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cathedral of which city he executed, in 1565, in
conjunction with Juan de Aneda, several paintings
of merit.

CECCARINI, SEBASTIANO, was born at Urbino
about the year 1700, and was a pupil of Agostino
Castellacci. He painted historical subjects at Rome
with distinction during the pontificate of Clement
XII. The surporta of the church of Sant' Urbano
in Campo Carleo, and the high altar-piece are by
him, also the altar-piece in the Cappella degli
Svizzeri in the Quirinal. His best works are at
Fano ; amongst them may be mentioned his ' St.
Lucia' at the Augustine Church, and historical
subjects in the Piazza del Popolo. [.He died in 1780.

CECCHI, GAETANO, was a painter born at Flor-
ence, who flourished there about the year 1770.
He engraved some plates of historical subjects,
after the Italian painters, which are etched, and
finished with the graver.

engraver, born at Florence about the year 1748.
He engraved several portraits for the work entitled
'Serie degl' Uomini illustri,' and also for the 'Life
of the Marquis de Pombal.' We have also by him
the following plates :

The Calling of St. Andrew to the Apostleship ; after
L. Cardi.

The Martyrdom of St. Laurence ; after Pietro da Cor-

The Martyrdom of St. Vitalis ; after F. Barrocri.

The Stoning of St. Stephen ; after the same.

The Entombment of Christ ; after Dam'ele da Volterra.

Catiline's Conspiracy ; after Sahator Rosa.

CECCHINI, FRANCESCO, a Roman engraver, who
flourished about the close of the 18th century, is
best known by a set of five engravings after
Perugino's frescoes in the Sala del Cambio at
Perugia. He also engraved the ' Visitation of the
Virgin to St. Elizabeth,' after Moretto, and several
other subjects from the Old and New Testaments.
He was no longer living in 1811.

CECCHINO DA VERONA is only known as the
painter of a ' Virgin and Child, between SS. Vigi-
lius and Sisinius,' in the cathedral of Trent, sup-
posed to have been painted about 1450.




CECCO, GREGORIO DI, of Lucca, was the adopted
son and heir of Taddeo Bartoli, his name first
appearing on the roll of the Sienese Guild in
1389. He seems to have assisted his adopted
father in gome of his pictures, for there formerly
hung in the Marescotti Chapel of Sant' Agostino at
Siena a picture that was signed TADDEVS ET GRE-


also known to have painted in 1384 the boards of
the Biccherna at Siena. The dates of his birth
and death are unlike uncertain. In the cathedral
at Siena there is a picture by him of ' The Virgin
and Child, with Seraphs and Angels,' signed and
dated 1423.


CECCO DI PIBTRO lived at Pisa in the 14th cen-
tury, and according to Ciampi painted in the Campo
Santo in 1370, in company with five other artists.
He was one of the people's representatives in 1380,
and in 1386 he painted a ' Nativity of the Virgin '
for the church of San Pietro in Vincolo at Pisa,
which is now lost. There is a ' Crucifixion, be-
tween the Virgin and Saints,' by him, to be seen
in the Pisa Gallery.

CECIL, THOMAS, was an English engraver, who
flourished about the year 1630. His plates are
not without considerable merit, neatly executed,
entirely with the graver, and chiefly consist of
portraits. Amongst them are :

Queen Elizabeth on Horseback.

Walter Curie, Bishop of Winchester.

William Cecil, Lord Burghley.

Edward Reynolds, Bisbop of Norwich.

Thomas Kidderminster of Langley. 1628.

John Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury.

Sir John Burgh, killed at the Isle de Rhe ; this print
is very scarce, as it is thought the plate was altered,
and the name changed for that of Gustavus Adolphus,
and inserted in Scudery's ' Curia Polilite.'

John Weaver ; prefixed to his ' Funeral Monuments.'

Archee, the King's Jester ; a small whole-length.

Sir John Hayward, Knt., LL.D.

