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of Poussin, a copy of Raphael's 'Transfiguration. 1
He also painted a ' Holy Family,' and ' Mary going
to the Temple ; ' the latter has been engraved by
Picquot. He remained at Rome several years, and
in 1C49 published his set of fifty-two plates from
Raphael's works in the Vatican. Several artists
have engraved these admirable productions, but in
all of them we seek in vain for the nobility of cha-
racter and purity of design of their great author.
Chapron's transcripts are perhaps the least faulty of
those that have appeared. He died at Rome pro-
bably about 1656. Chapron is better known by
his engravings than by his paintings, very few of
which have descended to us. The Louvre, and
the museums of Rennes, Perpignan, Nantes, and
Alencon possess drawings and paintings by him.
We have, besides the Bible of Raphael, the follow-
ing plates by him, sometimes marked N C F., or
N C H F, some of which are from his own designs:

His own Portrait, seated at the foot of the Bust of
Raphael. The title to Raphael's Bible.

Henry IV., King of France; below, in basso-rilievo, the
King wounded by Du Chatel ; after Freminet ; scarce.

Another Portrait of Henry IV., with a battle below.

The Virgin suckling the Infant ; said to be after Titian,
but considered by Mariette to be Chapron's own
design.

The Alliance of Bacchus and Venus. 1639.

A drunken Silenus, with a Satyr offering him drink.

Bacchus, with a Man carrying a Child.

Satyrs, with Women and Children.

A Bacchanal, with a Child pouring out wine to a Bac-
chante.

Another Bacchanal, with Silenus riding on a Goat.

Young Bacchanalians, one riding on a Goat.

Another Bacchanal. 1639.

CHAPUY, JEAN BAPTISTE, a French engraver,
was born in Paris in 1760. He worked with Jani-
net upon the ' Costumes des Theatres de Paris,' and
executed some fancy subjects after Lavreince and
others, but more especially devoted himself to en-
graving in colour. The best of the many prints of
the fete of the Federation in the Champ de Mars,
July 14, 1790, is by him, after Le Roy, and he also
engraved a very curious set of fourteen plates of
'Coiffures de Dames,' as well as a series of por-
traits of Louis XVI., Marie Antoinette, Cagliostro,
and others concerned in the affair of the Diamond
Necklace. He died in Paris in 1802.

CHAPUY, NICOLAS MARIE JOSEPH, a French
architect, lithographer, and naval engineer, was
born in Paris in 1790. He executed the drawings
and plates for the ' Vues pittoresques des Cathe'-
drales franQaises,' 1823-31; 'Voyage pittoresque
dans Lyon,' 1824 ; ' Le Moyen-Age monumental et
arche'ologique,' 1839-44, and several other works.
He also edited, with Beugnot, the complete works
of Palladio, 1825-42. He died in Paris in 1858.

CHARDIN, JEAN SIMEON, was born in Paris in



1699. His father at first placed him with Cazes.
but as that master's habit was to give his pupils
his own work to copy, he did not make much
progress. He subsequently entered the atelier of
Noel Nicolas Coypel, and was chosen among other
of Coypel's pupils to assist Jean Baptiste van Loo
in restoring one of the galleries at Fontainebleau.
In the establishment of his reputation he now de-
voted himself to the painting of dead animals
and still-life. His old master, Cazes, is said to
have taken some of his productions for original
works of the Dutch masters. His success became
assured, and he was made a member of the Aca-
demy in 1728, and Treasurer in 1755. About
1737 he began to turn his attention to figure
painting, and his well-known ' Benedicite ' was
exhibited in 1740. His works are remarkable for
truth, simplicity, and neatness of finish, as well
as for the harmony of their tone, and the generally
careful management of light and shade. It is
worthy of note that they fell into disrepute towards
the close of the last century, but, with the revival
of a truer feeling, they have again won a high
position in public estimation. Chardin's second
wife having been a lady of Rouen, he spent several
years in that city, but died in Paris in 1779. The
following are some of his principal works :

Dulwich. Gallery. Girls at Work.
Montpellier. Mu^ J Madame Geo ff rin.

