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afterwards went to Madrid and entered the school
of Alonso Cano. According to Palomino his
principal works are the pictures of 'The Life of
the Virgin,' in the chapel of San Isidore in the
church of St. Andrew, and the celebrated ' Porciun-
cula,' in the church of San Francisco at Segovia,
both of which show considerable talent, and
sustain the reputation of the school of Cano. He
died at Madrid in 1667.

CARO, FRANCISCO LOPEZ. See LOPEZ CARO.

CARO DE TAVIRA, JUAN, a Spanish painter,
who flourished in the 17th century, was a native
of Carmona and disciple of Zurbaran. He died
young, but his early promise procured him the
cross of Santiago from Philip IV. None of his
works remain.

CAROLI, BALDASSARE, was probably a pupil of
Palmezzano, and a disciple of Rondinello. He
lived in the 16th century, and was the author of
a ' Coronation of the Virgin, with Saints ' (amongst
whom is St. Mercuriale), signed and dated 1512,
and now in the Communal Gallery of Forli. Other
paintings by him can be seen in the churches
of Forli and Ravenna. No dates are known as to
his birth or death.

CAROLIS, RAFFAELLINO DE. See CAPPONI.

CAROLSFELD, SCHNORB VON. See SCHNORR
VON KAROLSFELD.

CAROLUS, LUDOVICDS ANTONIUS, a Belgian
painter of historical and genre subjects, was born
at Antwerp in 1814. He studied under Eeckhout
and F. de Braekeleer, and from 1831 to 1834 |



worked in the studio of E. Le Poitevin at Paris,
whence he returned to Antwerp in 1836. He died
in his native city in 1865. His pictures of the
everyday life of the 15th and 16th centuries are
esteemed for their accuracy of costume and excel-
lent colouring.

CARON, ADOLPHE ALEXANDRE JOSEPH, was a
French engraver, born at Lille in 1797. He
studied his art under Lair and Bervic, and won the
first-class medal at the Salon of 184C. There is an
engraving by him of Ary Schefier's picture of

Faust and Margaret,' but his best production is
'The Virgin, with St. Catharine and St. Rosa,'
after Perugino. He also engraved portraits of the
Duchess de Berry and her children, after Gerard,
and of Madame de SeVigne, after Deveria. He
died at Clamart in 1867.

CARON, ANTOINE, a French historical and por-
trait painter, was born at Beauvais about 1515.
In 1540 and in 1559 he was working at Fontaine-
bleau under the orders of Primaticcio, and in 1573
he executed the decorative paintings on the occa-
sion of the entry into Paris of Henry, Duke of
Anjou, the elected King of Poland, who in the
next year became King of France. His pictures
have all perished, but there still exists in the
National Library at Paris a series of drawings by
him known as the ' History of Artemisia,' which
represent scenes in the life of Catharine de' Medici.
He was one of the masters and the father-in-law
of Thomas de Leu, the engraver, and died in
I'.iris about 1593, aged 78.

CARON, JEAN Louis TOUSSAINT, a French en-
gr.iver, was born in Paris in 1790. He studied
under Coiny, Regnault, and Lignon. His best pro-
ductions were ' Le Famille Inaigente,' after Prud'-
hon, and 'The Levite of Mount Ephraim,' after
Courier. He died in Paris in 1832.

CARON, NICOLAS, was an engraver born at
Amiens in 1700. According to Heinecken he
studied under Papillon, who had a high opinion of
his powers. An accident led to his imprisonment,
and he died in the Conciergerie in 1768. A por-
trait of his master is to be found as a frontispiece
to a work entitled 'Traite de la Gravure en Bois.'

CARONNI, PAOLO, was an engraver born at
Monza about 1779. He was one of Longhi's best
pupils, and produced many engravings of merit.
He died at Milan in 1842. Amongst his plates
may be noticed :

The Vision of Ezekiel ; after Raphael. 1825.
Alexander and Darius ; after Le Jirun. 1818.
Veuus suckling the Infant Cupid ; after Parmigia.no.
Vemis stealing Cupid's Bow ; after Procaccini.
The Virgin and Child ; after Sassoferrato.
The Triumph of David ; after Domenichino.
A Portrait of Raphael Morghen.

