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published by the Abbe Vianelli in 1793, and was
both reprinted in Italian and translated into French
in 1865. Rosalba was then forty-five years of age,
and had never been pretty, yet she charmed every
one by the grace and modesty which set off her
rare talent. Returning to Venice in 1721, her
pencil found constant employment, for scarcely a
traveller of distinction passed through that city
without canning away with him his own portrait
or some fancy head. In 1723 she visited the court
of Modena, and in 1730 that of Vienna, and the
Elector of Saxony, afterwards Augustus III., King
of Poland, purchased many of her works. Ten
years before her death her sight failed, arid she
died at Venice on the 15th of April, 1757. Her
works are still admired, although no longer com-
pared with those of Correggio, for the delicate
tints have now faded, and the faulty drawing and
affected style become but too apparent.

The Dresden Gallery possesses 143 of her works,
including portraits, and sacred and other subjects,
the chef-d'ceuvre being the head of Metastasio.
The Louvre has five of her drawings, among which
is the half-length crayon drawing of a ' Muse
crowned with Laurel,' which she presented on her
reception at the Academy. There are drawings



ROSALHA CARRTERA

CALLED

ROSALBA




[Louvre, Paris



A LADY

PASTEL



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



by her at Venice, Chioggia, and Padua, and in
the Galleries of Turin, Florence, Copenhagen, and
St. Petersburg.

Rosalba's youngest sister, GIOVANNA CARRIERA,
painted miniatures, assisted her sister in the back-
grounds and draperies of her drawings, and died
in 1737. E. E. G.

CARRIERE, ANTOINE FULCRAND, a French litho-
graphic artist and pupil of Ingres, was born at
St. Afrique (Aveyron) in 1804. He executed a
series of portraits of generals of the First Empire,
and died at Agen in 1856.

CARROGIS, Louis. See CARMONTELLE.

CARRUCCI, JACOPO, (or CARUCCI,) called JACOPO
DA PONTORMO (or, more correctly, PUNTORMO), was
born at Pontormo, in the Florentine state, in 1494.
His parents dying before he was thirteen years of
age, he was taken to Florence by a relation, who,
perceiving his inclination for art, placed him in the
school of Leonardo da Vinci, under whose tuition
he remained only till 1512, but who, nevertheless,
influenced his style of painting ; he afterwards
became successively the scholar of Piero di Cosimo
and of Mariotto Albertinelli. Whilst he was a dis-
ciple of Albertinelli, he painted a picture of the 'An-
nunciation,' which excited the greatest admiration,
and being shown to Raphael, was considered by
that great painter as an uncommon effort of genius
for a juvenile performance. When about eighteen
years of age he became a pupil of Andrea del Sarto ;
and some of his earl)- productions having received
the most marked commendation from Buonarroti,
the illiberal disposition of his instructor con-
ceived an unworthy jealousy of his powers, and he
is said to have dismissed him from his academy.
This ungenerous treatment only served as a stimu-
lus to his exertions ; and it was not long before he
met with considerable occupation. One of his
first productions, on leaving Andrea del Sarto. was
a picture of the ' Visitation of the Virgin to St.
Elizabeth,' for the convent of the Annunziata,
which disputed the preference with many of the
works of Del Sarto. He was not less successful in
his ' Holy Family with St. John,' painted lor the
church of San Michele, at Florence ; and his pic-
ture of ' St. Augustine giving the Benediction,' with
a beautiful choir of angels, in the church of San
Clemente. It is surprising that, with the posses-
sion of such powers, he should have degraded his
talents by stooping to a servile imitation of the
style of Albrecht Diirer, from whose prints the
compositions in the series of pictures which he
painted for the cloister of the Carthusians at
Florence are undisgnisedly copied. His fresco
work at Pozzio a Caiano is perhaps the most
original and appropriate in Italy, and a proof of
his ab'lity to do really excellent work. Hia last
works were the frescoes he painted in the chapel
of San Lorenzo, representing the 'Deluge' and
the 'Last Judgment,' which, from his indecision
and want of energy, occupied him eleven years.
Great expectations had been formed of this im-
portant undertaking ; but when the results were
exposed to public view, they were found to be
totally unworthy of his reputation ; and it is perhaps
fortunate for his fame that they have since been
obliterated. He did not long survive this mortify-
ing failure, and died at Florence in 1557. As a
portrait-painter Carrucci is worthy of much praise.
The following are some of his best works :
Berlin. Gallery. Portrait of Andrea del Sarto.

