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He engraved several plates of portraits, and other
subjects, from the works of Rubens, Van Dyck,
and other Flemish painters. They are executed
with the graver in a stiff and laboured style, but
are not without merit. The following are his best

prints :

PORTRAITS.

Peter Snayers, painter of battles ; after D. ran Heil.
Tobias Verhaect, painter; after Otto van Teen.
Kobert van Hoeck, painter; after G. Coqi-.es.
IVeter Meert, portrait painter ; after C. Caukercken.
Charles van den Bosch, Bishop of Bruges.
Charles II., Kiug of England ; the figure by Caulcercken,

the rest by Hollar.

VARIOUS SUBJECTS.
The Dead Christ in the lap of the Virgin; after

Anit'.bale Carratti.

271



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



The Dead Christ, with the Virgin, Magdalene, and St.

John ; after Van Dyck.

The Descent of the Holy Ghost ; after the same.
Charity, with three Children; after the same.
Roman Charity ; after Rubens.
St. Anne teaching the Virgin; after the same.
The Martyrdom of St. Lievin ; after the same.

The best impressions are those before the name of

De Hollander.

A TVoman suckling an Infant ; after A. Diepenleeck.
Boors in a Tavern ; after J. Jllolenaer.

CAULA, SIGISMONDO, was born at Modena in
1637. He was the pupil of Jean Boulanger, but
finished his studies at Venice, from the works of
Titian and Tintoretto. Besides his allar-pieces,
he painted cabinet pictures for private collections.
His best production was his large picture of ' St.
Charles Borromeo assisting the plague-stricken
people of Modena,' which was painted, with great
vigour and expression, for the church of San Carlo.
It is now in the Este Gallery at Modena, which
also possesses a figure of ' St. Ambrose ' by him. In
the latter portion of his life he became more languid
in his colouring and execution. He painted as late
as 1694.

CAULITZ, PETER, a painter of animals and
landscapes, was born at Berlin about 1650, and
studied art in Italy. The Berlin Museum has by
him a well-painted scene representing a poultry-
yard. Other examples may be seen at Potsdam
and at Brunswick. He was Court-Painter when
he died at Berlin in 1719.

CAUSE, HENDRIK, was a Flemish engraver, who
flourished about the year 1690. We have some
portraits by him, among which is that of Cardinal
Ferdinando d'Adda. He also engraved some plates
of buildings, &c., which possess considerable merit.

CAUWER. See DE CADWEB.

CAVAGNA, FRANCESCO, called CAVAGNUOLO,
was the son of Giovanni Paolo Cavagna, and
flourished about the year 1625. He painted his-
tory in the style of his father, but never rose above
mediocrity. His best work is in the church of the
Padri Zoccolanti del Romacolo, representing the
Virgin and Infant Jesus in the clouds, with St.
Louis, St. Clara, and St. Catharine. He died young
tf the plague at Bergamo in 1630.

CAVAGNA, GIOVANNI PAOLO, was born at
Borgo di San Leonardo, in the Bergamese, in 1556.
His inclination for painting led him to Venice at
the period when Titian was in the zenith of his
fame, and, according to Tassi, he had the advan-
tage of studying under that great artist. On his
return to Bergamo he finished his studies under
Giovanni Battista Moroni, and acquired from him
an admirable impasto of colour, and a firm pencil.
He appears to have adopted the style of Paolo
Veronese, and his best works, both in oil and
fresco, strongly resemble those of that painter.
He particularly excelled in painting old men and
ihildren, as may be seen in his fresco of ' The
Assumption of.the Virgin,' with a glory of angels,
and the apostles beneath, in the choir of the church
of Santa Maria Maggiore, Venice. The same
church possesses his oil paintings of 'The
Nativity,' and of ' Queen Esther before Ahasuerus.'
In the church of Santa Lucia is his famed ' Cruci-
fixion.' He died at Bergamo in 1627.

CAVAGNDOLO. See CAVAGNA, FRANCESCO.

CAVALOABO. See BARONI CAVALCABO.

CAVALIERI. See CAVALLERIIS.

