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Bryan's dictionary of painters and engravers (Volume 1) online

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Antonio Carracci, his father ; very scarce.

Bust of Cosmo I. with ornamental figures.

The Head of a \Voman ; fine.

Portrait of a Lady with a collar of pearls.

Giovanni Tommaso Costanzo.

Princess Christina of Lorraine.


Brogi photo] yL ! ffizi Gallery, Florence



I'ti/ if an. Koine



TJUsse Aldrovandi.

Tiziano Vecelli. 1587.

Eve giving the Apple to Adam. 1581.

The Virgin and Infant Jesus.

The Repose in Egypt.

The Virgin in the Clouds, giving the Scapulary to a

The Virgin seated on a step, with St. Joseph, the Infant

Jesus, St. John, and an Angel ; scarce.
The Good Samaritan ; proofs before the letter are very

rare. The impressions with the name of Bertel/i are

The Crucifixion, with two Females, one representing

Christianity, the other Judaism.
The Resurrection.
The Confraternity of the Sacred Name of God. (The

Pope and the Senate of Venice kneeling before the

Virgin.) 1582.
St. Francis of Assist receiving the Stigmata ; Aqos. Car.

The Cord of St. Francis. (St. Francis distributing cords

to a number of persons of different orders ) 1586.
St. Jerome kneeling at the entrance of a cave. There

are impressions of this plate, which are very scarce,

in which it is only three parts finished, the rest being

slightly sketched with a single stroke. The plate

was afterwards finished by his pupil Villamena.
Seventeen plates of free subjects, called in Italy ' Le Las-

civie dei Carracci.'
Two other amorous subjects.
A Landscape with naked figures.
A Landscape with the same, and in the distance a


Cupid conquering Pan ; Oini/ia vincit amor. 1599.
Perseus combating the Monster.
Frontispiece for the work called Cremona Jidelissima

This book, which is very scarce, contains thirty-five

portraits, engraved by Aoostinn Carracci.


A Child blowing Bubbles ; after Goltziits ; very scarce.
Jacob watering the Hocks of Rachel ; after 1). Calvaert,


Judith; half-length; after Lorenzo Sabbatini.
The young Tobit conducted by the Angel ; improperly

marked Ra/aelle d'Urbino; it is after Rafaelle da

The Presentation in the Temple ; after Orazio Sammac-

The Virgin and Infant Christ giving the Keys to St.

Peter; after the same.

The Ecce Homo, with the Virgin and other figures;

after the same. 1587.

The Adoration of the Magi ; after Marco del Mora.
The great Crucifixion ; after fintoretto ; in three sheets.
The mocking of Christ ; after V. Strada.
The dead Christ, supported by an Angel ; half-length ;

after the same.

The Pieta; after the sculpture of Michelangelo Buon-

The Nativity of the Virgin ; after Andrea del Sarto.
The^ Virgin Mary crowned by the Trinity; after A.


The Holy Family ; after Barocci.
The Holy Family, with St. John ; after Raphael.
The Holy Family, with St. Michael ; after L. Sabbatini.
The Virgin with the Crescent, and the Infant Jesus

giving the Beuedictiou ; aj'Ur the same.
The Holy Family, with St. Anthony and St. Catharine ;

after Paolo Veronese.
The Virgin taking under her protection two Monks;

after the same.

The Marriage of St. Catharine ; after the same.
The Martyrdom of St. Justiua; after the same ; in two


The Trinity ; after Titian.
The Virgin and Infant Jesus, with several Saints ; after

Giulio Campi.

St. Paul resuscitating Eutychus ; after Antonio Campi.
The Holy Family reposing in a Landscape ; after B.


St. Sebastian; after Francesco Raibolint.

The Virgin suckling the Infant Jesus; after J. Ligoizi.

St. Jerome ; half-length ; after Vanni.

St. Jerome, with the Lion, regarding the Virgin in the

Clouds; after Tintoretto. 1598.
The Temptation of St. Anthony. 1582. As this print

is without a name, it has been sometimes attributed

to Cornells Cort.

