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until 1757. On his return to Paris he studied
under Parocel, and was received into the Academy
in 1763. He exhibited at the Salon till 1783, when
he went to Vienna. He died at Briihl in 1S02.
He was a clever painter, often powerful, often
fascinating, but inferior to Borgognone and far
below Salvator Rosa, and now thought no more of


than his pupil Loutherbourg. The following are
some of his principal paintings :

Bordeaux, Museum, Cavalry Engagement. Dulwich,
Gallery, Wanderers near a river. Lille, Museum,
Two Landscapes. Paris, Louvre, Battle of Fribourg,
1771 ; Battle of Lens, 1771 ; Landscape with animals ;
Landscape with animals; A Cavalier galloping; A
Cavalier and other soldiers. Petersburg, Hermitage,
A Cow. Vienna, Gallery, Cavalry Engagement.


The Russian Drummer on horseback. The Three
Cuirassiers. The Standard. A Cavalry Skirmish.
The Ass and the Banner. The Painter's Dinner.

CASANOVA, FRANCISCO, the son and scholar of
Carlos Casanova, born at Saragossa in 1734, prac-
tised painting and copper-plate engraving. - Cean
Bermudez mentions with commendation a print of
' St. Emidius ' executed by him at Cadiz in 1765.
He was appointed engraver to the mint at Mexico,
where he died in 1778.

Francesco Casanova, was born at Venice in 1722.
He studied painting under Silvestre and Dietrich at
Dresden, and went in 1752 to Rome, where, under
the tuition of Mengs, he became an accomplished
artist in pencil and crayon. Amongst other works
he designed the plates to Winckelmann's ' Monu-
ment! antichi.' He was appointed professor in
the Academy at Dresden in 1764. His death
occurred in 1795.

CASANOVA, Y ESTORACH, a Spanish painter, pro-
duced many pictures of historical subjects, of which
the most important was, 'The Queen Regent taking
the Oath before the Cortes.' He died in 1890.

CASELLI, CRISTOFORO, who was also known as
called by Vasari CRISTOFANO CASTELLI, was a pupil
of Mazzuola, and lived in the 15th and 16th cen-
turies. He earned his livelihood between 1489 and
1492 as a journeyman at Venice, where he painted,
in 1495, an altar-piece now hanging in the Sacristy
of Santa Maria della Salute. The Gallery of Parma
contains a ' Virgin and Child, with SS. John the
Baptist and Jerome,' probably painted by him
before 1489. In 1496 he became a master at
Parma, and painted in 1499 a ' Virgin and Child
between SS. Hilarius and John the Baptist,' which
is now in the Sala del Consorzio in that city. The
same year he executed 'The Eternal' on a gold
ground in a chapel of the cathedral, and the
' Adoration of the Magi ' in San Giovanni Evange-
lista. In 1507 he finished the monochrome of the
' Dead Christ' in the cathedral. The dates of his
birth and death are alike uncertain.

CASEMBROODT, ABRAHAM, a Dutch painter,
flourished about the middle of the 17th century.
He distinguished himself at Messina as a landscape
and marine painter. He occasionally painted
historical events, and some pictures by him are in
the church of San Giovacchino at Messina. He
Ins also left a few etchings of marine subjects.


CASEY, DANIEL, a French historical painter, was
a pupil of Wajipers, in whose atelier at Antwerp
he was a fellow-student with Mr. Ford Madox
Brown. He first exhibited at the Salon of 1842,
when he contributed a ' St. Louis in the Desert,
near Damietta,' which was bought by the Govern-
ment, and is now in the Bordeaux Museum. He
exhibited constantly in Paris and Belgium, and
became known as a powerful painter of ambitious


themes, excelling especially in his rendering of
horses. Casey died in Paris, December 27,

place of his birth in Tuscany, was born in 1681>.
He was a portrait painter as well as a sculptor,
and died in 1748.

DBO DELLA TORRE, was born at Siena in 1552, and
was the pupil of Salimbeni and of Roncalli,
under whose tuition he became a very reputable
historical painter. His compositions are ingenious
and copious, his figures well drawn and gracefully
disposed. His works are principally in the churches
of Siena, hut are also to be found in Naples and
Genoa. His own Portrait is in the Uffizi, Flor-
ence. It is no slight proof of this artist's merit,
that Guido Reni, on seeing his picture of the
' Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew,' at the Carmel-
ites, exclaimed, " Costui e veramente pittore 1 '
He also etched one plate, a Madonna. He died in

CASOLANO, ILARIO, is called Cristofano Caso-
lano by Baglione, but Mancini, who was his con-
temporary, and Lanzi, both call him Ilario. He
was born in 1588, and, like his father, Alessandro
Casolano, was a pupil of Cavaliere Roncalli. He
assisted his father in some of his frescoes, and
after his death finished that of the ' Assumption
of the Virgin,' left imperfect by him. He painted
several pictures for the churches in Rome, both in
oil and in fresco, but was superior in the latter.
The church of Santa Maria in Via contains a
' Trinity,' and that of La Madonna cle' Monti some
pictures from the Life of the Virgin and an ' As-
cension ' by this artist. He died at Rome in 1661.