CAROSELLI, ANGIOLO, was born at Rome in
1585. He studied under Michel Angiolo da Cara-
vaggio, of whose works, as well as of those of
other masters, he became a successful imitator.
He possessed a talent of copying with astonishing
precision, and in painting pasticci in imitation of
various styles. His large works in the churches
are ' The Martyrdom of St. Placidus,' and 'St. Gre-
;ory celebrating Mass before a Concourse of
'eople,' in Santa Francesca Romana ; and ' St. Wen-
ceslaus ' in the Pontifical Palace of the Quirinal.
His lesser works were chiefly portraits or paint-
ings in which the figures were small, two speci-
mens of which ma be seen in the Belvedere at
Vienna. He died in 1653.

253



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



CAROT, . According to Strutt this artist re-
sided at Rome about 1585, and is the engraver of a
email upright plate representing ' St. Francis hold-
ing a Cross.' This is etched in a bold, spirited
style, and appears to have been the production of
a painter.

CAROTTO, GIOVANNI, (or CAKOTO,) was the
brother of Giovanni Francesco Carotto, and his
assistant. In San Paolo, Verona, is a ' Virgin and
Child,' signed and dated 1513, and the Museum of
the same city possesses a ' Madonna and Child,
with SS. Lawrence and Jerome.' The churches of
San Giovanni in Fonte, and San Slefano, both in
Verona, have also Madonnas, with Saints, by this
artist. He lived to the age of about sixty, but no
dates can be given of either his birth or death.

CAROTTO, GIOVANNI FRANCESCO, (or CABOTO,)
was born at Verona in 1470 ; he was first apprenticed
to Liberale, but afterwards went to Mantua, where
he entered Mantegna's workshop, and closely imi-
tated the style of that master. The Gallery of
Modena possesses a ' Virgin and Child, with an in-
fant John the Baptist,' of that period, and similar
subjects painted by him in these early years of
his life are also to be found in the Museums of
Frankfort and Berlin. Shortly before 1508 he
returned to Verona, where he painted the fres-
coes of the church of San Tommaso Cantuariense.
The frescoes in the Spolverini Chapel, in Sanf
Eufemia, at Verona, representing scenes from
the history of Tobit, are amongst his best produc-
tions. He paid visits to both Milan and Casale,
where, according to Vasari, he worked for the
Visconti and Montferrat families. Many of the
galleries and churches of Verona and Mantua pos-
sess paintings by him ; in San Giorgio, Verona,
besides other paintings and frescoes, is a ' Glory
of the Virgin,' signed and dated 1545. He died at
Verona in 1546.

CARPACCIO, BENEDETTO, who is considered by
Lanzi to have been a relation of Vittore Carpaccio,
lived in the 16th century. Of his birth and death
no dates are known, but there are paintings by him
existing executed from 1523 to 1541. The Cathe-
dral of Capo d'Istria has a ' Massacre of the
Innocents,' dated 1523, and ' The Name of Christ
adored by Saints,' dated 1541 ; and in the Galleria
Comunale of the same place is a ' Coronation of
the Virgin,' dated 1537.

CARPACCIO, VITTORE, (or CARPATIUS,) is said
to have been born about 1450 in Istria, but the
documentary proofs are wanting. He has been
called in contemporary records ' Scarpaza,' and by
Vasari ' Scarpaccia.' He was a follower of Gentile
Bellini, and was employed at the school of San
Girolamo, Venice, at the same period with Luigi
Vivarini and Giovanni Bellini, but all pictures of
this religious corporation have entirely disappeared.
After 1490 he finished, in the school of St. Ursula,
nine pictures taken from the life of that saint, all
of which are now in the Academy of Venice. At
the close of the 15th century he painted his
' Patriarch of Grado casting out a Devil by the aid
of the Relic,' for the school of San Giovanni
Evangelista. This picture gives an admirable view
of old Venice, as it stood at the close of the 15th
century ; the date of its execution has been said
to be 1494, but the written proofs are missing ; it
is now in the Academy of Venice. In San Giorgio
de" Schiavoni (a Hospital for Seamen) are ten
decorative canvases, with designs taken from the
lives of SS. Jerome, Tryphon, and George, ' Christ