Florence. Uffizi. Madonna and Saints.



Florence. Uffizi. Venua and Cupid (from a design

by Michelanyelo).
Adam and Eve driven from Para-

dise.

Martyrdom of St. Maurice.

Kirth of St. John.

Portrait of Cosmo I. de' Medici.

Academy. The Disciples at Einmaus. 1525.



S. Felicita. Descent from the Cross.

filti Pal. Martyrdom of Forty Saints.

,, ,, Portrait of Ippolito de' Medici.

London. JVat. Gal. Joseph in E r ypt.
Panshanger. Three pictures.

Paris. Louvre. Holy Family.

,, ,, Portrait of an Engraver of Gema.

Pozzio a Caiano. Decorative Fresco.

Pontormo. St. John and St. Michael.

Vienna. Gallery. Portrait of a Youth.

Volterra. Cathedral. Descent from the Cross.

CARS, JEAN FRANQOIS, was a French engraver,
born at Lyons in 1670. His father, FRANCOIS CABS,
was an engraver of no great repute, to whom we owe
a portrait of Joseph Tobias Franc, drawn in 1681.
Jean Francois worked at Lyons for some years,
but eventually repaired to Paris, where he died
in 1739. He had a brother, FRANCOIS CARS, like-
wise an engraver, who died in Paris in 1763, aged
eighty-three. The works of Jean Fran9ois Cars
are not considered equal to those of his more
famous son. His plates are sometimes marked
J. F. Cars, but more frequently, J. F. Cars, Jils.
We have by him the following portraits :

Nicolas, Superior of the Order of Capuchins at Lyons ;
engraved at Lyons, 1694. Fra^ois Blouet de Camilly.
Cardinal de Polignac ; after Riyaiid. Archbishop
Neufville de Villeroi ; after Grandon of Lyons.
Bishop Dominic St. Clair. Louis Auguste, Prince
de Dombes. Louis, Vicomte d'Aubussou. Prince
Henri La Tour d'Auvergne. 1699. Archbisbop Charles
La Berchere. 1702. Cardinal Archbishop Le Camus.
1703. Pierre de Seve. 1706. Archbishop de Gram-
mont. 1706. Louis XIV.; engraved at Lyons, sold
at Paris, marked J. F, C.

CARS, LAURENT, was a French designer and en-
graver, born at Lyons in 1699. He was the son of
Jean Francois Cars, who took him when quite
young to Paris, where it was not long before he dis-
tinguished himself. In 1733 he was received as an
Academician upon his portraits of Michel An-
guier and Sebastien Bourdon. Cars, who was the
master of Beauvarlet, may be considered as one of
the best French engravers of the 18th century, in
the kind of subjects he selected. He died in Paris
in 1771. His best plates are those engraved after
Lemoyne, particularly that of ' Hercules and
Omphale,' and the series of illustrations after
Boucher's designs to the Comedies of Moliere, and
after Oudry to the Fables of La Fontaine. His work
is extensive ; the following are his principal plates :

PORTRAITS.

Louis XV., an allegorical portrait; after Lemoyne.
Louis XV., an allegorical portrait; after Boucher.
Stanislaus, King of Poland ; after Van Loo. Michel
Anguier, sculptor; after Revel. Cardinal Armand
Gaston de Eohan ; after Rigaud. Marie Leszczinska,
Queen of France ; after Van Loo. Francois Boucher,
painter; Jean Baptiste ChanHn, painter; Madame
Chardin ; after Cochin, Jils. Mile. Camargo, dancing ;
after Lancret. Mile. Clairon, in the part of Medea.

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS.

