGOLI, an eminent
painter of the Florentine school, was born at
Cigoli, in Tuscany, in 1559. He was first a
scholar of Alessandro Allori, but was afterwards
instructed by Santo di Titi, whose academy was
then the most attended at Florence. He was,
however, more indebted to his study of the
works of Michelangelo, Andrea del Sarto, and
Pontormo than to either of his masters. After tra-
velling through Lombardy, he returned to Florence,
and was received into the Academy ; his picture of
reception was 'Cain slaying Abel.' He was em-
ployed by the Grand-Duke in some works for the
Pitti Palace, where he painted ' Venus and a
Satyr,' and ' The Sacrifice of Isaac.' His protector
sent him to Rome, where he was engaged to paint
a picture for St. Peter's, the subject being ' St.
Peter healing the Lame Man at the Beautiful Gate
of the Temple.' This admirable picture has been
considered by many as one of the finest works in
the Vatican, after Raphael's ' Transfiguration,' and
Domenichino's 'Communion of St. Jerome.'

Lodovico Cardi died at Rome in 1613. He
painted many easel pictures of saints (more espe-
cially St. Francis of Assisi), hermits, and Magda-
lens at devotion, which are remarkable for their
expression of fervour, contrition, and asceticism,
and are generally wrought up to a high degree of
finish.

The following galleries and churches possess
paintings by Cigoli :

Empoli. Collcgiata. The Last Supper.

S. Croce. Elevation of the Cross.

Florence. Accademia. Martyrdom of St. Stephen.
St. Peter walking on the Sea.

St. Francis receiving the Stig-
mata.
S. Maria Mag- ) gt ^^

t/tore. )

S. Croce. The Trinity.

,, The Entry into Jerusalem.

Ujfizi. Martyrdom of St. Lawrence.

Martyrdom of St. Stephen.

,, His own Portrait.

., Pitti Pal. Deposition of the Cross.

Ecce Homo.

Virgin and Child.

(1 Portrait of a Man.

St. Francis.

The Magdalen.

Madrid. Gallery. The Magdalene.

Munich. Pinakothek. St. Francis.
Paris. Louvre. The Flight into Egypt.

n St. Francis of Assisi.

Petsbrg. Htrmitage. David.

Tobias and the Angel.

Rome. Baryhese Pal. St. Francis.
Corsini Pal. A Concert.
S. Peter's. St. Peter healing the Lame

Man.
S. Giovanni de' J gt Jerome .

Fi&rentim. J
, , S. Paolo fuori ) Conversion O f St. Paul.

le Mura. )

Vienna. Gallery. The Dead Christ.

The Trinity.

C'igoli's pictures are occasionally signed with



the following monogram :



CARDISCO, MARCO, better known as MARCO
CALABRESE, was born in Calabria about 1486.
He is said to have been a pupil of Polidoro da

249



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Caravaggioj but, judging from his paintings,
would seem to have formed hi8 style upon that
of Andrea da Salerno. He passed the greater
portion of his life in Naples, in which city and its
neighbourhood many examples of his painting can
be found. Dominici has given a particular account
of his productions. He died about 1542. Some
of his paintings are :

Naples. Museum. St. Augustine disputing with the

Heretics.

S.Pietroad*A.ram. Descent from the Cross.
A Pieti, with SS. Peter and Paul.

CARDON, ANTOINE, an engraver, was born at
Brussels in 1772. He was the son of Antoine
Alexandre Joseph Cardon, and was instructed in
art by his father. During the troubles in the
Low Countries in 1792, he took refuge in Eng-
land, and brought with him an introduction to Mr.
Colnaghi, who discerned the rising talent of the
young artist, and gave him immediate employ-
ment. He had risen to a deservedly high rank
in public estimation when he fell a victim to a
too assiduous application to his profession. His
death took place in London in 1813. Amongst
his numerous plates, chiefly executed in stipple,
may be mentioned :

The Presentation of Catharine of France to Henry V.

of England ; after Stothard.
Salvator Mundi ; after Carlo Dolci,
The Woman taken in Adultery ; after Rubens.
Plates of the Indian Campaign against Tippoo Sahib.
The Battle of Alexandria ; after Loutherboury.
The Battle of Maida ; after the same.
The Storming of Seringapatam ; after Singleton.
Portrait of Madame Eecamier ; after Cosway.