on the Mount,' and ' Christ invited to the Pharisee's
Feast,'and an altar-piece, representing the Madonna.
These pictures were painted by Carpaccio for the
Hospital, re-erected in 1500, the designs being
completed in the years 1502 1508. In the last-
named year he was chosen with Lazzaro Sebastiani
and Vittore di Matteo, by Giovanni Bellini, to
value the frescoes of Giorgione at the Fondaco de'
Tedeschi ; and he soon afterwards executed his
chef-d'oeuvre of ' The Presentation in the Temple,'
for San Giobbe, now in the Venice Academy. In
the years 1511 1515 he finished for the school of
San Stefano 'The Calling of St. Stephen,' of 1511
(now in the Berlin Gallery) ; ' St. Stephen preach-
ing' (at the Louvre) ; ' St. Stephen disputing with
the Doctors,' of 1514 (at the Brera, Milan) ; and
' The Martyrdom of St. Stephen,' of 1515 (now in
the Gallery of Stuttgart). He painted in 1515 a
design representing ' The Indulgence of St. Mark,'
for the Great Council Hall that was burnt in 1577.
He executed in 1514 a large altar-piece for San
Vitale, Venice, which represents ' St. Vitale on
Horseback, attended by his wife Valeria, and
Saints'; and in 1515 he finished for the Prior of
Sanf Antonio of Castello the altar-piece of ' Cruci-
fied Saints,' now in the Venice Academy. In 1519
were painted the two altar-pieces of Madonnas and
Saints in the Cathedral at Capo d'Istria, and the
church of Pozzale, near Cadore. After this date
no further works of his are known, and it is pro-
bable that his death occurred soon after 1522.
Many paintings by this artist still exist ; amongst
those not mentioned above are :

Berlin. Gallery. Madonna and Child with Saints.
Cheshire. BroMetank j christ anj fom . Disciples (iil j Htd ),

Ferrara. Museum. Death of the Virgin. 1508.
Florence. Vffizi. Fragment, Finding of the True

Cross.

Frankfort a M. Madonna.

London. Nat. Gall. Virgin and Child, with Saints,
adored by the Doge Giovanni
Mocenigo.
Milan. Brera. St. Stephen preaching.

,, Presentation and Marriage of the

"Virgin.

Poldi Pezzoli. Samson (?).
Paris. Louvre. St. Stephen preaching.

Stuttgart. Museum. Glorification of St. Thomas Aqui-
nas. 1507.

,, Martyrdom of St. Stephen.

Venice. St. I'itale. St. Vitalis on Horseback, adoring

the Virgin. 1514.
Academy. Meeting of St. Anne and St.

Joachim. 1515.
Cure of a lunatic, the Kialto in

the background.
Museo Correr. Visitation.
,, Two Courtesans.

Palazzo Ducale. The Lion of St. Mark in a Land-
scape. 1516.
Vienna. Gallery. The Annunciation. 1504.

Christ adored by Angels. 1496.

CARPENTER, MARGARET SARAH, who was the
daughter of Captain Geddes, was born at Salis-
bury in 1793. She first studied art from Lord
Radnor's collection at Longford Castle, and com-
peted successfully, for two or three years, for the
prizes at the Society of Arts, obtaining on one
occasion the gold medal. She went to London in
1814, established herself as a portrait painter, and
secured great reputation. In that year she first
exhibited at the Royal Academy a portrait of Lord
Folkestone, and at the British Institution the ' For-
tune-Teller' and 'Peasant Boy.' In 1817 she



VITTORE CARPACCIO




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THE DREAM OF ST. URSULA



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VITTORE CARPACCIO



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ST. URSULA AND THE POPE



[Accademicti I 'en ice



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



married Mr. W. H. Carpenter, Keeper of the Prints
and Drawings in the British Museum, upon whose
death, in 1866, Her Majesty conferred upon her a
pension of 100 per annum. She died in London
in 1872. Mrs. Carpenter is chiefly known as a
painter of portraits, amongst which may he men-
tioned those of

Lord Kilcoursie and Lady Sarah de Crespigny, 1812.
Lord Folkestone, 1814. Mr. Baring, 1815. Sir Henry
Bunbury, 1822. Lady Eastnor, 1825. Lord de
Tabley, 1829. Mr. Justice Coleridge, 1830. Lady
Denbigh, 1831. Mrs. Herries, 1832. Lady King,
daughter of Lord Byron, 1835. Archbishop Sumner,
1852. Lord John Manners. Dr. Whewell.