" (Kitchen Utensils,/ *" ^

Pans Louvre < -n *. i i "S cures at tne

t Fruit, Animals, &c.| Amd lm

The Blessing (Le Benedicite).

1740.

Dead Rabbit. 1757 ?
Kitchen Utensils. 1731.

The Attributes of the Arts. 1765.

The Attributes of Music. 1765.

The Blessing (replica of above).
I Boy with Cards.

La Ca;e J Monkey Painting.

Coll. } The Silver Goblet.

The Basket of Grapes.
^Kitchen Utensils.

A nd others.
Petrsbrg. Hermitage. The Blessing.

The Washerwoman.

Liechtenstein f Mother and Son. 1739.
Gallery. \ Interiors with figures (three).

Chardin had a son who won the ' grand prix ' for
painting in 1754, but died young.

CHARLES XV., KING OF SWEDEN AND NORWAY,
was born May 3rd, 1826, and succeeded to the
throne on the death of his father, King Oscar I.,
on the 8th of July, 1859. He received instruction
in the art of landscape painting first _from his
father, but was afterwards more fully instructed
by Boklund, and his style was still further influ-
enced by Bergh and Wahlberg. The subjects
he chose were scenes in Sweden and Norway,
broad sketches of coast scenery, or summer wood-
lands. He often painted in conjunction with
Malmstrom and Winge, who supplied the figures.
Among his works may be mentioned ' In the
Forest,' painted in 1869, 'View on the Waldbach,'
and the ' Castle of Ulricsdal.' He died at Malmo,
Sept. 18, 1872. The position in which Charles
XV. stood towards the arts had much influence on
their development in Sweden. He was the rally-
ing-point of the art world in his own kingdom, and
was the means of turning the attention of Swedish
artists to the beauties of their own country.

CHARLES, CLAUDE, a French historical and

283



Vienna. '



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP



decorative painter, was born at Nancy in 1661.
He studied under Gerard, and became herald at
arms and painter to Leopold, Duke of Lorraine.
He painted numerous pictures for the churches of
Nancy, and died in that city in 1747.

CHARLET, NICOLAS TOUSSAINT, a French painter
and lithographer, was born in Paris in 1792. He
showed much taste for drawing whilst at school,
and later on studied under Lebel and Gros. The
first work that brought him into notice was a litho-
graph, ' La Garde meurt mais ne se rend pas,' pub-
lished in 1817. There is a touch of humour in his
representations, especially in those in which grena-
diers are introduced. He perhaps had a natural in-
clination towards subjects of that class from the fact
of his father having been in the army. Figures of
street Arabs, market women, and concierges were
also handled by him in a life-like and picturesque
manner. The Louvre possesses twelve of his draw-
ings. Versailles has a ' Scene from the Russian Cam-
paign,' exhibited in 1836; the Museum of Lyons,
' Moreau's Passage of the Rhine ; ' and the Museum
of Bordeaux, ' Wounded Soldiers on the March.'
He died in Paris in 1845. Charlet's lithographs
number nearly two thousand, besides which he
produced a large number of water-colour and sepia
drawings and some etchings.

CHARMADAS, (or CHARMAS,) was one of the
earliest of the Greek monochromists, who flourished
about B.C. 850.

CHARMETTON, GEORGES, a French historical
painter, was born at Lyons in 1619. He was a
pupil of Jacques Stella, and was made an Academi-
cian in 1663, in which year Sebastien Bourdon
entrusted to him the whole of the architectural
decorations of the H6tel de Bretonvilliers. He
died in Paris in 1674.

CHARPENTIER, CONSTANCE MARIE, whose
maiden name was BLONDELU, was born in Paris in
1767. She studied under Wilk, David, Latitte,
Gerard, and Bouillon, and devoted herself chiefly
to portraiture, but likewise painted some genre
subjects. She died in Paris in 1849.