CARDON, ANTOINE ALEXANDRE JOSEPH, a painter
and engraver, was born at Brussels in 1739. He
acquired his knowledge of painting at Vienna,
under the tuition of H. de La Pegna, and was
afterwards enabled to visit Rome, where he worked
for three years. After that he went to Naples,
where he laid aside the brush for the graver,
and was employed on the plates for Hamilton's
' Etruscan Antiquities.' He died at Brussels in
1822. Amongst his prints may be noticed:

Portrait of George, Prince of Wales. 1766.

Portrait of the Chevalier Verhulst.

Le Bain Kustique ; after A . Watteau.

La Signature du Contrat de la Noce de Village ; after
the same. His principal work.

CARDONNEL, ANTHONY DE, who flourished
about the year 1790, etched several plates, repre-
senting ancient buildings in Scotland.

CARDUCCI, BARTOLOMMEO, (or, as he was called
in Spain, CARDUCHO,) was born at Florence in 1560,
and was brought up in the school of Federigo
Zuccaro. He assisted that master in the great
cupola at Florence ; and whilst he was yet very
young, painted for the church of the Jesuits two
pictures, representing the Immaculate Conception
and the Nativity. When Zuccaro was invited by
Philip II. to the court of Madrid, he prevailed on
Carducci to accompany him, and he assisted in the
great works that master executed in the Escorial.
In conjunction with Pellegrino Tibaldi, Carducci
painted the famous library ; the former did the
ceiling, the latter the walls, with allegories of the
Sciences. A great portion of the fresco paintings
in the cloister of the Escorial are by this master,
and were so much admired by the king, that he
rewarded him with two hundred ducats, independ-
ent of his salary. His principal work, and that

250



which above all others established his reputation
in Spain, was the ' Descent from the Cross,' in the
Church of San Felipe el Real, at Madrid. After
the death of Philip II., Carducci continued some
years in the service of his successor, Philip III.,
by whom he was engaged to paint a gallery in the
palace of the Pardo. The subject was to have
been the principal events in the life of Charles V.
It was begun by Carducci, but he died before he
had made any great progress in the work, in 1608.
He was also an architect and sculptor.

CARDUCCI, VINCENZO, (or CARDUCHO,) the
younger brother of Bartolommeo Carducci, was
born at Florence in 1568. He was taken by his
brother to Madrid in 1585, "at so tender an age
that he grew up with very faint recollections of
Italy, and learned to speak and write Castilian like
his own mother tongue." He was instructed in
painting by his brother Bartolommeo, whom
Vincenzo succeeded in 1609, as painter to the
kins;, and Philip III. engaged him to finish the
gallery in the palace of the Pardo, which had been
begun by his brother. Instead of the life of
Charles V. he adopted the history of Achilles, and
finished the work to the entire satisfaction of his
patron. He was also made court painter to
Philip IV., his successor, by whom he was em-
ployed in many considerable works. His pictures
are to be seen in all the cities of Castile, in Sala-
manca, Toledo, Segovia, and Valladolid. In 1626,
he entered into an agreement to paint, for the Car-
thusian Monastery at Paular, fifty-four large pic-
tures in four years, but some of them bear date 1632.
These works are now in the National Museum at
Madrid ; they represent scenes from the Life of St.
Bruno, and the history of his order. His works in the
churches of Madrid are, the Great Chapel in the Con-
vent of La Encarnacion ; in the Convent Del Rosario,
the ' Angel instructing Joseph in his dream to fly
into Egypt,' and ' St. Anthony of Padua' ; in the
Refectory of the Franciscans, ' St. John preaching.'
His last picture was a ' St. Jerome,' in the Church
of Alcala de Henares, which he did not live to finish,
as appears by the inscription : Vincencius Carducho
hie vitam non ojmsfinit 1638. His death occurred
at Madrid in that year. He was the author of
'Dialogos de las excelencias de la Pintura,' printed
at Madrid in 1633, which Cean Bermudez pro-
nounces to be the best work on the subject in the
Castilian language. Cean Bermudez possessed two
etchings by Carducci the 'Death of Abel,' and a
'Penitant Saint.' Vincenzo Carducci strenuously
opposed the then prevalent tax on paintings, and
obtained in 1633 a royal decree for its remission
when artists sold their own works, and four years
later succeeded in causing its total abolition. The
following pictures by him are in the Madrid Gallery :



