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Rotunda. Carlo Cesio was also an engraver of
some eminence ; we have by him several plates
after the Italian painters of his time. His plates
are etched and finished off with the graver, in a
free, masterly style. His drawing is generally
correct, and his prints have the effect of the works
of a painter. The following are his principal
works as an engraver :

The Virgin and Infant Jesus with St. John ; half-length
St. Andrew led to Martyrdom.prostrating himself before

the Cross ; after Guido.
The Frontispiece to the book entitled Discarsi delta

Sixteen plates from the Pamphili Gallery ; after Pietro

da Cortona.
Forty-one plates of the Farnese Gallery; after Annib.

Eight plates of the Buongiovanui Chapel in the church

of St. Augusine at Rome ; after Lanfranco.

a painter, sculptor, and architect, as well as a poet,
scholar, and divine, and equally an ornament of the
arts and literature of Spain, was born at Cordova in
1538. He was educated in the seminary at Alcala for
the priesthood, was thoroughly acquainted with the
classical and oriental languages, and spoke fluently
most of the European tongues. As a painter he
stands amongst the most eminent that his country
has produced. To perfect himself in this art, he
went twice to Rome for the purpose of studying
the works of the great masters, especially those
of Michelangelo and Raphael ; and he produced
several fine paintings for the public edifices of
that city. In the Trinita del Monte he painted
frescoes of the ' Annunciation ' and the ' Nativity,'
and several subjects from the life of the Virgin.
Whilst at Rome he formed a close friendship with
Federigo Zuccaro, from whose instructions he ac-
quired a pleasing- style of colouring. His learning
and merit raising him to the rank of a canon of the
cathedral of Cordova, he left Rome for that city in
1577. When Zuccaro was applied to by the Bishop
of Cordova to paint a picture for his cathedral, he
declined the commission, saying, that whilst
Cespedes was in Spain they need not send to Italy
for painters. Some of his best pictures, repre-
senting the ' Martyrdom and Burial of St. Catha-
rine,' were executed for the Jesuits' College at
Cordova, but all have been destroyed or lost. He
died at Cordova in 1608, and was buried in the
cathedral of that city. For a full account of this
emarkable man, see Cean Bermudez's ' Diccionario
Historico.' We note of his paintings :

Cordova. Cathedral. Last Supper.

Virgin and Child, with St. Anne.

Seville. Cathedral. Four Allegorical Figures of the


Museum. Last Supper.

CESSON, ETIENNE VICTOR, French landscape

lainter ; born at Coincy (Aisne) in 1835. Studied

n Paris at the Ecole des Beaux Arts and became

:he pupil of Amaury Duval, who employed him in

connection with the mural decorations of the parish

church of St. Germain en Laye and others.

Duval subsequently took him with him in his

ourneys to Egypt, Nubia and Syria. Cesson also

jave considerable help to Puvis de Chavannes

n some of his more important decorative works.

jYora 1864 onwards he exhibited in the Salon ;

among his landscapes may be cited ' Le Mont

Danigou ' ; and of his figure painting, the ' Hylas,"

and ' Giotto, enfant,' deserve mention. He also

executed some praiseworthy portraits and char-

joal sketches. His death occurred at his native

lace, Coincy, on June 6th, 1902.




K VALENCIA, a painter of religious, historical, and

ther subjects, was born at Valencia in 1696. After



acquiring some knowledge of painting he went to
Rome, and became a disciple of Corrado Giaquinto,
whose manner he imitated. He returned to Va-
lencia, and passed on to Granada to seek assistance
from an uncle who was one of the judges of the
Court of Chancery, but not receiving the aid which
he needed, he entered the Capuchin convent in
that city in 1747. He was drowned in 1749. In
the refectory of the convent to which he belonged
there was a picture of the ' Last Supper ' by him ;
and several of his smaller subjects were in the
collections of private persons in Valencia.