The Adoration of the Shepherds; The Flight into

Egypt ; after Van Loo. Bathsheba at the Bath ;

Susannah and the Elders; after De Troy. Adam

and Eve in Paradise ; Hercules and Omphale ; Per-

261



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



seas and Andromeda: The Sacrifice of Iphigenia ;
Hercules and Cacus ; Iris at the Bath ; Cephalus and
Aurora ; The Rape of Europa ; Time discovering
Truth ; after Lemoyne. Silence ; L'Aveugle trompe ;
after Greitze. The Fortune-teller ; The Venetian
Festival; A Convoy of Equipages ; after Jt'atteau.

CARSTENS, Assure JACOE, was an historical
painter born at Sankt Jiirgen, Schleswig, in 1754.
H<- displayed considerable natural inclination for
drawing and painting at quite an early age, and
this was increased by the impression produced on
him by the picture in the cathedral at Suhleswig,
painted by Juriaen Ovens, a pupil of Rembrandt.
Endeavours were made to place him with Tischbein
at Cassel, but these were unsuccessful, and he was
accordingly apprenticed to a wine-merchant at
Eckernforde. After spending five years in that
capacity, during which his leisure hours were always
being devoted to drawing and portrait-painting, he
went to Copenhagen in 1776, where the artistic trea-
sures of the Royal Gallery made such an impression
upon him that he resolved at all cost to become a
painter. He took at once to studying the antique,
not indeed by copying, but by impressing the image
on his mind by contemplation, which resulted in
his obtaining an extraordinary facility in drawing
the round when treating the human figure. He
also learnt something of anatomy, but he did not
go to the Academy, as his mind already evinced
some repugnance to the academical course of train-
ing, and he preferred to train himself by making
his own attempts at composition, by books, by
engravings, and by the friendly assistance of other
artists. His first large work was the ' Death of
2Eschylus,' soon followed by another on a larger
scale, '^Eolus and Ulysses,' which was exhibited,
and met with a most favourable reception. Mean-
time he entered the Academy with a view to ob-
taining the means of visiting Italy. But this,
nevertheless, seems to have been his object rather
for the sake of appearances, and the obtaining it a
matter of the greatest indifference to him, as he
had to retire from it in consequence of having
declined to receive the silver medal awarded to
him, on the ground of there having been some
unfair act in the way the Directorate had treated
another member. In fact, he rejected with contumely
proposals made to him subsequently to canvass for
the great prize, which had a six years' maintenance
in Italy attached to it. He then left Copenhagen
to satisfy his desire of visiting Rome at tlie expense
of his scanty savings. He started in 1783, but did
not get beyond Mantua, where the paintings of
Giulio Romano in the Palazzo del Te produced a
profound impression upon him : but he was com-
pelled by lack of funds to return to Germany.
He then settled in Liibeek, where he maintained
himself by painting portraits. However, he had
by this time seen Giulio Romano's works, Leonardo
da Vinci's ' Last Supper,' and something of Swiss
scenery, and his imaginative powers had thus re-
ceived new ideas ideas which he now began to
express in allegories of his own, ns well as in com-
positions after Homer, .^Eschylus, Ossian, and
Klopstock.

After nearly five years spent in Liibeck he had
the good fortune to make the acquaintance of a
wealthy amateur, who placed him in such a position
that he was able to visit Berlin in 1787. At that
place, as he was following out his determination to
paint no more portraits, he was at first in very
straitened circumstances, until the success of a
262