ol Constance.
mi- e TIL c IJL
Taking of Rhemteldt.

Scenes from the Life of the Virgin.
St. Bruno.

CARDUCHO. See CARDDCCI.

CARESME, PHILIPPE, a French historical painter,
was born in Paris in 1734. He was doubtless a
pupil of Charles Antoine Coypel, and was admitted
into the Academy whilst still young, but expelled
eight years later in consequence of misconduct in
some pecuniary transaction. In 1781, when a
royalist, he composed an allegorical design in
commemoration of the birth of the Dauphin, and
in 1794, after he had become an ardent republican,



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



he presented to the Commune of Paris a drawing
representing Joseph Chalier, the tyrant of Lyons,
going to execution : both of these have been en-
graved. He also painted a large picture of the
'Nativity of the Virgin' for the Cathedral of
Bayonne. Caresme died in Paris in 1796. There
are in the Nantes Museum a ' Holy Family,' and in
the Bordeaux Museum a sketch of ' Bathers,' dated
1780. He engraved after his own designs, 'The
Execution of the Marquis de Favras, February 19th,
1790,' and 'The Market- Women going to Versailles
to compel the King to return to Paris. Oct. 5th.
1789.'

CARIANI, GIOVANNI BDSI. See Bust CARIANI.

CARL XV., KING OP SWEDEN AND NOBWAT.
See CHARLES.

CARL, ADOLF, was a landscape painter of
Altona, born in 1813. He began to learn painting
as a student at Munich, but afterwards joined the
school at Dusseldorf. His landscapes are distin-
guished by poetical conception, graceful form, and
pleasant and harmonious colouring. Most of them
are from scenes in the Tyrol or Northern Italy,
the natural beauties of which he rendered in a
very effective manner. His chefs-d'oeuvre are the
1 Lake of Nemi ' and a ' View on the Chiemsee.'
He died at Rome in 1845.

CARLEVARIIS, LDCA, (called CASANOBRIO and
LUCA DI CA ZENOBRIO, from having been patronized
by the Zonobri family,) a painter and engraver,
was born at Udine in 1665. He painted land-
scapes, sea-pieces, and perspective views ; his pic-
tures are little known, except in Venice. A ('< > > ; -
scene by him is in the Berlin Gallery ; a Yi<-\\
of the Doge's Palace, Venice, is in the Dresden
Gallery ; and another Venetian scene is in the
Gallery at Copenhagen. We have by him a set of
a hundred neat and spirited etchings of views in
Venice, which give an exact representation of the
principal places in that city. He died at Venice
about 1731.

CARL1ER, JAN WILLEM, a Flemish painter, was
born at Lie'ge about 1638, and died there in 1675.
He was a pupil of Bertholet F16malle, and spent
much of his life in France : but most of his works
are at Dusseldorf and St. Petersburg. His chef-
d'oeuvre is 'The Martyrdom of St. Denis,' now pre-
served in the church of St. Denis, at Lie'ge, the
sketch for which is in the Museum at Brussels.

CARLIER, MODESTE, a Belgian portrait and
subject painter, was born at Quaregnon near Mons
in 1820. He was a pupil of Picot, and died in
1878. In the Brussels Museum there is a picture
by him of ' Locusta experimenting with poison on
a slave.'