CHALETTE, JEAN, a. French miniature and
portrait painter, was a native of Troyes, where he
at first practised his art. In 1581 he was sum-
moned to Toulouse to decorate the H6tel-de-Ville,
and there gained so much renown that he settled
in that city, where he died in 1643.

painter, architect, and mathematician, was born in
Paris in 1718. He studied under Andre, Lemoine,
and Boucher, and subsequently visited Rome. A
' Sleeping Diana,' which he painted in 1744, and
a ' Venus ' by him are to be seen in Brunswick.
He also painted many ceilings for palaces and
churches, but never gained much reputation as a
painter, although elected an Academician in 1753.
As an architect and as draughtsman to the king he
directed the theatrical entertainments at Fontaine-
bleau in 1765, and the fetes and illuminations at
Versailles on the occasion of the birth of Louis
XVI. in 1754, as well as the funerals of the
Dauphin and the Dauphiness, of Stanislaus, King
of Poland, of the Queen of Spain, and of Louis
XV. and his queen, Marie Leszczynska. He was a
knight of the Order of St. Michael, married the
daughter of the painter Nattier, and died in Paris
in 1778.

CHALMERS, Sir GEORGE, Bart., a native of
Edinburgh and a pupil of Allan Ramsay, exhibited
portraits at the Royal Academy from 1775 to 1790.
He died in London in 1791.

CHALMERS, GEORGE PAUL, a Scotch portrait
and landscape painter, was born at Montrose in
1836. He at first served an apprenticeship to a
ship-chandler, but afterwards went to Edinburgh,
and entered the School of Design, then under the
direction of Lauder. His earlier works were por-
traits, and it was only at a later period that he
took to landscape painting. He was elected an
Associate of the Scottish Academy in 1867, and an
Academician in 1871. He died in Edinburgh,
February 20, 1878, from the effects of an accident
that befell him in the streets of that city on the
16th of the same month. Among his works were:

The End of the Harvest. 1873.

I ; n.nin:: Water. 1875.

The Love Song.

Prayer. 1871.

The Potato Harvest.

The Legend (in the Edinburgh National Gallery).

CHALMERS, W. A., a water-colour painter
who practised in London towards the close of the
18tb century, and is believed to have died young
His works are chiefly interiors of churches witl
some ceremony introduced : occasionally he paintet
subject-pieces, as " Mrs. Jordan as ' Sir Harr
Wildair.'" and "Kemble in the 'Stranger.'"

CHALON, ALFRED EDWARD, was born at Geneva

in 1781 . His family, whilst he was yet a youth, re

moved to London, where, together with his brothe

John James Chalon, he was destined for mercantili


pursuits. But an inclination for the arts overruled
his intention, and the establishment of the Sketch-
ng Society, in which the two young Chalons were
mainly instrumental, confirmed them in the adop-
ion of the pursuit of their choice. Alfred became
a student of the Royal Academy in 1797, an Asso-
ciate in 1812, and a Royal Academician in 1816.
His reputation was first established and principally
rests upon the portraits, mostly in water-colours,
which he exhibited during many years at the Royal
Academy ; and in which he displayed a certain
;urn of piquancy and elegance, and a free and
sparkling pencil. So much in vogue, indeed, was
je at one time, that the ladies of the aristocracy
locked to him to sit for their portraits. He made
striking portrait of Queen Victoria, shortly after
ier accession, and was appointed portrait-painter
in water-colours to Her Majesty. When somewhat
advanced in life, he essayed oil-painting, but, as
may be supposed, with a success, in a technical
point of view, subordinate to that which he had
ichieved in the more familiar vehicle of water-
olours ; whilst, as regards composition and treat-
ment, the delineator of the reigning belle of the
season was hardly endowed with the grandeur of
purpose and style to do full justice to such subjects
is ' Samson and Delilah,' ' John Knox reprov-
ing the Ladies of Queen Mary's Court' (1837),
'Christ mocked by Herod' (1841), 'A Madonna'
(1845), or even to fancy and poetic subjects of less
lofty aim. He died at Kensington in 1860, and was
buried in Highgate Cemetery.