Her portraits of Richard Parkes Bonington, the
painter, John Gibson, R.A., the sculptor, and
Patrick Eraser Tytler, the historian, are in the
National Portrait Gallery. She also produced a
few fancy subjects, of which there are two ex-
amples in the South Kensington Museum ' Devo-
tion ' (a portrait of Anthony Stewart, the miniature
painter), exhibited at the British Institution in
1822; and 'The Sisters,' portraits of the artist's
two daughters, exhibited in 1840.

CARPENTERO, JOHANNES CAROLUS, a Flemish
historical painter, born at Antwerp in 1784, studied
under Van den Bosch and Mattheus van Bree.
Besides historical pictures, he painted landscapes
with cows and sheep, taking Ommeganck for his
model. He died at Antwerp in 1823.

CARPENTIERS, ADRIEN, (or CHARPENTI&RE,)
was a native of Switzerland who settled in England
as a portrait painter about 1760, and from that year
until 1774 was a frequent exhibitor at the Society
of Artists in Spring Gardens. One of his best
works is the portrait of Roubilliac, the sculptor,
now in the National Portrait Gallery, of which
there is a good mezzotint by David Martin. He
died in London about 1778, at an advanced age. _

CARPI, GiROLAMO DA, was born at Ferrara in
1501, and was educated under Benvenuto Garofolo.
On leaving the school of that master, he passed
some time at Bologna, where he was much em-
ployed in portrait painting. He afterwards visited
Parma and Modena, where he was so fascinated
with the works of Correggio and Parmigiano, that
he applied himself to study and copy them with
great assiduity. He is not, however, to be con-
sidered only as a copyist. He painted many
pictures, of his own composition, for the churches
at Ferrara and Bologna. At Ferrara, in the Cathe-
dral, are three pictures by him of the Madonna,
St. George, and St. Maurice. At the Carmelites
is his picture of ' St. Jerome ; ' and in Santa Maria
del Vado one of his finest works, representing a
'Miracle wrought by St. Anthony of Padua.' For
the church of San Francesco, at Rovigo, he painted
a picture of the ' Pentecost ; ' and at Bologna his
two most celebrated productions, the ' Adoration
of the Magi,' for San Martino Maggiore, and
the ' Madonna and Child, with St. Catharine and
other Saints,' for San Salvatore. In the two last
he displays a mixture of the Roman and the
Lombard styles. He also painted for some
time in Rome. He died at Ferrara in 1556. The
Dresden Gallery possesses a ' Venus and Cupid,' by
him.

CARPI, MARCO DA. See MELONI.

CARPI, UGO DA, a painter and engraver, de-
scended from the ancient family of the Counts ol
Panico, was the tenth child of Count Astolfo da
Panico. The year of his birth is uncertain. In the



>etition to the senate of Venice, in 1516, to grant
lim protection from piratical imitators of his prints,
16 is said to be in advanced age, venuto air etd, senile,
which induces Passavant to put the date of his
)irth, which has been usually stated to have taken
>lace in 1480, back to 1450. He died probably in
Jome in 1520.

Vasari styles him a mediocre painter, but great
n drawing ; and although there exists an agreement
>etween Carpi and Saccacini to execute an exten-
sive work between them, no authentic paintings
remain from his hand, his celebrity resting entirely
on his wood-engravings, which were executed by
successive printings from various blocks of different
shades, by which were produced completer effects
,han those of ordinary woodcuts. This was called
chiaroscuro, a name still given to it, and was in
'act a simple form of our modern chromo-printing.
Darpi claimed in his petition to the Doge and Senate
;o have been the inventor of the method, but as no
xample by him exists with a date to compete with
;he chiaroscuro issued at Augsburg by Jost de
Meeker in 1510, and his claim was only made in
1516, he seems to have no certain claim to the inven-
tion. The more the subject is investigated, the more
certain it seems that all forms of engraving, as of
printing, originated in Germany. His works are
numerous, and are confused with those of Boldrini.
His known works are after Raphael and Parmigiano ;
sometimes they are of a large size. As, however,
they are not signed, and are identified with diffi-
culty, it is not necessary to enumerate many.