CAVALLERI, FEKDINANDO, who was a painter

272



of history and portraits, was born at Turin in 1794,
and studied art at Rome. His paintings are justly
esteemed for their fidelity and truth. He was in
later life a professor at the Academy of St. Luke.
He died in 1867. His best works are :

Beatrice Cenci ascending the Scaffold.

The Burning of Old St. Paul's.

The Death of Leonardo da Vinci.

Prince Eugene, after the Battle of Petenvardein.

His own Portrait (in the Ujpzi, Florence).

CAVALLERIIS, GIOVANNI BATTISTA DE, (or
CAVALIERI,) an Italian engraver, was born at
Lagherino in 1525, and died at Rome in 1597. His
style of engraving resembles that of .ZEneas Vico,
although inferior to it. Many of his plates are
copies after the great Italian masters ; they are
elched, and finished with the graver. He was
very laborious, and his plates number nearly 380.
The following are those most worthy of notice,

some of them being marked with the cipher (jJJ.

The Frontispiece, and Heads of the Popes, for the Vitt

rle' Pontijici.
Thirty-three plates of the Kuins of Rome ; after Doi-

sio. 1579.
A series of plates entitled Beati ApolKnaris Martyrit

primi Ravennatum episcopi Res yesta ; after N. Cir-

ciynani, 1586.

Ecclesise Anglicance Trophfe ; after the same.
Christ among the Doctors; supposed to lie from his own

design.

The Last Supper; the same.
The Image of the Virgin of Loreto. 1566.
The House of Loreto, and the Miracles wrought there.

1569.
The Jubilee in 15S5, with a view of the old Church of

St. Peter's.
A Sea-fight against the Turks; for Chacon's Historia

utriusque Belli Dacici, 1576.

The Virgin, called ' Le Silence ' ; after Michelangelo.
The Dead Christ in the lap of the Virgin ; after the same.
The Conversion of St. Paul ; after the same.
The Martyrdom of St. Peter ; after the same.
The Animals coming out of the Ark ; after Raphael.
Moses showing the Tables of the Law; after the same.
The Miracle of the Loaves ; after the same.
Christ appearing to St. Peter ; after the same.
The Battle of Constantiue with Maxentius ; after the

same.

The Murder of the Innocents ; after the same.
Susannah and the Elders ; after Titian. 1586.
St. John preaching in the "SVilderuess : after A. del

Sarto.

The Descent from the Cross ; after Daniele da Volterra.
The Virgin and Infant in the Clouds; after Livio

Agrestl.
The Elevation of the Cross ; after the same.

CAVALLI, VITALE, called VITALE DA BOLOGNA
and VITALE DELLE MADONNE, was a painter of the
13th and 14th centuries, who was a pupil of Franco
Bolognese. As one of his appellations denotes, he
was especially noted for the painting of Madonnas,
one of which (1320) is in the Pinacoteca of Bologna,
another in San Giovanni in Monte of the same
city, and a third (1345) in the Vatican ; the last
has been engraved by D'Agincourt. An ' Annun-
ciation ' and ' The Manger ' are in Santa Apollonia
at Mazzaratta.

CAVALLINI, PIETRO, was a painter of the 14th
century, who studied mosaic painting in Rome under
the Cosmati ; but his works are executed in the
Florentine style. He was employed upon the
mosaics which Giotto executed in the Basilica of
St. Peter at Rome, and is said to have also worked
from that master's designs in San Paolo fuori le
Mura about the year 1305, and to have restored the



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



lost mosaics in San Crisogono in the same city.
Several paintings at Florence are attributed to him;
they are in the churches of SS. Annunziata, Santa
Lucia, and San Marco. He died about 1364.

CAVALLINO, BERNARDO, an Italian painter,
born at Naples in 1622, was instructed by Massimo
Stanzioni, and studied the works of Andrea Vac-
caro, Rubens, and Poussin. He died in 1658. His
paintings are small and of a tender character.
Two of them are preserved at Naples an ' Im-
maculate Virgin' at the church of San Lorenzo
Maggiore and a 'St. Cecilia' at that of San Gio-
vanni di Porta Alba.