CASPAR, JOSEPH, who was born in 1799 at
Rorschach in Switzerland, studied at Rome in
1815, at Berlin under Schadow in 1820, and at
Milan under Longhi and Anderloni, when he gave
himself up entirely to the art of engraving. He
resided the greater part of his life at Beilio. Fail-
ing sight compelled him to relinquish his art in
1847, and he died in 1880. The following are some
of his best plates :

St. Catharine ; after Raphael.
The Colonna Madonna ; after the same.
The Daughter of Titian ; after Titian (the Berlin Gal-
lery picture}.

St. Barbara ; after BeHraffio.
Thomas of Savoy, Prince of Carignan ; after Van Dyck.

Wezel in 1770, and became a pupil of the land-
scape-painter Grypmoed. He painted a great
number of excellent portraits, and died in 1829.


Giovanni Francesco.

Giovanni Agostuio. Niccolf). Giovanni BaUlsta. Maria Vittoria.
(16581720.) (1659-1714.) ( 1 1711.)

elder son of Giovanni Francesco Cassana and a
brother of Niccolo ; he was born at Genoa in 1658,
and was instructed by his father. He painted
portraits with some success, but preferred painting
animals and subject pictures, in the style of Bene-
detto Castiglione. His pictures of that description
are found in the collections at Florence, Venice,
and Genoa. He died at Genoa in 1720.


est Bon of Giovanni Francesco Cassana. He
excelled in painting fruit, flowers, arid still-life.

Genoa_ in 1611, and was the pupil of Bernardo
Strozzi. He devoted himself to history and portraits,
but was more eminent in the latter, of which he
painted a great number at Venice, where he chiefly
resided. He passed some time at the Court of
Mirandola, where he painted a ' St. Jerome ' in the
church, and other creditable works. He was Ihe
father of a family of artists, who all distinguished
themselves. He died in 1691.

CASSANA, MARIA VITTORIA, was the daughter
of Giovanni Francesco Cassana. She painted small
pictures of religious subjects for private collec-
tions, and her works are much esteemed. She
died in 1711.

_CASSANA, NiccoL6, called NICOLETTO, a son of
Giovanni Francesco Cassana, was bom at Venice
in 1659, and was instructed by his father in the
rudiments of art. He excelled principally in por-
trait painting, in which he became very eminent,
although his historical pictures in the Gallery at
Florence, of which the ' Conspiracy of Catiline '
is the most esteemed, prove that he possessed
great merit in that direction. He came to
England in the reign of Queen Anne, whose por-
trait he painted, as well as those of several of
the nobility. He did not live long to enjoy this
success, but died in London in 1714.

CASSAS, Louis FRANgoiS, a French painter and
architect, was born at Azay-le-Ferron (Indre) in
1756. After having studied under the younger
Lagrenee and Leprince, as well as in Italy, he
accompanied Choiseul-Gouffier to Constantinople
and Lechevallier to the Troad. He then travelled
through the Holy Land. Syria, and Egypt, collect-
ing everywhere numerous drawings and plans,
which served for the following publications : ' Voy-
age pittoresque de la Syrie, de la Phenicie, de la
Palestine et de la Basse Egypte,' 1799; ' Voyage
historique et pittoresque de 1'Istrie et de la Dal-
matie,' 1802; ' Grandes Vues pittoresques des
principaux Sites et Monuments de la Grece, de la
Sicile, et des Sept Collines de Rome,' engraved in
outline by Cassas and Bance, with text byLandon,
1813. He was inspector and professor of drawing
at the tapestry manufactory of the Gobelins, and
was also the founder of the gallery of models of
architecture of different nations placed in the Ecole
des Beaux-Arts. Cassas died at Versailles in