The Frontispiece to Ambrose Parry's Works. 1634.

The Frontispiece to Devout Meditations. 1629.

The Frontispiece to Lord Bacon's &ylva Sylvarum. 1627,


CELENTANO, BERNARDO, an artist possessed
of much skill in the delineation of character and
expression, was born at Naples in 1835. Two of
his paintings quoted are, ' Tasso exhibiting the
first Signs of Madness,' and ' The Council of Ten.'
He studied at Rome, and died in 1860.

CELERS, ZACHARIE, was a French landscape
painter, who flourished at Amiens in 1551, and de-
signed the triumphal arches erected on the occasion
of the entry of Henry II. In 1560 he was con-
demned for having taken a view of the city of
Amiens and its fortifications.

CELESTI, Cavaliere ANDREA, was a painter born
at Venice in 1637. He was a pupil, though not
an imitator, of Matteo Ponzone. To a fertile
imagination he added a vagueness of style, and a
flowing outline resembling that of Paolo Veronese.
His colouring is clear, brilliant, and tender, but
in some cases, from defective priming of his can-
vas, his pictures have lost something of their
original freshness, and in the half-tints appear to
have in some degree perished, from which circum-
stance the harmony of the effect is somewhat
diminished. He painted historical subjects, both in

large and in easel pictures, and sometimes con-
versations and pastoral subjects. His principal
historical works are in the church of the Ascension
at Venice, the best being ' The Adoration of the
Magi.' The ducal palace possesses a picture of a
subject taken from the Old Testament that is highly
esteemed. He died at Venice in 1706. Other
works by him are in the under-mentioned galleries:

Cassel. Gallery.
Dresden. Gallery.

The Illness of Antiochus Soter.
The Murder of the Innocents.
Worship of the Golden Calf.
Bacchus and Ceres.

Munich. Pinakothek. The Magdalen washing the feet of

CELIO, Cavaliere GASPARO, was a painter born
at Rome in 1571, and who died there in 1640.
According to Baglione, he was the pupil of Niccolo
Circignani, called Pomarancio. Of his works there
are cited

Rome. S. Giovanni ) St. Michael discomfiting the
in Laterano. J Rebel Angels.
*. Carlo at ) gt charles Borromeo.

Catinan. j

Mendicanti, St. Francis receiving the Stig-
Palazzo Mattel. Moses passing the Red Sea.

CELLIER, CELESTIN, a French historical and
portrait-painter, was born at Valenciennes in 1745,
and became a pupil of Groot. The Museum of his
native city has a picture representing ' Valenci-
ennes protecting the Arts,' but the greater part of
his works perished in the time of the first French
Revolution. He died at Valenciennes in 1793.

CELLIER, FRANgois PLACIDE, the son and pupil
of Celestin Cellier, was born at Valenciennes in
1768, and possessed considerable talent, but upon
inheriting a fortune at the death of his father he
abandoned art as a profession. His pictures of
' Meleager saving Atalanta,' and an ' Idyll," are in
the Museum of his native city. He died in 1849.

CELLONY, JOSEPH, a French portrait-painter,
was born at Aix in 1663, and died there in 1731.
His son, JOSEPH ANDR^ CELLONY, was born at Aix in
1696, and was a pupil of his father and of Rigaud.
He worked with his father, whom he surpassed
in portraiture, and died at Aix in 1746, leaving a
son, JOSEPH CELLONY, who painted historical sub-
jects. He was born at Aix in 1730, studied under
Andre-Bardon, and died in 1786.