CHALON, CHRISTINA, was born in Amsterdam
in 1748, and studied painting under Sara Troost
and Ploos van Amstel. She, however, devoted
herself more particularly to etching, in which she
acquired great proficiency. She has left us some
thirty plates, for the most part in the style of
Ostade. She died at Leyden in 1808. Her etch-
ings are marked with Chr* Cha., or CJir - Chal.,
or else CG. Amongst the best may be noticed :

An Interior, with three Boors.

A Mother taking three children to School.

An Old Woman saluting a peasant Boy.

CHALON, HENRY BERNARD, an animal painter,
was born of Dutch parentage in London in 1770.
He was a student of the Academy, and first exhi-
bited a landscape with cattle in 1792. He met
with much patronage at court, being appointed
animal painter to the Duchess of York in 1795, as
well as to the Prince Regent, and afterwards to
William IV. His pictures were chiefly devoted to
the portraiture of horses. He met with a severe
accident in 1846, and died in 1849. His daughter,
Miss M. A. CHALON (afterwards Mrs. H. MOSELEY),
was miniature-painter to the Duke of York. She
died in 1867.

CHALON, JOHN JAMES, was born at Geneva
in 1778, of an old French family who had taken
refuge there after the Revocation of the Edict
of Nantes. He was a painter of a wide range
of subjects landscapes, marine scenes, animal
life, and figure-pieces. He went to England when
quite young, and entered the Schools of the Aca-
demy in 1796. His first picture, ' Banditti at
their Repast,' appeared in 1800. In 1808, he, his
brother Alfred Edward Chalon, and some friends,
founded the Sketching Society, and in the same
year he joined the Water-Colour Society, but in
1813 he seceded from it, and again devoted himself
to painting pictures in oil for the Royal Academy.


He was elected an Associate of that Institution
in 1827, and an Academician in 1841. In 1820,
Chalon published a series of ' Sketches from Parisian
Manners,' in which the incidents were admirably
varied, and so selected as to display the most
amusing points of national character in connection
with all that was most picturesque in the costume
of the time, and with that true humour which never
degenerates into caricature. He was fond of the
scenery of Switzerland, the land of his father and
mother, and some of his finest landscapes are
faithful transcripts of its mountains and lakes.
Among these, a very noble work is his ' Castle of
Chillon,' its lonely white walls strongly contrasting
with the dark mountains that rise behind them, and
glittering in the ripple of the clear blue lake.
Amongst his later productions were ' Gil Bias in
the Robbers' Cave,' in 1843, and the ' Arrival of
the Steamer at Folkestone,' in 1844. In 1847, he
was seized by an attack of paralysis, and, after
a long and painful illness, died at Kensington in
1854. The Gallery of Greenwich Hospital possesses
his ' Napoleon on board the Bellerophon,' painted
in 1816, and in the Sheepshanks Collection at the
South Kensington Museum are ' Village Gossips,'
painted in 1815, and ' Hastings, Fishing Boats
making the Shore in a Breeze,' painted in 1819.

CHALON, Louis, was a landscape-painter, who
is thought to have been born in Holland about
1687. He painted some views on the Rhine, en-
livened with figures, in a very artistic manner and
with an agreeable colouring. He died at Amster-
dam in 1741.


CHAMBERLAIN, WILLIAM, who was born in
London, studied in the Royal Academy Schools
and under Opie. His works, sometimes exhibited
at the Royal Academy, were for the most part
portraits. He died at Hull in 1807.

CHAMBERLIN, MASON, a pupil of Frank Hay-
man, was a portrait-painter, who gained some suc-
cess on account of the fidelity of his likenesses.
He was an exhibitor at Spring Gardens in 1763, and
at the Royal Academy (of which he was one of
the original members) from 1769 to 1786. He
died in London in 1787. The Royal Academy pos-
sesses his portrait of Dr. Hunter, which was his
presentation picture, and the Royal Society has his
portrait of Dr. Chandler. Both these portraits
have been engraved.