composition he exhibited, entitled 'The Fallen
Angel,' a design showing extraordinary power of
imagination, led to his appointment as professor at
the Berlin Academy. Amongst his works at this
time, next to Plato's ' Symposium,' which is one of
his finest, were the ' Battle of Rossbach,' and the
design for an ' Equestrian Statue of Frederick the
Great.' But previously, the decoration of an apart-
ment with mythological subjects to the order of
the Minister of the day, Heinitz, had brought him
to the height of his wishes. On the occasion of
its being opened the artist was presented to the
king, and he shortly afterwards received a stipend
enabling him to visit Rome. It was in the summer
of 1792 that he made the journey, halting for a
month in Florence, where he produced a fine com-
position in his ' Battle of the Centaurs and La-
pithae, 1 and reached Rome in September. There he
studied more especially the works of Michelangelo
and Raphael. His first work from his own design
at Rome was the 'Argonauts and Chiron,' a work
in which the purity of style and the beauty of the
forms manifested the advance which he was making
by sojourning at Rome. In 1795 he had a public
exhibition of his works, and the judgment of con-
noisseurs, who were amazed at the skill he dis-
played, and at the extent of the powers of his
imagination, was so favourable and so flattering
that he considered lie should be able to maintain
himself for the future at Rome. Nor were his
expectations delusive. His pictures found pur-
chasers as well as admirers, and a troop of brave
artists flocked round him. That exhibition, in fact,
marks the second revival of modern art at the
close of the past century.

The following two years witnessed the produc-
tion of numerous masterly compositions after
Lucian, Philostratus, Homer, Ossian, Sophocles,
Pindar, Dante, and Goethe, as well as a series of
excellent designs from the history of the Argo-
nauts, and from that of ffidipus, as given by So-
phocles. The last of these represented ' The
Golden Age,' one of the most powerful and grace-
ful productions of the artist's fancy. About this
time he was seized with an attack in the chest,
which defied all remedies, and he died at Rome in
1798.

Notwithstanding certain imperfections in his
drawing and style, and in spite of the violent
opposition he met with, Carstens was the founder
of the new German school of painters, for which
he opened the road a road that was trodden by
the foremost German artists with extraordinary
success. Wachter, Kock, Schick, Genelli, and
Thorwaldsen, and even the great Cornelius himself,
were practically his followers. Of Carstens's works
many are in private collections, the best assemblage
being in the ducal cabinet at Weimar; there may
be seen, amongst numerous specimens, two espe-
cially deserving of notice ' Homer before the
assembled Greeks' (engraved by E. Schaffer), and
' Megapenthes ' (engraved by Julius Thater).

CARTARO. MARIO. See KABTARDS.

CARTEAUX, JEAN FRANCOIS, a French general,
was born at Aillevans (Haute-Saone) in 1751.
He was in early life a pupil of Doyen, but is better
known as a soldier than as an artist, Bonaparte
having served under his orders at the siege of
Toulon in 1793. He died in Paris in 1813. There
is an equestrian portrait of Louis XVI. by him at
Versailles.

CARTER, ELLEN, whose maiden name was



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



VAVASEUR, made illustrations for the ' Gentleman'
Magazine' and other periodicals. She died i
1815.

CARTER, GEORGE, an artist of considerabl
merit, is known as the painter of 'The Death o
Captain Cook,' ' The Fisherman's Return,' and othe
popular works, which have been engraved. H
died in 1786.

CARTER, GEORGE, who was born at Colchester
was an exhibitor at the Royal Academy in 1775
when he sent 'A Wounded Hussar on the Field o
Battle.' He afterwards painted ' The Dying Pil
grim,' ' The Siege of Gibraltar,' and many por
traits. He died at Hendon in 1795.

CARTER, JAMES, a line-engraver, was born
in the parish of Shoreditch in 1798, and evincing
a taste for art, was articled to the architecture
engraver Tyrrel. While yet quite a youth, he
gained the silver medal of the Society of Arts
After he had served his time to Tyrrel, he aban-
doned the style or engraving he had learned in
the studio of his master, and adopted landscape
and figures, in which he made great progress
but without any other instruction than that he hac
already received, so that he might almost be callec
self-taught. In 1840 he essayed to publish a work
on ' Windsor Castle,' but failed in his attempt
from want of the necessary support. He engraved
some plates after Prout and others for the ' An-
nuals ' when those ephemeral productions were
in vogue, as well as some for the ' Vernon Gallery '
series in the 'Art Journal,' and for other works
on Architecture, &c. Amongst the engravings
executed by him were E. M. Ward's great picture
of 'Benjamin West's first Essay in Art,' 'Wells
Cathedral,' 'Santa Pavilo,' and the 'Arc de Tri-
oroplie in Paris.' One of his later engravings was
'The Temple of Jupiter at ^Egina,' for a work
by C. R. Cockerell, R.A. He died in 1855.