GELS, CORNELIS, a painter of portraits and his-
torical subjects, was born at Lierre in Brabant in
1778. He studied under A. Lens at Brussels, and
then visited Paris and Italy, where he became a
professor of the Academy of St. Luke. He went
to Antwerp in 1807, and was appointed in 1820 to
the professorship of drawing at Tournai, a post
which he resigned in 1827. He subsequently settled
at Brussels, where he resided till his death in 1859.
His views were originally directed towards the
antique, as may be seen from a study of his ' Cin-
cinnatus ' at Ghent, but he subsequently took the
Pre-Raphaelites as his model, and in this style
painted the ' Descent from the Cross,' for the high
altar of St. Paul's at Antwerp, a picture in which
the drawing is bold and fine, but the colouring
cold, and the shadows too dark. ' The Baptism of
St. Catharine,' painted in 1809, and now in the
cathedral at Bruges, is a specimen of his earlier
manner. His portraits were held in some estima-
tion. In the Rotterdam Museum is a ' Portrait of
Gysbert Karel, Count of Hogendorp.'

CENNINI, CENNINO, whose full name was Cen-


nino di Drea Cennini, was born at Colle di Val d'
Elsa, and is well known as the author of a manu-
script work on the technical process of painting in
the 14th century, which has been translated by
Mrs. Herririghain (Allen, Lond. 1899). He was a
pupil of Agnolo Gaddi for twelve years, but his
paintings have nearly all disappeared. A fresco
of the Virgin and Saints by him, in the Hospital
of S. Giovanni Battista, at Florence, was destroyed
when the building was altered in 1787. Works by
him may be seen in the churches of San Gimignano.
In the chapel of La Croce di Giorno in San
Francesco, at Volterra, is a series of frescoes,
representing scenes from the lite of Christ, and
' The Finding of the Cross ' ; one of these, repre-
senting the ' Massacre of the Innocents,' bears the
date MCCCCX., and the signature, ' Cienni di Fran-
cesco di Ser Cienni da Firenze,' and it is considered
most probable that Cienni and Cennini are identical.
He was living at Padua in 1398.



CEPHISODORUS, an illustrious Greek painter,
who is mentioned by Pliny as having flourished
about B.C. 420.





CEREGHETTI, JOSEPH, a Bohemian painter,
was born at Chrudim in 1722, and died there in
1799. He studied under Hermann, and is known
by his altar-pieces and portraits, among the latter
being those of the Empress Maria Theresa and
the Prince of Auersperg.

CERESA, CARLO, was born at Bergamo in 1609,
and was educated under Daniele Crespi, an able
painter of Milan. In a short time he acquired a
etyle of design and colouring nearly approaching
in merit to that of his master. A tasteful arrange-
ment of his figures, great tenderness of colour, and
an agreeable expression in his heads and forms, are
amongst the characteristics of the works of this
painter as, given by Tassi. He was also eminent as
a portrait painter. He died in 1679. His works
are chiefly in the churches of Bergamo ; among
them are :

Bergamo. Cathedral. St. Vincent carried up to Heaven

by Angels.

S. Francesco. Four of the Prophets.
S. Pietro. The Resurrection.

CEREZO, MATEO, a Spanish painter, was born in
1635 at Burgos, where he learned the rudiments of
art from his father, Mateo Cerezo. When fifteen
years of age he went to Madrid, and frequented the
school of Juan Carreno de Miranda. After having
established his reputation by his 'Conceptions,'
painted for the churches of Madrid, Valladolid,
Valencia, Burgos, and Malaga, he was employed
by Francisco de Herrera, the younger, to assist
him with his frescoes in the dome of the church
of Our Lady of Atocha. He endeavoured to imi-
tate the colouring of Van Dyck, but was always
inferior to that master. He died at Madrid in
1685. The Galleries of the Hague, Madrid, and
Berlin, and the Czernin Collection at Vienna, all
possess pictures of the 'Penitent Magdalen' by
him. His most esteemed work was his picture
of ' Christ with the Disciples at Emmaus,' painted
for the refectory of the Recolete Friars in Madrid.
The Madrid Gallery has by him a fine 'Assumption
of the Virgin ' and the ' Mystic Marriage of St.

