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miniatures, employed upon the choir books of the
Escorial. He was born in Genoa in 1547, and was
the brother of Bernardo Castello. He went to Spain
with Cambiaso in 1583, returned to Genoa about the
end of the century, and died in his native city in 1637.

CASTELLO, NiccoL6 GRANELLO. See GRANELLO.

CASTELLO, VALERIC, (or CASTELLI,) was the
son of Bernardo Castello. He was born in Genoa
in 1625, and was a scholar of Domenico Fiasella.
He did not, however, follow the style of either his
father or instructor, but made choice of prototypes
more suited to his genius, by studying the works
of Procaccini at Milan, and of Correggio at Parma,
from whose example, and a graceful manner of
disposing his figures, which was natural to him, he
formed a style which may be called entirely his
own. His design is sometimes not the most
correct, but his works are judiciously composed,
harmoniously and vigorously coloured, and admir-
able in their chiaroscuro. In his fresco paintings
he nearly approaches the excellence of Carloni, as
is evident in the cupola of the Nunziata at Genoa,
and in Santa Maria. In the church of Santa Maria
del Gerbino is his picture of the ' Conception,'
with two laterals of the ' Marriage of the Virgin '
and the 'Presentation in the Temple ; ' and in the
ceiling, in fresco, the ' Coronation of the Virgin,'
with a choir of angels ; in the church of the Bene-
dictines, the ' Annunciation ; ' at the Franciscans,
the ' Conversion of St. Paul ' : at the Augustines,
the ceiling representing the ' Descent of the Holy
Ghost.' Valerio Castello also excelled in painting
battles, and subjects of profane history, in which
he seems to have followed the style of Tintoretto
and Paolo Veronese. Several of these are in
the palaces at Genoa. In the Louvre there is
a ' Moses striking the Rock ' by him ; and in the
Uffizi, Florence, a ' Rape of the Sabine Women.'
He died at Genoa in 1659.

CASTELLUCCI, SALVI, was born at Arezzo in
1608, and was brought up in the school of Pietro
da Cortona at Rome, arid became a successful
imitator of the facile and pleasing style of that
master. Some of the churches in Arezzo possess

268



paintings by this artist which are admired for their
freedom of hand and their agreeable colouring,
but his chief employment was the production of
easel pictures for private collections. He died in
1672. His son, PIETRO CASTELLDCCI, painted in
his style, but in a very inferior manner.

CASTIGLIONE, FRANCESCO, was the son and
pupil of Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione, and
painted landscapes with figures and animals. He
was most successful in imitating the style of his
father, and his works are often taken to be by
Benedetto himself. A picture of ' Two Negroes
and a Dwarf' by him is in the Dresden Gallery.
He died in 1716.

CASTIGLIONE, GIOVANNI BENEDETTO, (called
IL GRECHETTO, or sometimes IL BENEDETTO,) was
born at Genoa in 1616. He studied first under Gio-
vanni Battista Paggi, and then entered the school
of Giovanni Andrea de' Ferrari, but subsequently
he became a disciple of Van Dyck at Genoa, and
after the death of that master visited Florence,
Venice, Rome, and Naples, in each of which cities
he left examples of his skill and ability. Although
Benedetto is distinguished throughout Europe by
his easel pictures of landscapes with figures and
cattle, yet he was not incompetent to reach a
higher standard in art, as is evident from his
tine picture of ' The Nativity ' in the church of
San Luca, and his ' SS. Mary Magdalene and Catha-
rine,' in the church of the Madonna di Castello,
alike in Genoa. He painted historical subjects,
portraits, landscapes, and animals. In his his-
torical works lie appears not to have had in view
the ideal beauty which is found in the great masters
of the Roman school, nor to have attempted the ele-
gance of form, the purity of contour, or the nobility
of expression, which form the essence of historical
painting. He was, however, completely successful
in the style which he seems to have preferred
pastoral subjects, the march of caravans, and
troops of animals. His pictures of that descrip-
tion are distinguished by a clear and vigorous
colour, a lively and spirited touch, and an admirable
effect of chiaroscuro. His figures and animals are
grouped in the most picturesque manner, and his
landscape is always of appropriate and pleasing
scenery. The latter part of his life was passed in
the service of the Duke of Mantua, who accom-
modated him with apartments in his palace, and
treated him with great liberality and munilicence,
and he there painted some of his finest works.
Benedetto died at Mantua in 1670. The following
paintings are by him :

Dresden. Gallery. Noah going into the Ark

Florence. Qfa'. His own Portrait.