Genoa in 1789, and at an early age visited Florence,
where he attended the academy of Benvenuti.
After having taken part in the campaigns of 1813-
14, and been present at the battle at Paris, he
returned to Turin and Genoa, and in 1824 went to
Florence and Rome. In these cities he painted a
great number of miniature portraits, and devoted
himself to the study of the great musters. _ The
portraits in oil afterwards executed by him in
England are painted in the style of the Italian
and Dutch masters. Buckner and Crispin! were
his pupils. There is by him in the church at
Frosini a 'Madonna and Child.' He died in 1876.

was a native of Lucca, and flourished about the
year 1660. He was called II Certosino, or the
Carthusian, because he was a monk of that order.
He painted in fresco the cupola of the church uf
the Carthusians at Lucca as well as two of its


altar-pieces, representing subjects from the ' Life of
the Virgin.' Other churches of his order at Pisa,
Siena, &c., also contain works by him. They are
all very reputable performances, and in the style of
Pietro da Cortona.

CASSIE, JAMES, a Scotch landscape-painter, was
born at Inverurie in 1819: but the greater part of
his life was passed in Aberdeen. He was chiefly
self-taught, and at first painted portraits and ani-
mals. It was, however, to marine landscapes that
he tinally devoted himself, and in which he ex-
celled. He was noted for calm, quiet effects of
moonlight or sunset, and there is hardly a picture
of his in existence representing morniug or after-
noon sunlight. He became an associate of the
Scottish Academy in 1869, and was made a full
member in the February preceding his death,
which took place in May 1879, in Edinburgh,
where the last years of his life had been spent.
Amongst his chief works are :

Ben Lomond from the Taj.
Holy Island Castle.
Chalk Cliffs, Sussex.
A Highland OoathiT<l.
The Mouth of the Mersey.
The Mussel Gatherers.

The Firth of Tay East Coast of Scotland (in the
Edinburgh Rational Gallery),

wood-engraver, who flourished at Bologna about
the year 1678. He executed several cuts repre-
senting the portraits of the painters for the work
entitled ' Felsina Pittrice,' by Carlo Cesare Malvasia,
published at Bologna in 1678.

CASTAGNO, ANDREA DEL, was born in 1390, his
father, Barto'ommeo di Simone, being a small pro-
prietor arid labourer in Sant' Andrea a Linari, near
Florence. He received the name of ' Del Castagno'
either because he was born in the village of Cas-
tagno (in the Muggello), or else because he spent
there the first years of his life. He was first stimu-
lated to study art by chancing to come across an
itinerant painter at work in a tabernacle, which
induced him to commence drawing figures on walls
and stones. Some of his efforts attracted the atten-
tion of Bernardetto de' Medici, who took him to
Florence, where he learned to paint. His early life
was full of privations, he himself saying that in
1430 he was poor, very poor, inasmuch as he had
neither bed, board, nor lodging in Florence, and
had but recently been discharged from the hos-
pitals of Santa Maria Nuova and the Pinzocheri,
jfter having endured a few months' sickness.
The story told by Vasari of his having killed
Domenico Veneziano through jealousy is not true :
first, because the two artists were never working
together at any time ; and secondly, because Do-
menico survived Andrea nearly four years. Soon
after 1430 he painted, for the niches of a hall in
the Villa Pandolfini (now a farm-house) at Legnaia,
a series of portraits of celebrated men and the
Sibyls. These were intended to be viewed at a
great height, as may be seen from the remains of
them existing in the depot of the Uffizi Gallery.
Amongst them are the portraits of Pippo Spano,
Farinata, Niccol6 Acciaiuoli, Dante, Petrarch, Boc-
caccio, as well as Esther, Tomiris, and the Sibyl of
Cumaa. In 1435 the Government of Florence com-
missioned Castagno to paint in the Palazzo del
Podesta the portraits of the fallen leaders of the
Peruzzi and Albrizzi factions. His success in doing
this earned him the name of ' Andreino degli Imoic-


cat!.' In 1444 Andrea worked at the church of Santa
Maria del Fiore, and furnished a design for the
' Deposition from the Cross ' intended f yr the decor-
ation of the cupola. In 1446 Andrea decorated
the organ of the cathedral, and in 1451 painted
several frescoes in the hospital of Santa Maria
Nuova, where he had been received in his poverty
in 1430, and it is concerning the decoration
of this building that Vasari tells his story about
the rivalry with Domenico Veneziano, whereas re-
cords remnin to prove that it was six years previ-
ous to 1451 that Domenico painted his frescoes.
The works of both have now perished. In 1455
Castagno executed, in imitation of sculpture, the
colossal equestrian figure of Niccolo Tolentino,
which now hangs in the cathedral close to the
colossal figure of ' Sir John Hawkwood ' by
Uccelli, a master whom Castagno approached in
style nearer than any other. Castagno died in
1457, and was buried in Santa Maria de' Servi,
Florence. His last work, in 1457, was the refectory
of the hospital of Santa Maria Nuova. He is said
to hare painted in oil, but no work by him in that
medium exists. Many of this artist's frescoes have
perished ; but the following are among those that
remain :

Florence. St. Apollonia. Last Supper.
,, Academy. St. Jerome.
., The Magdalen.