CARLIERI, ALBERTO, was born at Rome, ac-
cording to Orlandi, in 1672. He was first a scholar
of Giuseppe Marchi, but afterwards was in-
structed by Padre Andrea Pozzo. He excelled in
painting architectural views, which he embellished
with very beautiful historical figures. He died
after 1720.

CARLINI, AGOSTINO, a painter and sculptor, was
a native of Genoa, and went to London in early
life. His work as a sculptor was much esteemed.
He was one of the original members of the Royal
Academy, of which he became keeper in 1783.
He exhibited a portrait in oil in 1776. He died in
London in 1790.

CARLISLE, ANNE, was an English painter
who lived in the time of Charles I., and is said by
Walpole in his ' Anecdotes ' to have been admired



for her copies of the works of the Italian masters.
She died about the year 1680.

CARLISLE, ISABELLA HOWARD, COUNTESS OF,
the daughter of William, fourth Lord Byron, was
born in 1721. She married, in 1743, Henry, fourth
Earl of Carlisle, who died in 1758. In 1759, she
married Sir William Musgrave, Bart., and died in
1795. She made several good etchings ; amongst
others, copies of Rembrandt's etchings.

CARLO DELLE MADONNE. See MARATU,.

CARLONE, ANDREA, the son of Giovanni Bat-
tista Carlone, was born at Genoa in 1639. After
receiving the instruction of his father for some
time, he visited Venice, where he studied for
a few years, and then returned to Genoa. His
first productions were some pictures at Perugia,
and the Life of St. Felician, in the church of
that saint at Foligno. These, inferior in grace
and colour to the works of his father, less happy
in composition, and less elegant in design, were
painted in a free, resolute, and vigorous style, with
a mixture of the Venetian colouring. He went
afterwards to Rome, where he changed his manner
for one more noble and elevated, and so superior
to his first, that Lanzi mentions it as an instance
of the fallacy of forming a judgment of the
merit of an artist by a partial view of his per-
formances. " To judge of Andrea Carlone," says
that author, " by his works in the church of the
Gesii at Perugia, we could with difficulty be per-
suaded that he was capable of producing those
admirable pictures at Genoa, which Ratti numbers
among the Genoese works of art most worthy of
remembrance." He died in 1697. A picture of
the Magdalen by him is in the Uffizi, Florence.

CARLONE, CARLO, a painter and engraver, was
probably of the family of the Carloni of Genoa.
Fiissli, in his ' Lives of the Swiss Painters,' ob-
serves that the family of Carloni, so fruitful in
able artists, although generally ranged among the
Genoese painters, may be legitimately claimed as
originally of Switzerland. Carlo Carlone was born
at Scaria, near Como, in the Milanese, in 1686. He
was the son of a sculptor, who destined him for
the same pursuit, but he preferred painting, and
was placed under the care of Giulio Quaglio. He
afterwards studied at Venice and at Rome, until he
was twenty-three years of age, when he visited Ger-
in any, where he has left works in oil and in fresco
at Ludwigsburg, PasSdU, Linz, Breslau, Prague,
and Vienna. In the last-named city some of his
allegorical representations may be seen in the
Belvedere, as also a religious subject, dated 1721,
on the dome of the chapel in the castle. He died
at Como in 1776. Of his works as a painter little
is known further than that he is said to have
possessed an inventive genius and great facility.
As as engraver he has left us the following plates,
mostly from his own compositions :

The Conception of the Virgin.

The Holy Family, with St. John kissing the Foot of
Jesus.

St. Charles Borromeo communicating the Plague-
stricken.

The Death of a Saint.

An allegorical subject of Opulence, for a ceiling.

Another subject for a ceiling, a Figure with a Crown.

A Group of Children, with a Basket of Flowers.