Mercury and the Graces ; after Tintoretto.
Wisdom, accompanied by Peace, driving away the God

of War ; after the same.
^Eueas carrying his Father Anchises ; after Barocci.

CARRACCI, ANNIBALE, was born at Bologna in
1560. His father, who was a tailor, at first brought
him up to his own trade, but the boy's natural abili-
ties and the advice of Lodovico induced Antonio
Carracci to let his son study in the atelier of his
uncle. Thus Lodovico was Annibale's first and only
instructor in art. In 1580, Annibale left Bologna
and went to Parma, where he studied the works of
Correggio and Parmigiano. He was joined at Parma
by his brother Agostino, who after a short time
left Annibale to go to Venice, where they again met
! and lived together for some time. After an ab-
I sence of about seven years he returned to Bologna,
I where in 1589 the Carracci opened their academy.
He assisted Lodovico in his paintings in the
Magnani, Fari, and Zampieri palaces. About 1600,
Annibale was invited to Rome by Cardinal Odoardo
Farnese to decorate the Farnese Palace. He was
assisted by his brother Agostino, by Domenichino,
and by Lanfranco. The Farnese Palace occupied
;ibout four years of the prime of Annibale's life.
Foi this immense work (in which Poussin declares
that he surpassed not only himself, but every
painter who preceded him, and which is generally
admitted to be his most important work) he received
but five hundred crowns. These frescoes display
the greatest technical excellence in drawing, both
of drapery and the nude, in modelling and in
colour. But it is to be regretted that Annibale,
who was averse to literary studies, and consequently
ignorant of history and fable, was obliged to have
recourse to the acquirements of others, and the
natural result was that he could not feel the poetry
of his subject so sensibly, or correctly, as if it had
emanated from his own mind. Annibale was in
complete possession of his art, when the subject
did not go beyond the limit of his comprehension.
After a visit to Naples, Annibale Carracci died
at Rome in 1609, and was buried near Raphael in
the Pantheon.

The most celebrated easel picture by Annibale
was formerly in the Orleans Gallery, at the sale
of which it fetched 4000 guineas, the highest price
reached by any picture in that famous collec-
tion. It is now at Castle Howard. It represents
the Saviour taken down from the Cross, extended
in the lap of the Virgin, who is fainting, Mary
Magdalene deploring the death of her Divine
Master, whilst Mary (the wife of Cleophas), and
another of the holy women, are succouring the
mother of Christ. Of the beauties of this ad-
mirable production, any description that could here
be attempted would be quite inadequate ; it must
be seen to be felt. The awful manner in which
this solemn subject is represented, fills the mind of
the beholder with the most affecting emotions. It
has been very finely engraved by lioullet.

Annibale's excellence as a painter of landscape
ought not to be left unnoticed ; he did not confine
himself to the backgrounds of his historical sub-
jects, but painted several pictures in which the

nothing superior in grandeur of scenery, in the
choice of forms, in aerial tints, aud in spirited
execution. He also painted genre pictures, as
'The Greedy Eater,' in the Colonna Palace at
Rome, The following are his principal paintings :

Berlin. Gallery. Holy Family.

, ( Landscape.

And many others.
Bolo T ua Pinacoteca. Madonna adored by six Saints.


Madonna enthroned, with Saints.

Assumption. 1592.
CassL-1. Gallery. Tobias.


Castle Howard. The Three Maries.

f) Portrait of Himself.

Darmstadt. Gallery. Portrait of Domenichino.
Dresden. Gallery. The Genius of Glory.

Assumption of the Virgin (dated


Madonna enthroned with Saints
(signed HANNIBAL CAEEAcriv


S. Koch distributing Alms.
,', Virgin and Child with the Swal-


And others.
Florence. Uffizi. A Bacchante.

Portrait of Himself.
Pitti tal. Christ adored by Saints.
London. Nat. Gal. Christ appearing to Simon Peter

after his Resurrection.
St. John in the Wilderness.
,', Landscape, with figures.