,, Noah going into the Ark.

Animals.

Genoa. S. Luca. The Nativity.

,. SS.Annu7ifiata.AAoisiion of the Magi.

Ducal Pal. Jacob's Journey.

Brignole Pal. Abraham's Journey.

Entry of Animals into the Ark.

Ditrazzo Pal. Hagar and Ishmael.
Madrid. Gallery. A Concert.

Elephants in an Amphitheatre.

Diogenes and a man.

Roman Gladiators.

Munich. Pinnkothtk. A Caravan.
Paris. Louvre. Melcbizedek and Abraham.

The Dealers driven from the

Temple.

Animals and Utensils.

Petrsbrg.-HVrmttaye. Animals in a Landscape.
Vienna. Gallery. Noah going into the Ark.

Noah in the Ark.



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



As an engraver, Benedetto is deserving of par-
ticular notice. He has left us about seventy plates,
executed with all the taste and spirit that are seen
in his pictures. They are etched, and sometimes
a little assisted by the graver, masterly in tlieir
effect of light and shade, and may be favourably
compared with Rembrandt, Delia Bella, and other
engravers in that style. The following are his
principal prints, which are frequently marked with



the cipher Ig;., G.B.C., or BENEDto CAS. :

The Genius of Benedetto Castiglioue, serving as a
frontispiece to his work.

Portrait of Agostino Mascardi.

Portrait of Antonio Pignolesale.

Sixteen small Heads, among which is his own portrait.

Six large Heads, one of them his own portrait.

Two plates of the Heads of Men and Animals.

Noah and his Children collecting the Animals.

Noah driving the Animals into the Ark.

The Departure of Jacob.

Rachel hiding her Father's Gods.

Tobit burying the Dead ; a night-piece.

A similar subject ; in chiaroscuro.

The Nativity, with Angels adoring the Infant.

The Adoration of the Shepherds.

The Angel appearing to Joseph in his Dream.

The Flight into Egypt.

The Resurrection of Lazarus.

St. Roch in profile, behind him the Head of his Dog.

The Melancholy; a print so called.

The Little Melancholy.

The Finding of the Bodies of St. Peter and St. Paul.

Four old Men visiting the Tombs by torch-light.

Circe in search of the Arms of Achilles.

A Man with some pieces of Armour, and another ex-
amining a Tomb.

A Man pushing a Boat in which are some Animals.

Diogenes with his Lantern.

Pan instructing Apollo to play on his Flute.

Silenus playing on a Flute, with a Shepherdess.

A Combat of Sea Gods.

Silenus drunk, with three Satyrs.

A Bacchanal, with a Satyr on a Pedestal.

A "Woman beating a Boy.

A Menagerie of various Fowls.

A Landscape. 1658.

A Landscape ; apparently a frieze.

A Shepherd driving his Flock.

Two Shepherds, one on Horseback, driving their
Flocks.

A Capuchin discovering the Body of St. Jerome.

Eleven plates of Vignettes, &c.

CASTIGLIONE, SALVATOKE, was the brother of
Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione, by whom he was
instructed in the art, and he painted landscapes and
pastoral subjects so much in the style of his master
that the most sagacious are often deceived. We
have also by him a highly-finished etching repre-
senting the ' Resurrection of Lazarus,' signed, and
dated 1645.

CASTILLO. See DEL CASTILLO.

CASTREJON, ANTONIO DE, a Spanish painter,
was born at Madrid in 1625. He was a scholar of
Francisco Fernandez, arid possessed more facility
in colouring than skill in drawing. His best works
are of small dimensions, but he sometimes painted
large altar-pieces, as the 'Martyrdom of Santa
Lucia,' in the church of San Felipe el Real at Madrid,
which perished by fire in 1718. He likewise
painted figures in the architectural pieces of Roque
Ponce and of Josef Garcia, as well as groups
within the flower-garlands of Gabriel de La Corte.
He died at Madrid in 1690.