CAVALLUCCI, ANTONIO, was born at Ser-
moneta in 1752, and was perhaps the most admired
painter of the modern Roman school after A. K.
Mengs and Pompeo Batoni. The Duke of Gaetani
sent him, at his own expense, to Rome, where he
studied under Pozzi and Lapis ; he afterwards
went to Parma, and studied the works of Cor-
reggio. He painted several important works for
the Duchess of Gaetani, amongst them ' Christ
appearing to St. Theresa,' ' Anatolio Gaetani con-
quering the Saracens,' and the portraits of the
Pope and of Prince Rospigliosi. Other paintings
by him may be found at Catania, Rieti, and
Rovigo ; at Pisa, where is his ' St. Bona distribut-
ing his Wealth to the Poor, and taking the Re-
ligious Garb ; ' at the Palazzo Cesarini at Rome,
his ' Venus with Ascanius ; ' and in the Basilica of
Loreto, his 'St. Francis of Paola.' He died at
Rome in 1795.

CAVALORI. See SALINCORNO.

CAVARAZZI, BARTOLOMMEO, also called CRES-
CENZI, was born at Viterbo about the year 1590,
and was a pupil of Cavaliere Roncalli, called
Pomarancio. He had made great progress under
that master at Rome, when he was taken into the
protection of the noble family of the Crescenzi,
whence his acquired name. He painted many
pictures for his patron, and was also employed at
several of the public edifices of Rome, where he
died in the prime of life in 1625. Of his paintings
we note :
Rome. S. Andrea delta \ St. Charles kneeling, with a choir

Voile. ( of angels.

S. Ursula. The Legend of that Saint.

S. Anna Conv. Virgin and Child, with St. Anne.

CAVAZOLA. See MORANDO.

CAVAZZA, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, was a painter
and engraver, who was born at Bologna about the
year 1620. He studied under Cavedone and Guido,
and painted some pictures for public buildings at
Bologna. The church of the Nunziata has frescoes
of saints painted by him. He engraved the fol-
lowing plates from his own designs :

The Crucifixion.

The Resurrection.

The Death of St. Joseph.

The Assumption of the Virgin.

CAVAZZA, PIER FRANCESCO, was born at
Bologna in 1675, and was a pupil of Domenico
Viani. He painted historical pictures, and was
engaged at several of the churches of his native
city. He died in 1733. We notice of his works :
Bologna. SS. Sebastiano \ The Conception, and SS. Sehas-
and Rocco. j tian and Roch.

S. Colomltano. SS. Nicholas and John the

Baptist.

S. Giuseppe. The Nativity.

CAVAZZOLA. See MORANDO.
CAVAZZONI. FRANCESCO, was born at Bologna
T



in 1559, and is known to have been living up to
1612. He was first the pupil of Bartolommeo
Passarotti, but afterwards attended the school of
Lodovico Carracci. Less distinguished than Guido
and Domenichino, he nevertheless held a respectable
rank amongst the followers of that great school.
His principal works are :

Bologna. S. Maddalena di 1 Magdalene washing the feet of

Via S. Sonata. $ Christ.
S. Cecilia. The Crucifixion.

& G $S? ^ } St ' John the Ba P tist Poaching.

CAVAZZONI ZANOTTI, GIOVANNI PIETRO,
though of Bolognese origin, was born in Paris
in 1674. He was sent when young to Bologna,
where he became a scholar of Lorenzo Pasinelli.
Under that master he acquired an agreeable tone
of colouring, a mellow pencil, and an intelligent
acquaintance with the principles of chiaroscuro.
He painted several altar-pieces for the churches
at Bologna, of which the most esteemed are
the ' Incredulity of St. Thomas,' in the church
of San Tommaso dal Mercato ; ' The Resurrec-
tion,' in San Pietro , ' The Nativity,' in La Puriti ,
and a large picture representing the ' Ambassadors
from Rome swearing fidelity to the Bolognese,'
in the Palazzo Pubblico. He travelled extensively
in France, Germany, and Italy, and resided during
a great part of his life at Cortona, where he also
distinguished himself by several pictures which he
painted for the churches, particularly ' Christ ap-
pearing to the Magdalene,' 'Christ bearing His
Cross,' and 'The Murder of the Innocents.'