Landscape, with figures.

Erminia taking refuge with the


Silenns gathering Grapes.
Pan teaching Apollo to play on

the Pipes.
The Temptation of St. Anthony

in the Desert.

, Briaaevater Gal. St. George in Prayer,
ilail. Bnra. Christ and the Wurnan of Samana.






Museum. Venus.
Pinak'Jihek. Susannah and the Elders.

A Pieta.

Museum. A Pieta.

Satyr and Bacchante.
Holy Family.
And others.
Louvre. Birth of the Virgin.

' La Vierge aux Cerises."

The Sleep of the Infant Christ.

(' Le Silence du Carrai;he.')
The Virgin appearing to bt. Luke
and St. Catuarine (signal A.sxi-


Preaching of St. John the Baptist.
A Pieta.
,, Christ at the Tomb.

The Resurrection (signed ANNIB \L
The Magdalen.
,, Martyrdom of St. Stephen.

And many others.

Petersburg. Hermitage. Anointing the dead Christ.
Holy Family.

The Women at the Sepulchre.
Christ and the Three Maries.
His own Portrait.
A Sleeping Maiden.
,, Landscape.

Eoryhese Pal. Deposition of the Cross.

St. Francis.
Colonna Pal. The Greedy Eater.
farnese Pal. Ceiling Tiiumph of Bacchus and
Ariadne. 16001604.



Madonna del I Assum j, t ion.
I opolo. )

,, Christ and the Woman of

t , Entombment.

St. Francis in Ecstasy.

By the hand of Aunibale Carracci we have about
twenty plates, partly etched, and finished with the
graver, in which the great master is strongly
marked. They are :

The Virgin suckling the Infant Jesus ; oval.

The Virgin supporting the head of the Infant Jesus


The Virgin and Child, with St. John presenting a Bird.
The Adoration of the Shepherds.
The Virgin of the Porringer, giving drink to St. John.


The Holy Family ; Anni. Car. in. fe. 1590.
The Cruciflxioa ; Artj.jnFe. 1531.
The Dead Christ in the lap of the Virgin, called the

Caprarola Clirist. 1597.
Christ crowned with Thorns; Annib. Carracius in. et

fecit. 16J6.

St. Jerome with spectacles ; half-length.
St. Francis with a Crucifix and a bkuli.
Apollo playing on the Lyre, with Pan.
Jupiter and Antiope ; A. C. 159-.
Sileuus, a Faun, and a Satyr, called the Salver of


Acis and Galatea, with a Satyr.
Susanna and the Elders ; very scarce.
The Triumph of Bacchus (doubtful).

of Agostino Carracci, was born at Venice in
1583. He was educated by his father and by
his uncle, Annibale Carracci, whom he accom-
panied to Rome when he went to paint the Far-
nese Gallery. Aided by Annibale' s instructions,
and endowed with much natural genius, he soon
became a skilful designer, and was taken into the
service of Cardinal Tonti, who employed him in
the decorations of his chapel in the church of San
Bartolommeo neli' Isola, where he painted several
frescoes taken from the 'Life of the Virgin,' and the

Passion of Christ.' The chapel of St. Charles
Borroineo was ornamented by him with a picture
representing that saint communicating the plague-
stricken. He also painted a frieze in one of the
rooms of the Pope's palace at Monte Cavallo. His
works are rarely met with. The Marquis of Lans-
downe possesses a ' Virgin and Child' by him. In
the Louvre is a picture of 'The Flood'; in the
Modena Gallery, 'Christ healing a Blind Man';
aud in the Belvedere, Vienna, a ' Lute-Piayer.'
He was greatly attached to Aunibale, attended on
him in his last moments, and gave him a splendid
funeral in the church of the Rotunda, near the
tomb of Raphael. Antonio died at Rome in

the sun of Giovanni Antonio, and a nephew
of Agostino and Annibale Carracci, was born
at Bologna in 1595. He was brought up by
Lodovico, and soon displayed great talent for art.
He painted a ' Virgin adored by Saints ' for Santa
Maria Maggiore, Bologna, and a scene from the hfe
of St. Roch in the Oratory of San Rocco. He sub-
sequently set up an opposition school to that of
Lodovico, and called it the "True School of the
Carracci " ; but not meeting with the patronage he
expected, he left Bologna, and went to Rome,
whither he transplanted the " True School of the
Carracci." He died, however, in poverty, at Rome
in 1622. There are a few plates engraved by thU
artist from the designs of Lodovico and Aunibale,
which are marked 2 1 '. C., or F. C. S.