Descent from the Cross ; after Raphael.

St. John in the "Wilderness ; after the same.

The Miraculous Draught of Fishes ; after the same.

Death of Ananias ; after the same.

Elymas struck with Blindness ; after the same.

A Sibyl reading, with a Child holding a torch to light

her; after the same. A rare print, copied by Coriolano

as one of a set.
Diogenes ; after Parmigiano.
SS. Paul and Peter ; very small ; after the same.

See 'Di Ugo da Carpi e dei Conti da Panico,'
Bologna, 1854, by Gualandi ; Passavant, vol. vi. ;
Bartsch, vol. xii. W. B. S.

CARPLNONI, DOMENICO, a Bergamese painter,
was born at Clusone, in the Valle Seriana, in 1566.
He was sent to Venice when young, and became a
scholar of the younger Palma. In the early part of
his life he was occupied in copying the works of
Palma and Bassano ; he afterwards painted some
pictures of his own composition, which, according
to Tassi, are vigorously coloured, and tolerably
correct in design. In the principal church of
Clusone is a picture by him of the ' Birth of St.
John the Baptist,' and a ' Descent from the Cross ; '
in the Chiesa di Monesterolo, in the Valle Caval-
lina, is a picture of ' The Transfiguration ; ' and at
Lovere, in the church of the Padri Osservanti, 'The
Adoration of the Magi.' He died in 1658.

CARPINONI, MAEZIALE, the grandson of Do-
menico Carpinoni, was born at Clusone about 1644.
According to Tassi, he was taught the first prin-
ciples of art by his father, an artist of little note,
but afterwards had the advantage of the instruc-
tion of his grandfather. He was afterwards sent
to Rome for improvement, where he frequented the
school of Giro Ferri. He painted historical sub-
jects with no small success, and was employed for
the churches of his native town and the vicinity.
In the principal church at Clusone is the ' Virgin
and Child, with Saints,' by this painter, and 'The

255



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Baptism of Christ by St. John ; ' and in the cathe-
dra] at Bergamo, SS. Domno, Domneone, and
Eusebia. He also painted several pictures for
the churches in Brescia. He died at Ferrara in
1722.

CARPIONI, CARLO, the son of Giulio Carpioni,
was born about the middle of the 17th century.
He was educated by his father, after whose style
he painted a few pictures, but he is better known
by his portraits. In the Council-chamber at Vi-
cenza and in the convent of the Servites at Monte
Berico there are some groups of portraits of magis-
trates, which show a truthful resemblance, and an
ingenious and elevated imagination.

CARPIONI, GIULIO, was born at Venice in 1611.
He was a scholar of Alessandro Varotari, called
Paduanino, but followed more the style of Can-
tarini. He was superior to his fellow-student
Maffei in vigour, expression, and invention. He
painted history and bacchanals, and also sacred
subjects of a small size, many of which are to be
seen in the churches in the Venetian states. His
fabulous subjects are placed with distinction in the
private collections of his country, and are touched
with a spirit, and coloured with a beauty of tint-
ing, which his master would not have disavowed.
Paintings by him may be seen in the Galleries of
Augsburg, Dresden, Vienna, Modena, and Florence.
He was also an etcher ; his best plates being ' St.
Anthony of Padua,' ' Christ on the Mount of
Olives,' 'The Virgin reading,' and 'The Virgin
with the Rosary.' He died at Verona in 1674.

CARR, JOHNSON, a pupil of Wilson, was born in
1743. He gave promise of being a good landscape
painter, when he died in 1765. His chalk drawings
possess considerable merit.

CARR, R, practised as an etcher, in imitation of
Hollar, in England, towards the close of the seven-
teenth century.