Zanotti was a laborious and intelligent writer on
art, the most considerable of his numerous publi-
cations being his ' Storia dell' Accademia Clementina
di Bologna,' published in two volumes, quarto, in
1739. He died at Cortona in 1765.

CAVE, F. MORELLAN DE LA. See MORELLAN.

CAVE, HENRY, an architectural draughtsman,
born in 1780, is best known by his ' Antiquities of
York,' in forty plates, drawn and etched by him-
self, and published in 1813. He died at York in
1836.

CAVE, JAMES, an architectural draughtsman,
illustrated Milner's ' History of Winchester,' pub-
lished in 1809. He occasionally exhibited drawings
at the Royal Academy.

CAVEDONE, JACOPO, an eminent but unfortun-
ate painter, was born at Sassuolo in the Modenese,
in 1577. Driven, when a boy, from his home by
the severity of his father, he sought a subsistence
by becoming a page to a nobleman, a great lover
of art, who possessed a valuable collection of pic-
tures. The young Cavedone had employed him-
self in his moments of leisure in copying some
of them with a pen, and the copies appeared to his
master such extraordinary efforts of untaught
genius, that he showed them to Annibale Carracci,
and introduced the young artist to him, who
encouraged the youth to persevere, gave him
some of his drawings to copy, and soon after-
wards received him into his school. The pro-
gress of Cavedone under such an instructor was
surprising. He also studied under Passarotti, and
then went to Venice, where he applied himself to
study the works of Titian, and acquired that
admirable style of colouring in which he may be
said to have surpassed every other painter of his
school. On his return to Bologna, he commenced
the display of his talents with such eclat, that some
of the pictures he painted for the churches were

273



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



esteemed almost equal to the works of Annibale
Carracci. At this time his design was elegant
and correct, and his colouring so tender, and at the
same time so vigorous, that it is recorded by Lanzi,
that Albani, on being asked by a stranger if there
were any pictures by Titian at Bologna, replied,
" No, but there are two by Cavedone in San Paolo,
which amply supply the want of them, and are even
painted with more spirit." In his fresco works he
was singularly harmonious, using tints with little
variety, but so admirably appropriated to that
style of painting, that Guido adopted him as a
model. Cavedone, who in the prime of his career
promised to be the honour and support of art
in his country, was reduced in later life to the
miserable necessity of painting ex voti for sub-
sistence. Superstition had charged his wife with
witchcraft, and that absurd accusation plunged
him into the deepest affliction. The loss of an
only son, who had shown the most marked and
promising disposition for art, filled the cup of
his affliction. He sank into a childish and stupid
despondency, and died in wretchedness and want,
in Bologna, in 1660, aged 83. His principal
works are :

Bologna. Pinacoteca.



San Paolo.



, Ospitale di S. \
Francesco, j
, 8. Salvatore.
S. Michele in Bosco



S. Maria delle \
Laudi. J
Florence. Ujfizi.
Madrid. Gallery.
Modena. Este Gall.

Munich. Pinakothek.
Paris. Louvre.

Vienna. Belvedere.



Virgin adored by SS. A16 and

Petronius. 1614.
The Martyrdom of St. Peter of

Verona.
The Nativity.
The Adoration of the Magi (hii

masterpiece).
Holy Family, with SS. John and

Francis.

The Four Doctors of the Church.
St. Cecilia.
The Martyrdom of SS. Tiburtius

and Valerian.
Death of St. Benedict.
The Virgin and Child, with three

Saints.

His own Portrait.
Adoration of the Shepherds.
Magdalen.

St. Stephen borne up to Heaven.
Pieta (two).
St. Cecilia.
St. Sebastian.



CAVENAGHI, EMILIO, an Italian painter of
landscapes and genre pieces, was born in 1852.
1 La Stanza Poldi,' and ' The Music Amateur,' are
two of his best performances. He also designed
many woodcuts for book-illustrations. He died at
Milan in 1876.

CAWSE, JOHN, who was born about 1779, ex-
hibited portraits at the Academy in 1802, and
afterwards historical pictures. He is best remem-
bered by his work ' The Art of Painting Portraits,
Landscapes, Animals, Draperies, &c., in oil colours, 1
published in 1840. He died in 1862.