Alinari photo] \Bologna Gallery



The Virgin and Child, inscribed Deiparce tmago a d'n-o

Luca pict., Sfc.

St. Charles Borromeo, kneeling.
A winged Angrl pointing to a Skull.
Four Busts of Semiramis, Lucretia, Artemisia, and


CARRACCI, LODOVJCO, the real founder of the
Eclectic school, was born at Bologna in 1555. The
two masters whom he had chosen, Fontana of
Bologna and Tintoretto of Venice, counselled him
to abandon the career of an artist, considering him
incapable of ever succeeding in it ; and his fellow-
students called him " the ox," on account of the
slowness and heaviness of his mind, and also be-
cause of his continual, determined, and indefatig-
able application. He painted afterwards under
Passignano, and also studied the works of Andrea
del Sarto, at Florence ; at Parma he was impressed
by the pictures of Correggio and Parmigiano, and
at Venice by those of Titian. On his return to
Bologna, Lodovico Carracci opened in 1589, in con-
junction witli his two nephews, Agostino and Anni-
bale Carracci, an Academy " degli Desiderosi "
("Those who regret the past, despise the present,
and aspire to a better futuie "), which was kept by
the three together until 1600 (when the two brothers
went to Rome), from which time till 1619, the year
of his death, it was maintained by Lodovico alone.
Soon after its opening, this academy acquired such
renown that all establishments of a like nature
in Bologna were closed : and Lodovico Carracci's
fame rests rather on his teaching than on the works
he himself executed. The Carracci reckoned
amongst their pupils, Albani, Guido Reni, Domeni-
chino, Lanfranco, Spada, and Tiarini. The fres-
coes which Ludovico executed with the assistance of
pupils in 1602, in San Michele in Busco in Bologna,
representing the 'Life of St. Benedict,' and the
' Life of St. Cecilia,' have perished. The follow-
ing are his principal existing pictures :

Berlin. Gallery. Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes.

Bologna. Palazzo ~\ History of Romulus and Remus
Magnani > (fresco ; painted, in conjunction
Guidotti.j with Annibale and Agostino}.

S. Gregorio. St. George and the Dragon.

The Annunciation.

Pinacoteca. The Transfiguration.

,, Madonna of the Bargellini Family.

,. Birth of St. John the Baptist.

A.nd others.

Florence. UJfizi. His own Portrait.

Parma. Museum. Burial of the Virgin.

Milan. Brera. Christ with theAYoman of Canaan.

Modeua. Museum. Flora.


., The Assumption.

Paris. Louvre. The Annunciation.

,, Virgin and Child.


Appearance of the Virgin to St.


Rome. Doria Pal. Ecce Homo.

London. Nat. Gal. Susannah and the Elders.

By Lodovico Carracci we have a few engravings
from his own designs ; they are etched in a free
and masterly style, and finished with the graver.
He generally marked his plates with the initials
L. C. or LO. C. We hare by him the following:

Samson overcoming the Lion ; L. C. F.

The Virgin and Infant Jesus, with four Angels, half-

The Virgin suckling the Infant Jesus, half-length ; lod.
Carr. in. f.

The Holy Family, with the Virgin washing Linen ;
L. C.,f.

S 2

Another Holy Family ; 1604.
Another Holy Family under an Arch.
The Frontispiece to the Poems of Cesare Rinaldi.
A Thesis, with the Arms of Bonfigliuoli, with Mercury
and Hercules.