St. John the Baptist.

See Crowe and Cavalcaselle's ' History of Paint-
ing in Italy,' vol. ii.

CASTANEDA, GBEGOBIO, a Spanish historical
painter, flourished in Valencia about 1625, and
is said to have been the pupil and son-in-law of
Francisco Ribalta, to whom his works are usually
attributed in Spain. He died at Valencia in 1629.

CASTEELS, PIETER, a Flemish painter and en-
graver, was born at Antwerp in 1684, and came to
England in 1708. He painted birds, flowers, and
fruit ; but his paintings have not much to recom-
mend them, and were greatly inferior to those of
an English contemporary artist, Luke Cradock.
As an engraver he has more merit. In 1726 he
published a set of twelve plates of birds and fowls,
etched from his own designs ; and, besides these,
executed some other plates from his own pictures.
He died at Richmond in 1749.

CASTEL, ALEXANDER, was a Flemish landscape
and battle painter, some of whose pictures are in
the galleries at Munich, Schleissheim, and Lustheim.
He died at Berlin in 1694.

painter, architect, and engraver, was born at Mont-
pellier in 1772. After having studied landscape
painting under Valenciennes, he visited Turkey,
Greece, Italy, and Switzerland, and published several
series of letters upon those parts, illustrated with
views drawn and engraved by himself. His best-
known work is the ' Mceurs, usages, costumes des
Othomans,' published in 1812, and highly praised by
Lord Byron. He also wrote ' Etudes sur le Cha-
teau de Fontainebleau,' which was not printed
until after his death, which occurred in Paris in
1838. Castellan was also the inventor of a new
process of painting in wax.


CASTELLI FAMILY. There being two families
of artists of the name of Castelli or Castello, the
accompanying tables may help to make the relation-
ship plainer.


Alinari photo\


[i"i;/' Apollonia, Florence



Giovanni Battista (II Bergamasco).
(1509 1579.1

Niccolft Granello.

(Probably step-Bon.)

I 1 1533.)

( ? 1617.1



Giovanni Battisto.


C1025 1659.)

CASTELLI, ANNIBALE, was a native of Bologna,
who flourished about the year 1605. He was a
scholar of Pietro Faccini, and by imitating his
manner, he fell into the same defect that is dis-
cernible in the works of that master. By loading
and tormenting his carnations, he disturbed his out-
line, and his figures became heavy and incorrect.
His best work is the ' Raising of Lazarus,' in the
church of San Paolo, at Bologna.







CASTELLINI, RAFFAELLE, was director of the
Mosaic School at the Vatican, and executed the
splendid mosaics of 'The Sibyl of Cumse,' after
Domenichino, and ' St. John the Baptist,' after
Guercino. He died at Rome in 1864.


Genoese painter, born in 1557. He was a scholar
of Andrea Semini, and an imitator of Luca Cam-
biaso. In endeavouring to acquire the facility of
the latter, he fell into all his defects, and abandoned
nature for manner and despatch. An able designer,
his works would have approached nearer to per-
fection if he had taken the trouble of studying
them. He was copious and ready in invention,
because his judgment was not difficult to satisfy.
He lived in habits of intimacy with the principal
poets of his time, and made the designs for Tasso's
' Jerusalem Delivered,' which were engraved by
Agostino Carracci. He died in 1629. He was also
an eminent miniaturist ; and is praised by Marino,
the poet, for the skill and accuracy of his repre-
sentations of various insects.

Genoa. fS. Francesco. St. James and St. Jerome.

S. Ciro. Christ disputing with the Doctors.

,, Capuchins. St. Francis receiving the Stigmata.


St. Anthony of Padua.

St. Clara.

Rome. & Peter's. St. Peter walking on the Sea.