CASTRO, ANTONIO FERNANDEZ DE. See FERNAN-
DEZ DE CASTRO.

CASTRO, GIACOMO Dl, according to Dominici,
was born at Sorrento about the year 1597. He



was a pupil of Giovanni Battista Caracciolo, but
afterwards received the instructions of Domeni-
chino when that master visited Naples to decorate
the chapel of the Treasury. The churches of Sor-
rento possess works by him, one having a picture
of 'The Marriage of the Virgin ' that is highly
esteemed. He died in 1687.

CASTRO, JUAN SANCHEZ DE. See SANCHEZ DE
CASTRO.

CASTRO, MANOEL DE, a Portuguese painter and
scholar of Claudio Coelho at Madrid. He was in
1698 appointed painter to Charles II. of Spain, in
succession to Bartolome Perez, on account of the
ability which he had displayed in two pictures
which he had painted for the Convent of the Trinity,
' Our Lady attended by Angelic Choristers, 1 and
' Our Lady redeeming Captives,' and a fresco in the
Convent of Mercy. According to Cean Bermudez
his drawing was incorrect and his compositions of
very unequal merit. He died at Madrid in 1712,
after executing works for the churches of San Juan
de Dios, and San Felipe Neri.

CASTRO, PEDRO DE, was a Spanish artist who is
known as an admirable painter of still-life. His
subjects are arranged skilfully and coloured truth-
fully, great force being added to them by his know-
ledge of chiaroscuro. Very little is known of his
life; his deatli occurred in 1663.

CATALAN I, ANTONIO, called IL SICILIANO, was
born at Messina in 1560. Lanzi is of opinion that
he studied at Rome, and formed his style from the
works of Federigo Barocci, from whence he ac-
quired that harmony of colour and softness of
effect which are seen in his works. Such is his
large picture of 'The Nativity' in the church of
the Capuchins at Gesso. He died in 1630.

CATALANI, ANTONIO, called IL ROMANO, was
born at Bologna about the year 1596, and was
educated under Francesco Albani. He was a close
imitator of the pleasing style of his master, and
painted several pictures for the churches at Bo-
logna, although he was more employed on easel
pictures for the private collections In the church
of La Madonna del Grado are four pictures of the
patron Saints of the city, in four niches ; and in
the church of the Gesu, ' St. Peter healing the Lame
at the Gate of the Temple.'
CATE, HENDRIK GEHRIT TEN. See TEN CATE.
CATEL, FRANZ LUDWIG, was born at Berlin in
1778. He commenced his artistic career by carv-
ing in wood, and then designed illustrations for
unimportant works, executing in 1799 ten plates
for Goethe's 'Hermann and Dorothea.' He next
worked in Indian ink and water-colours, producing
in 1806 a large piece in the latter medium, repre-
senting 'The Death of Nicholas of Bernau,' which
gained him admission into the Berlin Academy. In
1807 he went to Paris, where he studied oil painting.
The year 1812 found him at Home, and there his
education as an artist was much advanced by his
connection with Koch, Overbeck, Schadow, and
Cornelius. His inclination led him more especially
in the direction of painting landscapes with archi-
tectural details or prominent figures introduced.
He attached himself to the new classic school of
landscape, labouring especially to make bis per-
spective tell effective!}', and to gain a great mastery
over light and shade. His ideas gained much in
point of breadth from a visit to Sicily, which he
made in company with Prince Golitsuin in 1818. He
settled at Macerata in 1830, but returned home on
a visit in 1840, on which occasion a professorship

269



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



was bestowed on him by the King of Prussia.
Amongst Catel's landscape subjects, which are
marred by a certain touch of conventionality, the
best perhaps are ' The Moonlight View of the
Colonnade of St. Peter's,' and ' The Storm on
Mount Etna.' In the Berlin Gallery are two Nea-
politan views, both painted in 1822, and in the New
Pinakothek, Munich, are eight works by him, views
in Italy. His works may be seen in Munich and
Copenhagen. He died at Rome in 1856.