CARTER, JOHN, who is chiefly known as an
architectural draughtsman, was born in Ireland in
1748. He was the author of several works on archi-
tecture, and executed an immense quantity of draw-
ings and sketches. From 1774 to 1786 he produced
the designs published in the 'Builder's Magazine,'
and for upwards of twenty years was employed
by the Society of Antiquaries as their draughts-
man. His connection with the ' Gentleman's
Magazine ' lasted from 1798 until nearly the close
of his life. He occasionally exhibited at the
Royal Academy, and at his death, which occurred
in London, in 1817, he left no less than twenty-
eight large folio volumes of sketches of architec-
tural antiquities, which were sold by Sotheby in
1818.

CARTER, WILLIAM, was an English engraver,
who was born about the year 1630. He was a
pupil of Hollar, whose style he most successfully
imitated, and whom he probably aided in his works.
His engravings are mostly vignettes and orna-
mental book-plates. The plates in Ogilby's trans-
lation of 'Homer' were engraved by Carter. His
plates, which are sometimes marked IF- C.> were
mostly executed about the year 1660.

CARTIER, VICTOR EMILE, a French painter of
animals and landscapes, was born at Versailles
in 1811, and died in Paris in 1866. The Museum
of Orleans has by him a picture representing ' A
Bull frightened by a Serpent.'

CARTWRIGHT, JOHN, a portrait-painter, exhi-
bited at the Royal Academy from 1784 to 1808.
CARTWRIGHT, JOSEPH, exhibited marine sub-



jects at the Royal Academy and the Society of
British Artists from 1824 to 1829. He was ap-
pointed marine painter to the Admiralty in 1828,
and died in the following year.

CARTWRIGHT, WILLIAM, was an English en-
graver of portraits and other book-plates. His
name is affixed to a portrait of Thomas Cranmer,
Archbishop of Canterbury, after Holbein. It is
inscribed, Codarif. Gu. Cartwright.

CARUCCI. See CAHRUCCI.

CARUELLE D'ALIGNY, CLAUDE FRANCIS
THEODORE, a French landscape-painter, was born
at Chaumea (Nievre) in 1798. lie went to Paris
in 1808, studied painting under Regnault and
VVatelet, and made his debut in 1822 with an his-
torical landscape on the subject of ' Daphnis arid
Chloe ; ' and this style of art, now much neglected,
he constantly followed. He obtained a medal of
the first class in 1837, and the decoration of the
Legion of Honour in 1842. His ' View of Genaz-
zano. Environs of Rome,' and ' View of Royat,
France,' were sent by the French Government to the
International Exhibition of 1862. Aligny died at
Lyons in 1871, while holding the post of Director
of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Among his most
important works may be cited :

Amiens. Museum. The Good Samaritan. 1834.
Besancon. Museum. Christ at Emmaus. 1837.
Bordeaux. Museum. The Infant Bacchus educated by

the Nymphs of Naxos. 1848.

Caen. Museum. Death of Du Guesclin. 1838.

Carcassonne. Museum. Hercules and the Hydra. 1842.
Nantes. Museum. The Entrance of the Village of

Corpo di Cava, between Naples

and Salerno.

Paris. S.- Paul. -S.- Louis. Landscape, with Baptism of Christ.
, S. Etienne-du- Two Landscapes with Biblical sub*

Mont. jects.

Rennes. Museum. Landscape, with a Monk at Prayer.

1839.

He likewise etched a series of ten views of the
:nost celebrated sites of ancient Greece.

CARUS, CARL GUSTAV, a German painter, who
was born at Leipsic in 1789 and died at Dresden
n 1869. He is represented in the Dresden Gallery
jy two landscapes.

CARVALHO, the name of a painter of the
16th century, probably Portuguese, whose signature
s on a ' St. Catharine ' in the Madrid Gallery ; it
was formerly in the Convent of Los Angelos at
Vladrid. and is his only known work.