CARLONE, GIOVANNI, a native of Genoa, was
bom in 1590. He was the son of Taddeo Carlone,
a sculptor and historical painter, who placed him
under the tuition of Pietro Sorri, and he after-

251



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



wards frequented the school of Domenico Pas-
signano, at Florence. In that academy he became
an able painter in fresco, and on his return to
Genoa was much employed, and acquired a dis-
tinguished reputation, not only in that city, but
also at Rome and at Florence, where he after-
wards travelled. He assisted his younger brother,
Giovanni Battista Carlone, in the immense fresco
work in the cathedral of the Guastato at Genoa,
and was invited to Milan to paint the ceiling
of the church of the Theatines, which he did not
live to finish ; it was completed by his brother.
He composed his subjects with facility, was a
correct designer, and a master of foreshortening.
The airs of his heads, though somewhat mannered,
are not without grace ; and he united the intelli-
gence of the chiaroscuro with a vigorous colour,
perhaps more glowing than chaste. He died at
Milan in 1630.

CARLONE, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, an eminent
painter, and the younger brother of Giovanni
Carlone, was born at Genoa in 1594. He was also
educated under Passignano at Florence, and after-
wards joined his brother in the great works on
which he was employed at Genoa. The chief
result of their united exertions is to be seen in the
cathedral of the Guastato at Genoa, where the
three naves are painted in fresco by Giovanni
Battista, assisted by his brother. In the middle
and principal nave he has represented the ' Ador-
ation of the Magi,' the ' Entrance of Christ into
Jerusalem,' the ' Resurrection,' the ' Ascension,' the
' Descent of the Holy Ghost,' and the ' Assumption
of the Virgin ' a magnificent work, in which he
has introduced all that could be conceived by a
rich and fertile imagination. Novel and copious in
his compositions, his figures are of the most
graceful contour, his heads expressive of every
variety of animation and beauty, with a vague-
ness, lucidity, and brilliancy of colouring that
astonishes and charms. In the same church he
painted ' The Presentation in the Temple,' and
'Christ preaching to the Pharisees.' Giovanni Bat-
tista lived to the advanced age of 86, and died in
1680.

CARLOTTO. See LOTH, JOHANN CARL.

CARLUCCIO DELLE MADONNE. See MAEATTI.

CARMICHAEL, JAMES WILSON, a marine
painter, was born at Newcastle-on-Tyne about
1800. From constantly seeing so much shipping,
he obtained at an early age great accuracy of
drawing in this line of art, and among his earliest
paintings produced a very fine picture, ' The
Heroic Exploit of Admiral Collingwood at the
Battle of Trafalgar,' which was placed in the
Trinity House, Newcastle. His name first appears
as an exhibitor in 1838, when he contributed an
oil picture, ' Shipping in the Bay of Naples,' to
the Society of British Artists. He exhibited at
the Royal Academy both in oil and water-colours,
contributing among others, in 1841, '"The Con-
queror towing the Africa off the Shoals of Trafal-
gar ; ' and, in 1843, ' The Arrival of the Royal
Squadron.' He was the author of the series of 'Eng-
lish Coast Views from the Mouth of the Thames
to the Frith of Forth.' He resided in his native
town up to about 1845, when he removed to Lon-
don, where he was already known as a skilful
marine painter. At the commencement of the
Russian war he proceeded on board one of her
Majesty's ships to the Baltic ; and on his return
several of the sketches made by him during his

252



absence were published as engravings in the
' Illustrated London News.' He afterwards re-
moved to Scarborough, where he died in 1868.
He published ' The Art of Marine Painting in
Water-Colours' in 1859, and 'The Art of Marine
Painting in Oil-Colours' in 1864.

CARMIENCKE, JOHANN HERMANN, a landscape
painter and etcher, was born at Hamburg in
1810. He went to Dresden in 1831 as a journey-
man painter, and while there studied in Dahl's
school. Thence he went to Copenhagen in 1834,
where he studied in the Academy, and presently
repairing to Leipsic, received instruction there
from Schonberg. Returning to Copenhagen in
1838, he proceeded to travel as an artist in Sweden,
Bavaria, and the Tyrol, visiting Italy from 1845
to 1846. He was then appointed court painter
to Christian VIII., for whom he executed many
works. In consequence of the war, he went in
1851 to New York, where he was well received,
and admitted into the Academy of Brooklyn. His
works were mainly groups of mountain ranges,
which were very effectively rendered, and pos-
sessed an excellent tone the execution being sim-
ple and true to nature. The ' Mountain Tarn ' and
the ' View on the Zillerthal ' may be particularly
noticed. There are thirty-five careful etchings of
landscapes by him, some of which were published
by the Art Association of Copenhagen in 1850 and
1851. He died at New York in 1867.