CATENA, VIXCENZO. See BIAGIO.

CATENARO, JUAN BAUTISTA, was a portrait-
painter and engraver, of whom nothing more is
known than that he worked in London and in
Madrid at the beginning of the 18th century. He
etched the portrait of Luca Giordano, and from his
own designs ' A Woman with Children, seated in a
landscape,' and ' Apollo surrounded by Cupids.'
He was still living in 1720.

CATESBY, MARK, was born in England in 1679,
and in 1712 visited America, where he remained
seven years, studying the botany of the country.
He then returned home, but made a second visit
to the colonies, and took up his headquarters at
Charleston, South Carolina, from which place he
made excursions into the interior, through Georgia
and Florida. He returned to England in 1720,
that he might engrave the plates for his work
entitled 'The Natural History of Carolina, Florida,
and the Bahama Islands,' illustrated with plates of
birds, beasts, fishes, plants, &c. He was elected a
Fellow of the Royal Society, and died in 1749.

CATHEL1N, Louis JACQOES, a French engraver,
born in Paris in 1738, was one of the best pupils
of Le Bas. He engraved some excellent small
portraits of historical personages, literary men,
and artists ; and, although his work was singu-
larly unequal, he may be classed with Le Mire,
Ficquet, Gaudier, and other engravers of the 18th
century, who were distinguished by the skill and
delicacy of their work. He was received into the
Academy iu 1777, on which occasion he executed
the portrait of the Abb Terray, after Roslin.
Cathelin died in Paris in 1804. Among his best
works are the following :

Louis XV. ; afttr Van Loo. Marie Antoinette, Queen
of France ; after Fredou. The same ; Countess of j
Artois ; Countess of Provr nee ; after Drouais. j
Moliere; after Mignard. Pierre Noel Le Cauchois ; I
after Mile, de Noireterre. Jean Paris de Montmartel ; !
after M. Q. de l.a Tour. Louis Tocqu, painter;
after Nattier. Stanislaus, King of Poland; after
Masse. Joseph Vernet, marine painter; after fan
Loo. Joseph II., Emperor of Germany ; Mariii
Theresa, Empress of Germany ; after Ducreux. La
Nouvelle Affiigeante; after P. A. 'fl'ille. The Death
of Lucretia ; after Pellegrini. Latona revenged ;
after Lauri ; begun by Balcchoti, and finished by
Cathelin. Erigone; after Moi'siau. A Waterfall,
with Fishermen ; The i'our Hours of the Day ; after
J. Vernet.

CATHELINAUX, CHRISTOPHE, a French painter
of dogs and other animals, bom at Warcq (Meuse)
in 1819, was a pupil of Drolling, and entered the
Ecole des Beaux Arts in 1839. He exhibited at
the Salon from 1857 onwards. He died in 1883.

CATHELINEAU, GAETAN, a French painter of
portraits and of historical and genre subjects, was
born at Montrichard (Loir-et-Cher) in 1787. He
was a pupil of David, and professor of drawing at
the Lyceum of Tours from 1835 to 1858. He died
at Tours in 1859, bequeathing to the Museum of

270



tnat city fifty pictures by different masters, as well
as eleven by his own hand.

CATI, PASQUALE, a native of Jesi, according to
Baglione, flourished at Rome during the pontificates
of Gregory XIII., Sixtus V. , and Clement VIII. He
was employed in the Loggie of the Vatican, where
he painted ' The Passion of Christ,' as also some
friezes in the Sala Clementina. The chapel of
Cardinal Altemps, in Santa Maria in Trastevere, is
decorated by Cati with subjects taken from the
' Life of the Virgin.' He died at Rome during the
pontificate of Paul V. (16051621), in his 70th year.