CHAMBERS, GEOBGE, a painter of shipping
scenes, was a son of a poor seaman of Whitby
in Yorkshire, where he was born in 1803. During
his apprenticeship on board a trading sloop he
gave evidence of the talent by which he was
subsequently distinguished, by making sketches
of shipping for the amusement and gratification
of the seamen. At Whitby, he took lessons of a
drawing-master of the name of Bird, and em-
ployed his spare time in painting small pictures of
shipping, for which he found a ready sale. Go-
ing to London three years later, he obtained an
introduction to Mr. Thomas Homer, who employed
him for seven years to assist in painting the great
Panorama of London at the Colosseum, in the
Regent's Park. He was also engaged as scene-
painter at the Pavilion Theatre. Here he attracted
the notice of Admiral Lord Mark Kerr, who became
his sincere patron, and procured him an introduc-
tion to King William IV. He was admitted as an
Associate Member of the Water-Colour Society in
1834, and was elected a full member in 1836 ; but

a constitution originally very weak, and much shat-
tered by a sea-faring life, was unable to bear the
incessant application to which his mind would sub-
ject it : his strength gave way, and he died in 1840.
His pictures are now appreciated by collectors, and
obtain good prices. His best productions are his
naval battles, in which he is excellent, though in
the colouring there is perhaps too much redness
pervading everything, the smoke in particular.
There are in the hall at Greenwich Hospital three
battles by him : the ' Bombardment of Algiers,'
the ' Capture of Portobello,' and a copy of
West's picture of the ' Destruction of the French
Fleet at La Hogue.' In the South Kensington
Museum are four water-colour drawings by

CHAMBERS, THOMAS, an English engraver, was
born in London about the year 1724, and drowned
himself in the Thames in 1789. He engraved
many of the plates for Boydell's collections, and
several portraits of artists for Lord Orford's
' Anecdotes.' They are executed with the graver,
in a firm, but not a pleasing style. The following
are some of his best prints :

A Concert; after Caravagyio.
Raphael's Mistress ; after Raphael.
The Holy Family ; after Murillo.
St. Martin dividing his Cloak ; after Rubens.
St. Peter and St. John healing the Sick ; after S, Bour-

Jupiter and Antiope ; after Casali.
Helena Forman ; after Van Dyck.
The Good Man at the Hour of Death ; after Way-man.
The Wicked Man ; the companion ; after the same.
The Death of Turenne ; after Palmieri.
Mrs. Quarrington as St. Agnes ; after Reynolds.

CHAMORRO, JDAN, a Spanish historical painter,
was a pupil of Francisco de Herrera, the elder, and
was president of the Seville Academy in the years
1669 and 1670. He was living in 1673, but the
date of his death is not known. The pictures of
the ' Four Doctors of the Church,' and those repre-
senting scenes from the life of the Virgin, in the
church of Our Lady of Mercy at Madrid, attest
his merits as a painter and a colourist.

painter of historical subjects, genre pictures, and
portraits, was born at Brussels in 1631. He was a
nephew of Philippe de Champaigne, who sent for
him to Paris when only eleven years of age, and
gave him instruction in painting. He adopted the
style of his uncle, but did not, however, attain his
eminence, though his works have sometimes passed
current under the uncle's name. He visited Italy,
returned to Brussels, and thence went to Paris,
where he was in 1663 elected a member of the
Academy. He died in Paris in 1681. The follow-
ing are some of his principal works :

Brussels. Museum.

Grenoble. Museum.

Lyons. Museum.
Marseilles. Museum.

Nancy. Museum.

Versailles. Palace :
Salon de

The Assumption of the Virgin

(painted for the church of St.

Gudule, Brussels').
St. Peter.
The Benediction of the Order of

St. Dominic.