Catharine of Alexandria.' A ' Crucifixion,' formerly
in the Suermondt Collection, is now in the Berlin
Gallery ; a ' Portrait of Cardinal Puerto-Carrero ' is
in the Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; and a ' St. John
the Baptist ', in the Cassel Gallery.

CERMAK, JAKOSLAV, a Bohemian painter, was
born at Prague in 1831, and was educated in the
Academy of that town under Christian Ruben, in
Antwerp, in Brussels under Gallait, whom he closely
followed both in his excellencies and in his defects,
and lastly in Paris under Robert- Fleury. He settled
in the last-named city, and at first executed scenes
from Bohemian history, as ' A Night Attack on the
Hussites,' ' Bohemian Conversion Scene,' and ' The
Begging Court-Poets of Rudolph II.' (1850), the last
of which gained him his first reputation. A tour
in European Turkey in 1858 afforded him new ma-
terial, as instanced in some pictures mentioned
below. He was also particularly successful in the
portraiture of children. He died in Paris in 1878.
His later pictures comprise among others :

The Montenegrin Woman and her Child.
Turks assaulting a Herzegoviuian Woman.
Razzia of Bashi-Bazouks. 1861.
The Return to the Country.
Rendezvous in Montenegro. 1874.
The Hussites before Naumburg. 1875.
Taking of Laueuburg. 1876.


ness for painting battle-pieces, was born at Rome
in 1602. He was instructed in the school of Bonzi
(II Gobbo da Cortona), and afterwards under
Leckerbetjen and the bamboccia-painter De Laar,
in imitation of the last of whom he depicted low
scenes in a style that rivals that of his master.
He also painted fairs, markets, shipwrecks, and
doings of the Lazzaruni. His battle scenes are
full of life, and exhibit much richness of invention,
but are often too hastily executed. He finally
took to painting flowers and fruits, and his pro-
ductions of this class are highly esteemed. He
died at Rome in 1660. Some of his productions
are to be seen in the public galleries of Europe ;
but the best have been considered to be those
representing ' The Four Seasons,' which were
painted for the Salviati Palace at Rome.

Berlin. Gallery. Procession of a Pope in Rome.
Dresden. Gallery. A Battle-piece.
Florence. Uffizi An Old Woman.

Munich. Pinakothek. Hunting-scene.

A Cobbler.

Paris. Louvre. Fruit-pieces (two).

LIERE PERUGINO, was born .it Perugia in 1609. He
frequented the school of Guido Reni for some time,
and became a graceful and elegant designer, with
an expression in his heads that occasioned some
of his works to be taken for those of his master.
His best production is a fresco in the cupola of La
Madonna della Vittoria, at Perugia, representing St.
Paul taken up into Heaven. Other works by him
are in the galleries and churches of Brescia, Cassel,
Dresden, and Munich. He died in 1681.


Milan, who flourished about the year 1550. Ac-
cording to Lanzi, he was a pupil of Gaudenzio
Ferrari. His ' Incredulity of St. Thomas ' is con-
sidered to be one of the finest pictures in Milan,



and by its fine design, the animated expression of
the heads, and its entire harmonious effect, gives
this artist a high rank amongst the painters of the
Milanese School.

CERVELLI, FEDERICO, was a native of Milan,
who flourished ahout the year 1690. He was the
pupil of Pietro Ricchi, called II Lucchese, whom
he equalled in the freedom of his pencil, and
surpassed in the correctness of his design and the
impasto of his colour. One of his finest paintings
ia in the Scuola di San Teodoro, Milan, and repre-
sents an episode in the life of that saint.

Genoa about the year 1630. According to Soprani,
he was a scholar of Valerio Castello, whose vigorous
style he imitated with great success, but he died
young, in 1657.