CATLIN, GEORGE, a designer and painter, was
born in 1794 in Wyoming Valley, Pennsylvania.
After first studying law he turned his attention to
painting, and is well known for his depicting of
the North American Indians. In 1832 he com-
menced a prolonged course of visits to their native
haunts, and after intercourse with no less than
forty-eight different tribes, he published a work in
1851, containing portraits of 200 chiefs and war-
riors, together with miscellaneous sketches. He
died at Jersey City in 1872.

CATS, JACOB, an excellent draughtsman, who
also etched and painted, was born at Altona
in 1741. He studied under Abraham Starre and
Pieter Louw. He was celebrated for drawing land-
scapes with animal accessories, his works having a
distinct originality, and being marked by a poetical
rendering of the features of nature, as well as by
careful manipulation. They are often suggestive
of Adriaan van de Velde and of Berchern, and are
highly valued. He also painted some pictures on
a smaller scale, and has left us some etchings.
He died at Amsterdam in 1799. Amongst his
plates may be mentioned :

A View of Amsterdam. Another; after W. Wfits.
Another ; after J. de Beyer. Six plates of Landscapes.

CATTAMARA, PAOT.DCCIO, was an artist of
Naples, who flourished about 1718, and painted
fruit, birds, medals, &c., with marvellous resem-
blance to nature.

CATTANEO, SANTO, called SANTINO, an Italian
painter, was born at Sato in 1739. He at first
practised wood-engraving, but afterwards studied
painting under Antonio Dusi of Brescia and Fran-
cesco Monti of Bologna. He settled at Brescia in
1773, and in 1810 became professor of drawing in
that city, where he died in 1819. Many of the
churches and residences of Brescia and its neigh-
bourhood are rich in his works.

CATTANIO, COSTANZA, was born at Ferrara in
1G02. He was a pupil of Ippolito Scarsellino, but
afterwards frequented the school of Guido Reni at
Bologna. This artist was of so quarrelsome and
turbulent a disposition that he passed the greater
portion of his life in exile or in disgrace. This
turbulence of his nature is evinced in many of his
works, which generally represented soldiers and
banditti, painted in a menacing tone of colour.
That he could divest himself of this peculiarity is
evident from his pictures of ' The Flagellation '
and the 'Ecce Homo. 'in the church of San Giorgio
at Ferrara. His 'Christ praying on the Mount'
in San Benedetto, and his 'Annunciation' in San
Spirito, Ferrara, have something of the suavity of
Guido. He died in 1665.

CATTAPANI, LUCA, was born at Cremona about
the year 1570, and was instructed in the school of
the Campi. Many of the works of his masters
were copied by him, with a precision that might



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



deceive the most experienced. Of his own com-
positions, the most meritorious was his picture of
' The Decollation of St. John,' in the church of San
Donato at Cremona. One of his pictures is signed
Luca Catapan, 1597.

CATTERMOLE, CHARLES, a nephew of George
Cattermole, exhibited first in the j-ear 1858. Most
of his pictures appeared at the Royal Institute of
Painters in Water-Colours, of which he became an
associate in 18ti4, and a full member in 1870. He
was also a member of the Society of British Artists,
and a frequent contributor to ils exhibitions. He
painted figure subjects both in oil and water-
colours, and, following the example of liis uncle,
drew a few illustrations for books. He died in
1900.

CATTERMOLE, GEORGE, a water-colour painter,
was born at the village of Dickleborough, near
Diss, in Norfolk, in 1800. At an early age his
attention was directed to the delineation and
study of the architectural antiquities which par-
ticularly abound in his native county ; and
when only sixteen years old, his name appeared
as one of the illustrators of Britten's ' English
Cathedrals.' These pursuits determined, as it were,
the scene upon which his imagination was after-
wards to work ; and he soon began to people the
quaint remains of feudal times with incidents of
history or romantic adventure appropriate to each.
In 1830 he travelled into Scotland for the purpose
of making sketches of localities mentioned in the
writings of Scott ; many of these have been pub-
lished in various forms, and a large number of them
are widely known as illustrations of the ' Waverley
Novels.' He illustrated the ' Historical Annual,'
devoted to the history of the civil war, written by
his brother the Rev. R. Cattermole ; and contri-
buted illustrations to ' Barnaby Rudge,' and other
of Dickens's novels. Cattermole was from 1833 to
1850, in which year he withdrew his name from the
roll of the institution, a member of the Society of
Painters in Water-Colours, and during that period
was a constant exhibitor. He died in 1868, at
Clapham Common. He was a member of the
Royal Academy of Amsterdam, ai;d of the Belgian
Society of Water-Colour Painters,

The following are some of his principal works :

At South Kensington

The Silent Warning. 1837.