The Adoration of the Shepherds.
The Stoning of St. Paul at Lystra

(a ' mai ' painted in 1667 for

Notre-Dame at Paris).
St. Paul.

}Tbe ceiling representing' Mercury
in his chariot drawn by two
cocks,' and four subjects from
the lives of Alexander, Ptolemy,
and Augustus.



CHAMPAIGNE, PHILIPPE DE, a painter of his-
torical subjects and portraits, was born at Brus-
sels in 1602. Though a native of Brabant, he is
generally reckoned as belonging to the French
school. He studied under Bouillon, Michel Bour-
deaux, and Fouquiere, but went to Paris at the
age of nineteen, where he placed himself under
the direction of L'Allemand. Shortly afterwards
he was employed by Du Chesne, the painter royal,
to work at the Luxembourg in concert with Nicolas
Poussin. His extraordinary success arousing the
envy of Du Chesne, he quitted Paris for Brussels in
1627, but was almost immediately recalled by the
Queen-Mother, Marie de Medicis, to be appointed
to the post held by Du Chesne, who had just died.
At Paris he executed numerous works for the
churches and royal residences, and especially for
Cardinal Richelieu's palace. He was one of the
first members of the Academy, of which he was
also Professor and Rector. His star, however,
began to pale somewhat before the brilliancy of
Le Brun's rising fame. But this aroused no un-
worthy feeling in Champaigne's mind. He retired
quietly and modestly from active and public life,
and died in Paris in 1674. His pictures show a
certain affinity with those of Poussin, whose in-
fluence he felt, but they surpass them in point of
colouring, being remarkable in that respect for
truth, brilliancy, and technical skill. His weak
point was in the conception and the composition.
As a portrait-painter he holds high rank. His
likenesses are distinguished by a fine, noble, and
lifo-like execution, vivid appreciation of the natural,
a skilful luminosity of colouring, and careful exe-
cution and masterly handling. The following are
some of his principal works :

Althorp, Earl Spencer, Portrait of Robert Arnaud
d'Andilly. Brussels, Museum, Presentation in the
Temple; St. Genevieve, St. Joseph (pointed far
Saint Se'verin, Paris) ; St. Ambrose, St. Stephen
(painted for Saint Germain-l' Auxerrois at Paris');
The Life of St. Benedict (executed for the Abbey of
the Val-ie-Gra.ee at Paris) ; Portrait of Himself (a
replica of that in the Louvre). Dijon, Museum, The
Presentation in the Temple. Florence, Uffizi, Portrait
of a Man; The Calling of St. Peter; Pitti Pal.,
Portrait of a Man. Hague, Gallery, Portrait of
Joseph Govaerts. 1665. Lille, Museum, Adoration.
London, National Gallery, Three Portraits of Cardinal
de Richelieu in one picture (a full-face and two pro-
files : painted for the use of the Roman sculptor
Mocchi in making a bust) ; Portrait of Cardinal
Richelieu in State dress ; Wallace Gallery, Four
Important Pictures. Lyons, Museum, The Last
Supper (replica of the painting in the Louvre)',
Finding the Kelics of St. Gervais. Madrid, Gallery,
St. Anne and the Virgin ; Portrait of Louis XIII.
Munich, Pinal;othek, Portrait of Marshal de Tureune ;
Madonna and Christ. Paris, Louvre, The Feast in
the House of Simon ; The Last Supper, 1648 ; Christ
on the Cross ; The Dead Christ ; Portrait of Catherine
Agnes Arnauld, and the daughter of the painter ;
Landscape; Louis XIII. crowned by Victory; Por-
trait of Cardinal de Richelieu ; Portrait of Robert
Arnaud d'Andilly, 1650 ; Portrait of Himself ; Por-
traits of Francois Mansard and Claude Perrault;
Christ on the Cross, 1674 ; Portrait of Jean Antoine
de Mesme, 1653. Vienna, Adam and Eve mourning
for Abel.