CAXES, EDGENIO, (CAXESI, or CAXETE,) the son
and scholar of Patricio Caxes, was born at Madrid
in 1577. He assisted his father in several of his
works for the court, and was made painter to
Philip III. in 1612, after having finished the
' Judgment of Solomon,' in the king's audience
room in the Pardo. He afterwards painted the large
altar-piece in the convent of Our Lady of Mercy
at Madrid, and scenes from the life of Agamemnon
in the Alcazar. He was reappointed court painter
by Philip IV. in 1621, and painted the portrait of
that king, as well as some historical works for
the royal palaces. He executed several works in
fresco, in conjunction with Vicente Carducho, for

274



the cathedral of Toledo. It is remarkable that
almost all the works of this artist, except those
mentioned below, have been destroyed by fire.
The convent of San Felipe el Real at Madrid,
where were many of his works, was burned in
1718, and the Palace of the Pardo also perished
by fire. He died at Madrid in 1642. The following
pictures are by him :

Copenhagen. Museum. Fall of the Rebel Angels. 1605.
Madrid. S. Martin. The Nativity, aud the Adoration

of the Magi.
Monastery of\

San Augustin >SS. Joachim and Anne.

Cahado. }
Museum. Landing of the English Fleet at

Cadiz in 1625.

Madonna and Child.

St. Ddefonso.

And many chalk and Indian ink
drawings.

CAXES, PATRICIO, (CAXESI, or CAXETE,) was a
native of Arezzo. It is not known by whom he
was instructed, but he became an artist of sufficient
celebrity to be invited to Spain by Philip II., who
employed him in the palaces of Madrid. He was
commanded to paint the gallery of the queen in
the Palace of the Pardo, on which occasion he
made choice of the very inappropriate subject of
the 'Chastity of Joseph.' It was destroyed with
many other valuable works of art in the burning
of that palace. Patricio Caxes, after serving Philip
II. and Philip III. during forty-four years, died at
Madrid in extreme poverty, at an advanced age, in
1612. The king being informed of the state of
destitution in which he had left his widow and
eight children, munificently assigned to them five-
pence a day for one year 1 Caxes translated into
Spanish Vignola's ' Five Orders of Architecture,'
for which he engraved the frontispiece and plates.

CAYLINA, PAOLO, the elder son of a Pietro
Caylina. He is mentioned as a citizen of Brescia
in 1458, in which year he appears at Pavia and
painted an altar-piece for a church at Mortara
(now at Turin). His name occurs in Brescian
documents between 1459 and 1475, and he executed
several paintings there, none of which have sur-
vived. In all probability he was a brother-in-law
of Vincenzo Foppa. The only work by him at
present known is the following : Turin Gallery,
' Madonna and Child with Saints ' ; signed and
dated, Paulus Brisiensis, 1458.

CAYLINA, PAOLO, the younger, probably a
nephew of the above and the son of Bartolommeo
Caylina, whose sister was the wife of Vincenzo
Foppa. Paolo is spoken of in Brescian documents
as the nephew and heir of Foppa ; on the death
of the master he succeeded to his house, the lease
of which he renewed in his own name in 1523.
He died after 1547. He is occasionally called
Paolo Foppa, and is probably identical with a
fresco painter who worked with Floriano Ferra-
mola, and who is erroneously held to have been
Paolo Zoppo. The works of Paolo Caylina have
not as yet been identiBed, but in all probability he
is the author of many of the frescoes at Brescia
ascribed to Vincenzo Foppa the younger, of whose
existence there is no proof. There were at
Brescia in the sixteenth century several painters
who bore the name of Vincenzo, but none of them
were connected with Vincenzo Foppa. It would
therefore seem more in accordance with historical
accuracy to cancel the name of the mythical
Vincenzo Foppa the younger and to substitute for



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



it that of Paolo Foppa, i. e. Paolo Caylina, the
nephew and heir of Vincenzo Vecchio.