CARRARI, BALDASSARE, was a native of Ra-
venna, who flourished about the year 1512. Lanzi
places him amongst the pupils of Niccolo Ron-
dinello, and considers that his principal and most
celebrated production is his picture of ' St. Bar-
tholomew,' in the church of San Domenico at
Ravenna. When Pope Julius II. visited that city
in 1511, he declared that the altars of Rome did
not possess a finer painting than that work. A ' Ma-
donna and Child with Saints by him, in the Brera,
Milan, originally hung in San Domenico, Ravenna.


Frandscus (1G30 (?; 1609).

Hendrik (165S 1721). Michiel (1CC6 1728).

Abraham (16M 1768-69). Hendrik (1690 1776). Johannes (1698 1772).

CARRE, ABRAHAM, was the son of Hendrik
Carre, and was born at the Hague in 1694, and
died there in 1758 or 1759. He painted small por-
traits and cabinet pictures, and was an excellent
copyist of the works of the more distinguished
Dutch masters, in which occupation he was much
employed by the dealers, who sold his copies as
originals. Two of his brothers, HENDRIK CARRE,
who was born at the Hague in 1696 and died there
in 1775, and JOHANNES, who was born at the Hague
in 1698 and died there in 1772, were also painters,
though but little is known of them.

CARRE, FRANCISCUS, was a painter born in Fries-
land about 1630. It is not known who was his in-
structor, but he grew to be sufficiently esteemed to
be appointed first painter to the Stadtholder William
Frederick. He excelled in painting landscapes
and village festivals, but his works are little known
out of his own country. He left an etching of the
funeral catafalque of the Stadtholder. He died at
Amsterdam in 1669.

CARRE, HENDRIK, was the elder son of Fran-
ciscus Carre, and was born at Amsterdam in
1658. After studying the art under Juriaen Jacobsz
and Jacob Jordaens for some time, the Princess of
Orange gave him a commission in her regiment, and
he served some years in the army, being present at
the siege of Groningen in 1672. He afterwards
resumed painting at Amsterdam with much success.
Examples of his work, which is in the style of
Bercliem, can be seen in the Chateau of Ryswick
and in the Gallery at Brunswick. He died in 1721.

CARRE, MICHIEL, was born at Amsterdam in 1666.
He received his first instructions from his elder
brother Hendrik Carre, and afterwards became the
scholar of Nicolaas Berchem, but unfortunately did
not profit by the example and practice of so excel-
lent a master, but preferred to follow the style of a
much inferior artist named Gabriel van der Leeuw.
Houbraken states that Michiel Carr6 resided some
time in England, and that his works were not popu-
lar here, but Horace Walpole makes no mention
of him in his ' Anecdotes.' He was a landscape
painter of some celebrity, since at the death of
Abraham Begeyn he was invited to Berlin by the
King of Prussia, who appointed him one of hia



painters. On the death of Frederick he returned
to Holland, and resided chiefly at Alkmaar, where
he died in 1728. His greatest merit was the un-
common facility and boldness of his pencil, which
was well suited to the works upon which he was
principally engaged, the decoration of halls and
large apartments. One of his best productions is
to be seen in a saloon at the Hague, where he has
represented in a large landscape the ' History of
Jacob and Esau.' Some of his easel paintings,
landscapes with cattle, are very good. Examples
of these can be found in the Brunswick Gallery, and
the Rotterdam Museum.

Spanish painter, was horn at Aviles, in the Asturias,
in 1614. He learned painting at Madrid tinder
Pedro de Las Cuevas and Bartolomd Roman, and
improved himself in design and colouring by study-
ing the works of Velazquez and Van Dyck. His
talents recommended him to the patronage of
Philip IV., who employed him in some important
fresco works in his palaces. Besides his commis-
sions from the king, he painted a number of pictures
for the churches, and Palomino gives a long account
of his works at Madrid, Toledo, Alcala de Benares,
Segovia, and Pamplona. At Madrid, in conjunction
with Francisco Rici, he painted the celebrated
cupola of San Antonio de los Portugueses, and a
fine picture of the ' Magdalen in the Desert,' in the
convent of Las Recogidas. His colouring was in
tenderness and suavity perhaps superior to that
of any painter of his country except Murillo. He
was retained as painter to the court under Charles
II., and died at Madrid in 1685. He also executed
several etchings.
The following are some of his best paintings :

Berlin. Gallery.