CASTELLO, CASTELLINO, was born at Turin in
1579, and was the pupil of Giovanni Battista
Paggi, under whom he acquired a correct and ele-
gant style of design. His picture of the ' Descent
of the Holy Ghost,' in the church of the Spirito
Santo at Genoa, gained him a great reputation. He
was also a very eminent portrait-painter, and, ac-
cording to Lanzi, when Van Dyck visited Genoa,
he particularly admired the style of Castello, and
they reciprocally painted each other's portraits.
He was related to Bernardo and Valerio Castello,
and died in 1649.


of II Bergamasco, and employed by Philip II., in
conjunction with other painters, to decorate parts
of the Escorial. One of the subjects on which
:hey were employed was the victory gained by
John II. over the Moors of Granada; it was copied
from a painting by Dello on a canvas 130 feet in
ength, which was found in an armoire of the
Alcazar at Segovin, and is a most curious com-
position. He also painted at the Pardo, where he
executed several frescoes ; and he coloured forty-
eight busts of Saints sculptured by Juan de Arfefor
the Escorial. He was considered to be an artist of
great talent. He died at Madrid in 1617.

historical painter, was born at Madrid in 1602.
Receiving his first instruction in art from bis father,
Fabrizio Castello, he afterwards became a pupil of
Vicente Carducbo, whose style he sought to imitate,
producing some works of merit, although not equal
to those of his master. The Madrid Gallery has
two excellent paintings by him, 'The Disembarca-
tion of General Don Fadrique de Toledo in the Bay
of San Salvador,' and ' Spanish Soldiers under the
command of Dun Baltasar de Alfaro swimming to
attack the Dutch.' Carducho was so pleased with
the composition of these pictures that he requested
permission to paint the head of Don Fadrique in
the first. Castello died at Madrid in 1656.

CASTELLO, FRANCISCO DE, was born in Flan-
ders, of Spanish parentage, in 1556. He visited
Rome, for the purpose of study, when quite young,
during the pontificate of Gregory XIII. He painted
historical pictures, generally small in size, which
were much sought after. He also executed some
pictures for the churches at Rome. In the church
of San Giacomo degli Spagnuoli is an altarpiece of
the ' Assumption of the Virgin,' with a Glory of
Angels, and the Apostles below ; and in that of
San Rocco di Ripetta is a picture of the ' Madonna
and Child, with SS. Nicholas and Julian.' He
died at Rome in 1636.

called IL BERGAMASCO, was born at Gandino, in the
Valle Seriana, in the Bergamese, in 1509. He was
called II Bergamasco to distinguish him from the
Genoese painter of the same name, who excelled
in miniature. When he was young he was entrusted
to the care of Aurelio Basso, of Crema, a scholar
of Polidoroda Caravnggio, by whom he was taught
the first principles of the art. That painter took
him with him to Genoa, and after some time left
him in that city, unprotected and abandoned, but
considerably advanced by his studies after the best
masters of that school. He had the good fortune
to attract the attention of a Genoese nobleman,
Tobia Pallavicino, who took him under his pro-
tection, and sent him to Rome to study the works
of the great masters, and supported him until he
arrived at great proficiency in painting, sculpture,
and architecture. On his return to Genoa, he first
exhibited his talents in decorating the palace of
his protector, and in painting some frescoes in the
church of San Marcellino. In the monastery of
San Sebastiano is his justly celebrated picture of
the Martyrdom of that Saint, by which he acquired
great reputation. Whilst he was in full possession
of the public favour, Luca Cambiaso returned to
Genoa, after completing his studies at Florence
and at Rome, when an honourable and laudable
emulation seems to have taken place between these
artists, and to have been advantageous to both.
They were together employed by the Duke Gri-


maldi, in the Nunziata di Portoria, where Castello
represented in the ceiling of the choir the Saviour
sitting as the Judge of the World, surrounded by
angels, some bearing the instruments of the Pas-
sion, and others displaying a scroll, inscribed Venite
Benedicti, painted with a beauty of colour, and an
effect of light emanating from the figure of
Christ, which dazzle the beholder. Luca Cam-
biaso painted the laterals, representing the fate
of the Blessed and the Reprobate, which, though
possessed of great merit, are eclipsed by the tran-
scendent powers of Castello in composition and
expression. On visiting his native country, am-
bitious of leaving something worthy of his fame,
he undertook his great work in the saloon of the
Lanzi Palace at Gorlago, where he has represented
some of the most interesting subjects of the ' Iliad '
wiih a grandeur that resembles the style of Giulio
Romano. Towards the latter pan of his life he was
invited by Charles V. to visit Spain, and was em-
ployed by that monarch in the palace of the Pardo,
which he ornamented with some subjects from
Ovid, and in several other works. He died at
Madrid in 1579.

called in Castile EL GENOVESE, to distinguish him
from the painter of the same name called II Ber-
gamasco, was a skilful painter of illuminations and

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