Hamilton of Botbwellliaugh preparing to shoot the
Regent Murray. 18-43.

Lady Macbeth. 1850.

Cellini and the Robbers.

Macbeth and the Murderers.

The Armourer's Tale.
Interior with Figures and Armour. (In the Edinburgh

National Gallery.}
Sir Walter Raleigh witnessing the execution of the Earl

of Essex in the Tower. 1839.
Old English Hospitality. 1839.
The Castle Chapel. 1842.
After the second Battle of Newbury. 1843.
Benvenuto Celliui defending the Castle of Sant' Angelo.

1845.

The Unwelcome Return. 1846. (A forest-scene.)
A Terrible Secret. 1862. (In oil: the only picture

exhibited at the l\oyal Academy.)

CATTERMOLE, Rev. RICHARD, an elder brother
of George Catteimole, born in 1795, was a water-
colour painter, and exhibited drawings of interiors
at the Water-Colour Society from 1814 to 1818.
He afterwards gave up art, and entering the
Church, became Vicar of Little Marlow, Bucks.
He died at Boulogne in 1858.



CATTINI, GIOVANNI, an engraver, was born at
Venice in 1725. He was a pupil of Faldoni, and
executed plates of some antique statues which ara
at Venice, and a set of fourteen large heads, after
Piazetta. He also engraved some portraits of Vene-
tian nobles, and one of Francesco Zuccarelli, the
artist; as well us some of the statues in the
Giustiniani Gallery, Venice, in the manner of
Claude Mellan, with a single stroke.

CATTON, CHARLES, was born at Norwich in
1728, and apprenticed to a coach-painter in London.
He afterwards became a member of the St. Mar-
tin's Lime Academy, and in 1784 served the office
of Master of the Company of Painter-Stainers, the
fraternity of English artists in olden time. He
was the first herald-painter who designed the sup-
porters to coats of arms with any resemblance to
nature, which probably obtained for him the honour
of being appointed coach-painter to his Majesty,
George III., who also nominated him one of the
foundation members of the Royal Academy in
1768. He exhibited at the Academy chiefly land-
scapes, and occasionally composition pictures and
animals. He died in London in 1798. In St.
Peter Mancroft. Norwich, there is a picture by
him of 'The Angel delivering St. Peter.'

CATTON, CHARLES, the son of the Royal Acade-
mician of the same name, was born in London in
1756, and studied in the Academy Schools. His
first efforts were devoted to architectural subjects.
In 1788 he published a series of drawings of animal
life engraved by himself, ar.d shortly afterwards, in
conjunction with Edward Burney, he illustrated an
edition of Gay's ' Fables.' In 1804 lie emigrated
to America, where he died in 1819. In the South
Kensington Museum there are four small drawings
of animals by him.

CAUCIG, FRANZ, an Austrian historical painter,
was born at Gorz in 1762. He studied the first
principles of art at Vienna, and went, aided by a
grant, in 1781, to Bologna and to Rome, where
he spent seven years. In 1791, he was enabled
in the same way to visit Mantua, and to reside for
upwards of five years at Venice. He returned to
Vienna in 1797, and in 1799 became professor of
historical painting at the Vienna Academy, and, in
1820, Director of the School of Art, which office
he held until his death. Specimens of his paint-
ings, which were numerous, may be seen at Prague,
and in the Belvedere and other galleries at Vienna.
He was clever as a draughtsman, and has left us
upwards of 2000 historical designs. His colour-
ing, however, was feeble and indifferent. He died
at Vienna in 1828.

CAUKERCKEN, CORNELIS VAN, was a Flemish
engraver and printseller, born at Antwerp in 1626.



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