CHARPENTIER, EUGENE Louis, who was born
in Paris in 1811, studied under Gerard and Cogniet,
and became celebrated as a painter of historical
pictures. These were frequently battle-scenes,
some of which are at Versailles. He was also a
portrait painter, and one of his most successful
works was a likeness of Georges Sand, painted in
1839. His ' Pupils of the Ecole Polytechnique at
the Battle of Paris, March 30, 1814,' which was
exhibited in 1852, is now in the Museum of Bou-
logne-sur-Mer. He died in 1880.

CHARPENTIER, FRANQOIS PHILIPPE, a French
engraver, who invented a machine for engraving in
aquatint, and another for engraving patterns for
lace, was born at Blois in 1734, and died there in
1817. By this artist we have among other prints
the following :

The Education of the Virgin ; after Boucher.
Cupids playing with the Graces ; the same.
The Death of Archimedes ; after Ciro Ferri.
The Shepherdess ; after Berchem.
The Shepherd reposing ; after the same.
The Descent from the Cross ; after C. van Loo.
Astyanax torn from the arms of Andromache by order
of Ulysses ; after Doyen.

CHARPENTIER, JEAN BAPTISTE, a French
painter of genre subjects and portraits, was born
in Paris in 1728, and died there in 1806. The
Museum of Rennes has by him a full-length por-

284



trait of the Duke of Penthievre, High Admiral of
France and Governor of Brittany. His son and
pupil, JEAN BAPTISTS CHARPENTIER, born in 1779
in Paris, where he died in 1835, painted historical
subjects and portraits.

CHARPENTIER, RENE JACQUES, a French
engraver, was born at Caen in 1733, and died in
1770. We have by him ' The Last Supper,' and
1 Christ washing the Disciples' Feet,' after Lam-
bert Lombart, and a ' Crucifixion,' after his own
design.

CHARPENTIERE, ADRIEN. See CARPENTIERS.

CHARPIGNON, CLAUDE, was a French engraver
who flourished in the 17th century, by whom we
have a ' Virgin and Child,' after Guido Reni ; a
' Holy Family,' after Laurent de La Hyre ; ' St. Mary
of Egypt,' after Blanchard, and some portraits.

CHARRETIE, ANNA MARIA, was born at Vaux-
hall in 1819. Through misfortunes after the death
of her husband, she adopted art as a profession.
Amongst her pictures are ' Lady Betty Germain,'
' Lady Betty's Maid,' ' Lady Betty shopping,' and
' Mistress of herself though China fall.' She died
at Kensington in 1875.

CHARRIN, FANNY and SOPHIE, were sisters, and
natives of Lyons. Fanny was a pupil of Legay,
and, adopting miniature painting, was attached to
the porcelain manufactory at Sevres. She died in
Paris in 1854. Sophie painted portraits, and died
in Paris in 1856.

CHARTIER, JEAN, a French painter and en-
graver, was born at Orleans, in the early part of
the 16th century. In 1574 he published a set of
ten engravings from his own designs, entitled,
' Les Blasons de vertu,' the frontispiece to which
contains a portrait of the artist. He died at
Orleans in 1586. Among other works by him we
have the following plates :

The Virgin and Infant Jesus, with St. John.

A Man sitting in a Landscape, with ruins.

A nude figure of a Man carrying the base of a column.

The Artist himself seated in his studio.

CHASE, JOHN, was born in London in 1810.
When very young he showed a love for art, and
was greatly helped in his studies by Constable,
who took a warm interest in his efforts and pro-
gress. At fourteen he exhibited his first picture
at the Royal Academy, and ten years later he was
chosen one among the earliest members of the
New Society of Painters in Water-Colours (now
the Institute), to which he was a constant contri-
butor. He generally painted landscapes and archi-
tectural subjects, especially Haddon Hall. He
died in London in 1879. In the South Kensington
Museum there is a drawing by him of ' Windmills
by a River.'