CARR, Rev. WILLIAM HOLWELL, who was born
in 1750, and died in 1830, practised landscape
painting as an amateur ; he exhibited occasion-
ally at the Royal Academy from 1797 till 1820.
He bequeathed thirty-three paintings to the
National Gallery, including his own portrait by
Jacksnn, and a fine picture by Luini.

CARRACCI FAMILY.

Antonio (tailor). Lodovico (16551619). Paolo.



Agostino (15571602). Annibale (15601609). Giovanni Antonio.
Antonio Marziale (16S3 1618). Francesco (15951622).

CARRACCI, AQOSTINO, painter, engraver, poet ;
the nephew of Lodovico, and the elder brother of
Annibale Carracci, was born at Bologna in 1557. He
was intended by his father for the business of a
goldsmith, a profession then nearly connected with
the art of engraving, and at the age of fourteen he
had engraved some plates in the style of Cornells
Cort, when Lodovico persuaded him to study paint-
ing. He became a scholar of Prospero Fontana,
and he afterwards studied under Bartolommeo
Passerotti. On leaving the school of Passerotti,
Agostino, together with his brother Annibale,
passed some time at Parma, where they studied
with attention the works of Correggio and Parmi-
giano. He afterwards went to Venice, where he
bad an opportunity of perfecting himself in en-
graving under Cornelia Cort, by whose instruction
he became one of the most distinguished engravers
of his country. Excellent as a designer, he fre-
quently corrected the defects in the drawing of the

256



pictures he engraved, for which he sometimes re-
ceived the thanks, but more usually the reproaches,
of the painter. On his return to Bologna, in 1589,
stimulated by the reputation Annibale had already
acquired, he devoted himself to painting with inde-
fatigable assiduity, and, assisted by the instruction
of Lodovico, his advancement was such that he
was engaged in all the considerable works in which
they were then employed in the Magnani and
Zampieri palaces. He instructed the scholars in the
Academy in the theoretical branches of painting,
and also wrote for their edification a sonnet,
wherein he tells them what characteristic quality
to choose from each of the great masters. It was
at this time that he painted for the Certosa at
Bologna his famous picture of the ' Communion
of St. Jerome,' now in the gallery of that city. It
is one of the very few paintings which bear his
signature. Annibale being soon after engaged to
visit Rome, to paint the Farnese Gallery, he was
accompanied by Agostino, whose resources and
poetical genius were of the most essential service
in the composition of those fabulous subjects to
which the unlettered mind of Annibale would have
been inadequate.

These aids were not sufficiently appreciated by
Annibale, whose vivacious and turbulent disposition
produced continual dissensions, and Agostino, after
he had executed the ' Triumph of Galatea,' and
the ' Cephalus and Aurora,' was obliged to abandon
him, and to leave Rome. He went to Parma, where
he was employed by Duke Ranuccio to paint the
great saloon of the Casino, the finishing of which
he did not long survive. He died at Parma, in
1602. The following are the principal works of
Agostino Carracci:
Bologna.



St.



Pinacotcca. The Last Communion of
Jerome (his master-piece).
The Assumption.

Cassel. Gallery. Hagar and Ishmael.

London. Nat. Oal. Cephalus and Aurora.
Triumph of Galatea.

Both original cartoons for the
frescoes in the farneie Palace,
Some.

Munich. Pinakothek. St. Francis receiving the Stigmata.
Vienna. Gallery. St. Francis receiving the Stigmata.
,, St. Dominic.

Female Portrait. Signed and,

dated. 1598.

As an engraver, Agostino Carracci is to be ranked
among the most celebrated artists of Italy. The
correctness of his design is only equalled by the
beauty of his execution, and his plates would
have nearly reached perfection, if he had paid
more attention to the effect of chiaroscuro. They
appear to have been executed entirely with the
graver, in a bold, free style, nearly resembling
that of his instructor, Cornelis Cort. The expres-
sion of his heads is admirable, and his extremities
are marked with the greatest care. His plates are
very numerous ; they are generally marked with the
initials A. 0- or AUG. F. or Agos. C., and some-
times with his name abbreviated. They are not
difficult of recognition. The following are his
principal prints :



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