CHAMPIN, JEAN JACQUES, a French painter in
water-colours and lithographer, wag born at Sceaux
in 1796. He was a pupil of Storelli and of Regnier,
and devoted himself chiefly to historical land-
scapes. He lithographed a series of views of Old


Paris, and in conjunction with Regnier produced
the ' Habitations des personnages les plus celebres
de la France depuis 1790 jusqu'a nos jours.' He
also contributed designs to the ' Magasin Pittor-
resque,' the ' Illustration,' and many other illus-
trated publications of his time. He died in 1860.

ZANNE, a French engraver who lived in the latter part
of the 18th century, was a sister of General Marceau.
Married at the early age of fourteen to a profligate
husband, she sought to relieve the unhappiness of
her life by studying drawing and engraving under
an artist named Sergent, whose wife she became
after the death of her first husband. She engraved
vignettes after Cochin, Moreau, Eisen, and Maril-
lier, and some portraits in aquatint for the collec-
tion published by Blin and Le Vachez.

CHANDLER, J. W., a natural son of Lord War-
wick, painted portraits in London towards the close
of the 18th century, and afterwards in Aberdeen-
shire and Edinburgh. He died young about 1804.

CHANTEREAU, J., a French painter, who was
born in Paris about 1710. His works were chiefly
battle-pieces and hunting-scenes, painted with con-
siderable life and movement. It is probable that
he studied under Watteau or Pater. A scarce
etching of his exists, entitled, ' Divertissement par
eau et par mer,' or, as it is sometimes called,

CHANTRY, JOHN, was an English engraver of
the time of Charles II., who worked chiefly for the
booksellers. He lived some time at Oxford, and
died about 1662. His plates are executed with the
graver in a formal, stiff style. Vertue mentions
the following portraits by him :

James I.

Charles II. ; three prints.

James, Duke of Monruouth.

John Selden.

Edward Leigh, M.A., of Magdalen College, Oxford.

Thomas Whitaker, Physician to Charles II.

Richard Gethinge, a Writing Master.

CHANUEL, GONNET, a French historical painter,
was born at Avignon, where he flourished in 1560.
He painted some pictures of which the composition
and colour were much admired.


CHAPLIN, CHARLES, French painter and en-
graver, born at Andely in the department of Eure,
on the 8th of June, 1825. His father was English,
but his mother French. He did not become a
naturalized Frenchman until 1886. A pupil of
Drolling, his early portraits and landscapes exhibited
a strongly-marked realistic tendency, but, soon
changing his style, he reproduced elegant types of
women and allegorical works. His best-known
pictures are ' Le Soir dans les Bruyeres' in the
Bordeaux Museum, and ' Les Bulles de Savon' at
the Luxembourg. He also painted a decorative
panel entitled ' Un Reve,' for Prince Demidoff, and
in 1861 he executed the ceiling and door-panels of
the Salon des Fleurs at the Tuileries. He etched
a series of eaux-fortes after his own pictures
and several portraits after Rembrandt. As a
foreigner he was disqualified for the ' prix de Rome,'
but gained a third-class medal in 1851, a second-
class medal in 1852, and a medal in 1865, in August
of which year he was decorated with the Legion of
Honour, and promoted officer in 1879. He died in
Paris on the 20th of January, 1891.



















painter and engraver, was born at Geneva in 1753.
He settled in Paris, and executed in the dotted
style many mythological and fancy subjects after
Huet, Schall, Boilly, Cazenave, and other painters
of the French school of the 18th century. He died
about 1824. His best works are ' Le Prelude de
Nina,' ' L'Amant f avoriseY ' La Comparaison des
petits Pieds,' and ' Le Bouquet ch6ri,' all after

CHAPRON, NICOLAS, a French historical painter
and engraver, was born at Chateaudun in 1612.
He was a pupil of Simon Vouet, and went to Rome
about 1640, where he painted, under the direction

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