Paris. Louvre.

Vienna. Academy.

Portrait of Charles II. of Spain.


St. Ambrose giving Alms.
A Priest with the Consecrated


CARRETTI, DOMENICO, was, according to Aver-
oldi, a native of Bologna. It is not stated by whom
he was instructed, but during a long residence at
Brescia, he painted many small historical pictures
for private collections. He was also employed for
the churches. His most esteemed work is a picture
of the ' Virgin with the Infant Jesus and St.
Theresa,' in the church of San Pietro in Oliveto.

CARREY, JACQUES, a French painter, was born
at Troyes in 1649, and became a pupil of Le
Brun. In 1673 he accompanied the Marquis de
Nointcl in his embassy to Constantinople, taking
sketches of the most remarkable scenes and objects,
from which he afterwards painted pictures. In
1674 he visited Greece and made for the Marquis
de Nointel the priceless drawings of the Parthenon,
now in the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris, which
have been so highly praised by M. Beule. They
were reproduced and published in 1848 by the
Marquis Leon de Laborde, under the title ' Le Par-
thenon, documents pour servir a line restauration.'
The Louvre possesses a series of drawings by him
representing the ' Supplice du Pal,' and in the
Bordeaux Museum are two pictures of Turkish
ceremonies. Carrey died at Troyes in 1726.

CARRICK, THOMAS, a native of Carlisle, removed
to London and soon became popular for his mini-
atures. Many eminent personages sat to him, and
he exhibited at the Royal Academy occasionally
from 1841 till 1860. He died in 1874.


CARRIER, AUGUSTE JOSEPH, a French painter,
was born in Paris in 1800. He was a pupil of
Gros, Prud'hon, and Saint, and evinced much talent
in the painting of miniatures, but in his later years
he devoted himself almost entirely to landscapes.
He died in 1875.

CARRIERA, ROSALBA, better known by her
Christian name alone, was a daughter of Angelo
Camera, a native of Chioggia, who held various
official posts in the latter days of the Venetian
Republic. She was born at Venice on the 7th
of October, 1675, and at an early age showed her
artistic talent by making designs for point-lace.
This she continued to do until the fashion changed,
when she was advised by Jean Steve, a Frenchman
then residing at Venice, to turn her attention to the
decoration of snuff-boxes, a branch of art in which
he excelled. She then became a pupil of Giannan-
tonio Lazzari, a distinguished amateur, and after-
wards of Giuseppe Diamantini and Antonio Bales-
tra, but her st}'le was mainly inspired by the works
of Pietro Liberi. She at first painted in oil, but it
is to her miniatures, and above all to her crayon
portraits, that her great reputation is due. Elected
in 1705 a member of the Academy of St. Luke at
Rome, and in 1720 a member of the Academy of
Bologna, the Grand-Duke Cosmo III. requested her
to contribute her own likeness to the famous col-
lection of painters' portraits executed by their own
hands in the Uffizi Gallery at Florence. The
Florentine Academy likewise enrolled her among
its members. In 1720 she visited Paris in company
with her mother, her sisters Angela and Giovanna,
and the Venetian painter, Antonio Pellegrini, whom
the elder of her sisters had married. Rosalba
stayed in Paris nearly a year, during which time
she executed the portraits of Louis XV., then a
boy of ten years old, the Regent, and many nobles
and ladies of the French court. Crozat, Mariette,
the Comte de Caylus, Watteau, Rigaud, Largilliere,
Coypel, and other distinguished amateurs and
artists eagerly sought her society and her works,
and the Royal Academy of Painting elected her
by acclamation. Her diary, kept during her stay
in Paris, contains details of much interest respect-
ing the brilliant society of the Regency. It was

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