CERVI, BERNARDO, was a native of Modena, and
a scholar of Guido. He possessed an extraordin-
ary genius, and, in the judgment of his excellent
instructor, would have reached a high rank in
art, had he not been cut off in the prime of his
life by the plague, which visited Modena in 1630.
His principal works are his frescoes in the cathedral
at Modena, in the churches of which city there are
some altar-pieces by him, and a 'Deposition from
the Cross ' in the Este Gallery. There is a print
by him, the ' Martyrdom of St. Sebastian,' with
his name abridged, and the date 1628.

CESA, ANTONIO, who lived in the 16th century
at Belluno, but of whose birth or death no dates
can be given, is the painter of an altar-piece in the
church of Sant' Andrea, Visome, near Belluno,
which represents the ' Virgin and Child, between
SS. Anthony, Daniel, Andrew, and another saint,'
signed " OPUS ANTONII DE CESA 1500."

CESA, MATTEO, was an artist living at Belluno
in the 14th and 15th centuries, of whose life and
death no exact dates are known. Paintings and
altar-pieces by this painter may be found in several
of the private collections and churches in and
around Belluno. The best specimens of his style
are :

Belluno. S. Stefano. Virgin and Child, with Saints and

Angels (carved v-ork).

Sala. S. Matteo. Virgin and Child between SS.
Matthew and Jerome.

CESAR, a French historical painter, who was
working at Avignon in 1367. He possessed con-
siderable talent, and acquired great renown, which
was celebrated in the verses of Parasolz B., a con-
temporary troubadour of Provence.


CESARI, BERNARDINO, was the brother and pupil
of Giuseppe Cesari, whom he assisted in many
of his works. He also painted several pictures
in the churches of Rome, entirely after the style
of his brother. For Clement VIII. he executed
a large fresco in St. John Lateran, representing
the Emperor Constantine in a triumphal car, with
many figures. He died at Rome in the prime of
life during the pontificate of Paul V. The church
of San Carlo ai Catinari possesses a picture of
' Christ appearing to Mary Magdalene,' by this

IL CAVAHERE D'ARPINO, from the birthplace of his
father, in the kingdom of Naples) was born at
Rome in 1568 (?). His father was a very humble
artist, who earned a miserable pittance by paint-
ing exvoti, and who taught his son what he knew of


art, with the view of his succeeding himself. The
young Cesari employed his leisure moments in im-
proving himself in drawing, and, at the age of thir-
teen, obtained his father's consent to go to Rome in
search of employment. Arrived in that capital,
he was under the necessity of offering his services
to prepare the pallets of the artists who were then
employed in the Vatican under Gregory XIII.
He had been some time in that servile situation,
when he took an opportunity, in the absence of
the painters, to sketch on the wall some figures
which excited the surprise and admiration of every
one, particularly Fra Ignazio Danti. the superin-
tendent of the works of the Vatican. He ac-
quainted the Pope with the circumstance, who
immediately took the young artist under his pro-
tection, and placed him in the school of Poma-
rancio, and Giuseppino, in a short time, was re-
garded as the most distinguished painter at Rome.
He was a perfect master of the arts of intrigue,
and had the talent of exalting the merits of his
own productions, whilst he depreciated the works
of others. Clement VIII., who succeeded to the
papal throne, continued to him the favour and
protection he had experienced from his predecessor,
and conferred on him the knighthood of St. John
Lateran, or, as some say, the order of the Abito di
Cristo ; and Louis XIII. made him a Chevalier of
the order of St. Michael. Abusing a natural f acility,
and yielding to the fire of an unrestrained imagin-
ation, Cesari appears to have skimmed the surface
of art, without venturing to dive into its depths.
Finding that he could satisfy the popular expecta-
tion without the labour of study, he did not think
it necessary to consult nature or the best models of
antiquity. By straining the attitudes of his figures,
he expected to give them animation and move-
ment; and when he attempted expression, he fell
into distortion and grimace. Those of his works
in which these defects are least discernible, are
such as admit of hustle, and require a crowded
composition. Such are his battle-pieces and pro-
cessions, in which the horses are drawn with great
spirit, and his readiness of invention is surprising.
With all his deficiencies, he enjoyed, during his
life, an elevated rank among the artists of his time,
and his school was one of the most frequented in
Rome. He died at Rome in 1640. Baglione states
that he lived to the age of eighty, but other writers
assert, with greater probability of accuracy, that he
died at the age of seventy-two. The following
are among his extant paintings :

Cassel. Gallery. The Betrayal of Christ.