CARMONA, ANA, was the daughter of the
painter Raphael Mengs, and was born at Dresden
in 1751. She married the Spanish engraver
Manuel Salvador Carmona, and died at Madrid in
1790. She produced some excellent portraits in
pastel and miniature ; that of her husband is in
the Academy of San Fernando.

CARMONA, MANUEL. See SALVADOR CARMONA.

CARMONTELLE, Louis, originally CARROGIS,
was a French amateur draughtsman and engraver,
and the author of the ' Proverbes dramatiques,'
who was born in Paris in 1717. He was the
son of one Philippe Carrogis, a shoemaker, and took
the name of Carmontelle, possibly to conceal his
humble birth. He produced a considerable number
of portraits of eminent persons of his day, which
were mostly in profile, and highly characteristic.
He died in Paris in 1806. Carmontelle has left us
an engraving of ' The Flower-Girl, ' after Boucher,
and the five following portraits engraved after his
own drawings :

The AbbiS Allaire.

The Baron de Bezenval.

The Duke of Orleans and his Son.

Rameau, the Musician.

Francois Marie Arouet de Voltaire.

CARNEIRO. See SALVA CARNEIRO.

CARNICERO, ANTONIO, a painter, engraver, and
etcher, was born at Salamanca in 1748. He was a
son of the sculptor Alexandro Carnicero. He studied
at Rome, and was eventually appointed painter in
ordinary to the king. He issued in 1780 at Madrid
an illustrated edition of ' Don Quixote,' with engrav-
ings from his own designs, and in 1791 another work
with portraits of celebrated Spaniards. There is
by him in the Madrid Gallery 'A Scene on the
Lake of Albufera,' and we have also by him an
engraving of a bull-fight in Madrid, dated 1791.
He died at Madrid in 1814. His brother ISIDORO
was director of the Academy in 1800.

CARNIO, ANTONIO, a native of Portogruaro,
a district of Friuli, was the son of an artist little



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



known, by whom he was instructed in the elements
of art. He afterwards studied at Venice the
works of Tintoretto and Paolo Veronese. Accord-
ing to Lanzi, Friuli has not produced a greater
fenius than Carnio since the time of Pordenone.
he composition of his historical subjects is in-
genious and novel, and his design lofty and bold.
His colouring, especially in his carnations, is
tender and harmonious. Some of his best works
at Udine have been much injured by retouching.
The best preserved is his 'St. Thomas of Villa-
nuova ' in Santa Lucia. He painted many easel
pictures and portraits for the private collections at
Udine. He was living in 1680.
CARNOVALE, Fra. See CORRADINI.
CARNOVALE, DOMENICO, was, according to
Vidriani, a native of Modena, where he flourished
about the year 1564. He excelled in painting
architectural views, with figures, which he intro-
duced with great propriety. He was also a reput-
able architect. A specimen of his style may be
seen in Rosini, plate xciii. Wonderful things are
related of his skill in architectural painting, and
of the illusion produced ; the parallels are to be
found in like stories recorded of Zeuxis and Par-
rhasius.

CAKNULI, Fra SIMONE DA, was a Franciscan
monk of Genoa. He flourished about the year
1519, and painted several pictures for his convent,
two of which, representing 'The Last Supper,' and
'The Preaching of St. Anthony,' possessed great
merit; they are dated in 1519. His manner, with
respect to his figures, is not quite divested of the
dryness that prevailed at his time ; but he painted
architectural designs and bird's-eye views with
small figures which are estimable for their aerial
perspective.

CARO, FRANCISCO, was the son of Francisco
Lopez Caro, and born at Seville in 1627. He
received his first instructions from his father, but



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