CARVER, RICHARD, a native of Ireland, practised
here as a landscape-painter in the middle of the
,8th century. He afterwards removed to London,
and became director of the Incorporated Society
if Artists, to whose exhibitions he occasionally
ontributed.

CARVER, ROBERT, a son of Richard Carver, and
i native of Ireland, was known as an excellent
cene-painter towards the close of the 18th century,
nd was especially celebrated for his sea-pieces,
le resided chiefly in London, where he died in
791.

CARWITHAM, J., was an English engraver
vho flourished about 1730, and was chiefly em-
loyed by the booksellers. His plates are some-
imes executed with the graver only, but at other
hues are etched and finished with the graver in a
tyle resembling that of Bernard Picart. There
xist by him a plate of the ' Laocoon,' dated 1741,
fter the antique marble group, and some frontis-
ieces, among which is an emblematical one, from
design of B. Picart, and dated 1723.

263



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



GARY, FRANCIS STEPHEN, the fifth son of the
Rev. Henry Francis Gary, the translator of Dante,
was born in 1808. He studied art in England and
Italy, and about 1840 succeeded Henry Sass,
the well-known master of the School of Art in
Bloomsbury, London. From that time till about
1870 he imparted instruction to many young
painters and sculptors who were afterwards suc-
cessful in life. Gary, whose works were constantly
seen at the London Exhibitions, died in 1880.

CASA, NiccoL6 DELLA. See DELLA CASA.

CASA, PIER ANTONIO DELLA. See BERNABEI.

CASADO DEL ALISAL, Jostf, was born in
Valencia in 1832. He studied at the Royal Academy
of San Fernando, Madrid, and under Federico de
Madrazo. In 1860 he won the 'prix de Rome,' and
first-class medals at Madrid in 1862, 1864 and
1881. He was Director of the Spanish Academy
and court painter, and died in 1895. His principal
picture, ' The Bell of Huesca,' for which he received
the Grand Cross of the Order of Isabel the Catholic,
is now in the Museum of Modern Art at Madrid.
His other pictures include 'The Death of Ferdinand
IV.,' 'Serniramis," Goya's Studio,"BeheadedArabs,'
'Flora' (1881), 'In the Boudoir' (1882), 'Tempta-
tion ' (1884), and ' Laura ' (1885).

CASALI, ANDREA, called ' The Chevalier,' an
Italian painter and engraver, was born at Civita
Vecchia about 1720, and is said to have been a
pupil of S. Conca. He visited England about
1741, and was employed in the decoration of the
houses of several of the nobility, and on altar-
pieces for churches. He remained in England till
1766, after which he lived for some years at Rome.
He etched some plates from his own designs and
one from Raphael.

CASAL1NA, LUCIA, an eminent portrait-painter,
was born at Bologna in 1677. She was the pupil
of Giuseppe dal Sole, and at first attempted some
historical subjects, but became much more success-
ful in portraits. Her own portrait, by herself, is
in the Gallery of Florence. She married Felice
Torelli, and died in 1762.

CASANOBRIO, LUCA. See CARLEVARIIS.

CASANOVA, CARLOS, born at Exea de los Cabal-
leros, in Aragon, studied painting under Geronimo
Secano at Saragossa. He became painter to Ferdi-
nand VI., and died at Madrid in 1762. He executed
a portrait of Ferdinand VI., and one of Fray
Miguel de San Josef presenting his ' Bibliogratia
critica' to Pope Benedict XIV. He also engraved
Herera's picture of 'St. Augustine,' at Madrid, and
some plates for the first edition of Ulloa's 'Relacion
historica del viage 4 la America meridional,' Madrid
1748.

CASANOVA, FRANCESCO GIUSEPPE, was born in
London in 1727, of Italian parents, who sent him
while still young to Venice, where, after receiving
Borne instruction from Guardi, he became a pupil of
Francesco Simonini, a painter of battle-pieces, and,
like him, took Borgognone for his model. Besides
battle-pieces Casanova painted landscapes with
figures and cattle, as well as sea-pieces and pastoral
subjects. He arrived in Paris in 1751, and went to
Dresden in the following year, where he remained



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