Nymphs and Tritons.

Dresden. Gallery. A Roman Battle.
Fano. Castracani History of General Castruccio Cas-

Palace. tracani- fresco.

Florence. Ujfid. His own Portrait.
Naples. Carthusian \ Scenes from the Life of Christ

Monastery. J frescoes.

Paris. Louvre. Adam and Eve driven from Para-


Diana and Actawn.

Petersburg. Hermitage. St. Clara delivering the Town of


Reggio. Cathedral. The Visitation.
Rome. & Maria in\ p~_,,. 1Q t:,

iS. Prassede. The Ascension and The Prophets


Capitol Pal. Eomulus and Remus fresco.
Rape of the Sabine \Vomen.

The Horatii and Curiatii.
The Sacrifice of Numa Pompilius.
Capitol Mus. Diana.


Rome. Lateran Mus. The Annunciation.
Vienna, Gallitry. Perseus delivering Andromeda


Cesari executed several etchings after his own

CESARIANO, CESARE, born at Milan in 1483
was an architect as well as a painter of miniatures
which branches of art he learned under the tuition
of Bramante and Leonardo da Vinci. He was
employed in the decoration of the cathedral at
Milan, and he translated the ' Architecture ' oJ
Vitruvius, printed at Como in 1521, with woodcut
from his designs, the best of which are ' The Golden
Age,' 'The Building of the First Houses,' and
' The Elect of the Earth.' He died in 1546.
CESI, BARTOLOBIMEO, a Bolognese historical
painter, was born at Bologna in 1556. He was
lirst a scholar of Giovanni Francesco Brizzio, called
Nosadella, but afterwards studied the works of
Pellegrino Tibaldi. Contemporary with the Car-
racci, and not unfrequently painting in competi-
tion with them, he preserved their esteem by the
amiability of his mind, as much as he excited their
emulation by the display of his talents. Careful
and correct in his design, without timidity, happy
in the choice of his forms, and delicately tender in
the purity of his tints, his works appear to have
been the model from which Guido chiefly formed
the suavity and elegance of his style. His powers
are more extensive in his frescoes than in his
oil paintings, although he has displayed an uncom-
mon excellence in both in his numerous works
in the public edifices at Bologna. His principal
works in that city are :

Certosa. Christ in the Garden.

Descent from the Cross.

S. JJmnenico. Adoration of the Magi.

Descent of the Holy Ghost.

S. Giacomo Maggiore. Virgin and Child with Saints.
S'. Martina. Crucifixion.

Finacoteca. St. Paul and St. Peter.

St. Anne and the Virgin.

His most celebrated work is his set of ten frescoes
in the Palazzo Favi, representing subjects from
the life of .(Eneas : other works by him are in the
same edifice. He died at Bologna in 1629.

CESILLES, JUAN, a painter of Barcelona, who
flourished towards the close of the 14th century.
He executed, in 1389, an altar-piece containing the
history of the Twelve Apostles for the church of
St. Peter in Reus, but it was removed in 1557 to
make way for another work.

CESIO, CARLO, a painter and engraver of the
Roman school, was born at Androdoco, in the
Roman States, in 1625. He was brought up at
Rome, in the school of Pietro da Cortona, and was
employed with some of the best artists of his time
in several public works during the pontificate of
Alexander VII. He painted historical subjects,
and his works are held in considerable estimation.
He died at Rieti in 1686. In the Quirinal, he
painted ' The Judgment of Solomon,' and others of
his works are in Santa Maria Maggiore and in the

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