CAYLUS, ANNE CLAUDE PHILIPPE DE THDBIERES
DE GRIHOARD DE PESTELS DE LEVI, Comte de, a
celebrated amateur, was born in Paris in 1692. He
entered the army and saw some service in the field,
but eventually devoted himself to the pursuit and
encouragement of art, in the service of which he
may be said to have spent his life and fortune. He
visited Italy, Greece, Turkey, and Asia Minor, where
he sought to discover the site and ruins of Troy, and
is well-known by his ' Recueil d'AntiquiteV an
elaborate publication in seven volumes, the last of
which appeared in 1767, two years after his death.
His etchings, more remarkable for the extraordinary
zeal shown in producing them than for any special
talent, are to be counted by thousands. His plates,
after the drawings of Bouchardon, were finished
by Fessard and his pupils. His work has been the
means of preserving to us the subjects of masterly
sketches by some of the most celebrated painters.
His portrait was engraved by Charles Nicolas
Cochin, the younger. He died in Paris in 1765,
and his tomb is in the church of St. Germain
1'Auxerrois. His etchings are marked with the
following monograms : C*. C***. CO C de C.
C.S. C*S. M le C de C.

Amongst them the following are most worthy of
attention :

A set of about three hundred plates of the Gems in

the Collection of the King of France.
A set of ten Antique Subjects from drawings by Edme

Bouchardon, etched by C. de Caylus, and finished with

the graver by Le Baa.
A set of six Mythological Subjects ; after Bouchardon ;

etched by C. de Caylus, and finished with the graver

by Fessard.
A set of thirty Heads ; after Rubens and Van Dyck ;

from the Crozat Collection.
A set of fifty grotesque Heads ; after Leonardo da

Vinci.

A set of five Sketches ; after Delia Bella.
Portrait of Polidoro da Caravaggio.
Ten subjects from the Life of Joseph ; after sketches

by Rembrandt.

The Deliverance of St. Peter ; after the same.
Set of eight plates for " Les Chats " of M. de Moncrif.
The Amusements of the Country ; after Watleau.
Portrait of Camille Falconet ; after Doublet.

CAZENAVE, , was a French engraver, born
in Paris about 1770, who reproduced with a certain
success in the dotted manner some of the compo-
sitions of Boilly and other popular artists, and like-
wise executed some historical scenes of the Revo-
lution. The date of his death is not recorded. Hia
best works are :

L'Optique ; after Boilly.

La Rose prise ; after the same.

L'Amour couronne ; after the same.

La VoluptS ; after Regnault.

A Female Head ; after Prud'hon.

CAZES, PIERRE JACQUES, born in Paris in
1676, was successively the pupil of Houasse and
of Bon de Boullongne. He was noted as a painter
of historical subjects, and executed several works
for Notre Dame, and for the choir of St. Germain-
des-Pres. In the Louvre is a study of ' St. Peter
resuscitating Tabitha.' He became a member of
the Academy in 1703. He became Professor in
1718, Rector in 1743, Director in 1744, and
Chancellor in 1746. P. A. Robert, Ch. Parocel,
Chardin, and the Swedish portrait-painter Lund-
berg were amongst his scholars. He died in Paris
in 1754.

T 2



CAZES, ROMAIN, a French historical painter, was
born at St. Beat (Haute-Garonne)in 1810. He was
a pupil of Ingres, and is known chiefly by his
portraits and subjects from sacred history. He
decorated the church of St. Francois Xavier at
Paris, and died in 1881.

CAZIN, JEAN CHARLES, a famous French land
scape painter, born at Samers (Pas-de-Calais) in
1840, the son of a doctor. He studied under Lecoq de
Boisbaudran and went to England, where he came
under the influence of the Pre-Raphaelite school.
It was from London he first sent to the Salon of
1876 'LeChantier,'afragment of a projected decora-
tive work. His principal later works were ' The
Flight into Egypt,' ' The Journey of Tobias,' ' The
Departure of Joseph and Mary from Judsea,' the
latter obtaining an honourable mention. In 1880
his ' Hagar and Ishmael ' was awarded a first-class
medal, but from 1883 he principally produced land-
scapes, luminously painted and full of sentiment.
He was Vice-President of the National Society des
Beaux Arts, and created Knight of the Legion of
Honour in 1882, and an officer in 1889. He married
Marie Guillet, also a well-known artist, and died
at the age of sixty. P. P.

CEA, JUAN DE, a Spanish painter, flourished in
the middle of the 16th century at Burgos, in the



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