CHASSELAT, CHARLES ABRAHAM, a French his-
torical painter, was the son of Pierre Chasselat.
He was born in Paris in 1782, and became a pupil
of his father and of Vincent. He exhibited in 1812
' The Repose of Belisarius.' He also illustrated
the works of Voltaire, Racine, Moliere, and other
authors ; and was employed in making drawings
of state ceremonials, as the ' Funeral of Louis
XVIII.' and the 'Coronation of Charles X.' He
died in Paris in 1843. His son HENRI J. SAINT-
ANGE CHASSELAT, who was a pupil of Lethiere,
painted historical and genre subjects. He was
born in 1813, and died in 1880.

CHASSELAT, PIERRE, a French miniature
painter, was a pupil of Vien. He exhibited water-
colour drawings and miniatures from 1793 to 1810.



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



He was a native of Paris, and died in that city in
1814.

CHASSERIAU, THEODORE, a French historical
and portrait painter, was born at Sainte-Barbe
de Samana in the Antilles in 1819. Brought to
France whilst quite a boy, he was placed in the
studio of Ingres, and he afterwards followed that
master to the French school at Rome, but subse-
quently quitted him in order to give himself up more
freely to his own inspirations. He next fell under
the influence of the leader of another great school,
Delaroche. Chasseriau executed several large
mural paintings on the grand staircase of the Cour
des Comptes in the palace of the Conseil d'Etat,
and in the churches of St. Merry, St. Roch, and St.
Philippe-du-RouIe at Paris. Among his works
may be cited the ' Tepidarium at Pompeii ' (now
in the Louvre), 'Arab Cavaliers carrying away
their Dead,' 'The Arabian Challenge,' 'Susannah
and the Elders,' ' Christ in the Garden of Olives,' and
' Mary Stuart defending Rizzio against his Assas-
sins.' His chief portraits are those of Lacordaire
and of Madame de Girardin. He also left behind
him fifteen etchings of subjects from Shakespeare's
' Othello,' and thirty from ' Hamlet.' He died in
Paris in 1856.

CHASTEAU, GUILLAUME, a French engraver,
was born at Orleans in 1635. He was instructed
by Greuter, but afterwards studied under Cornells
Bloemaert, and went for further improvement to
Italy. After passing several years at Rome he
returned to Paris, where he was employed by Col-
bert. His first productions were some portraits of
the Popes. He afterwards engraved several prints
after N. Poussin and some of the Italian painters,
some of which are entirely executed with the
graver, in the style of Poilly and Bloemaert, whilst
others are the work of the point, which he handled
with spirit and taste. Indeed it is to be regretted
that he did not always follow that style, as being
more picturesque and free. The plates which he
engraved at Rome are usually marked Gulielm/is
Castellus Gallus. He became an academician in
1663, and died in Paris in 1683. The following
are his principal works :

A set of Portraits of the Popes.

Portrait of Jean Baptiste Colbert; oval.

Portrait of the Bishop of Ruette.

The Virgin with the Infant Jesus, embracing a Cross.

The Life of St. Theresa.

The Miraculous Draught of Fishes ; after Raphael.

The Baptism of Christ ; after A Hani.

St. Paul restored to sight by Ananias ; after Pietro da

Cortona.

The Martyrdom of St. Stephen ; after Annibale Carratci,
The Assumption of the Virgin ; after the same.
Christ appearing to St. Peter ; after the same.
The Repose in Egypt ; after Correggio.
The Holy Family, with St. John ; after N. Poussin.
The Israelites gathering Manna in the Wilderness ;

after the same.

Christ healing the Blind ; after the same
St. Paul taken up to Heaven ; after the same.
The Preservation of the Young Pyrrhus ; after the same.
Rinaldo and Armida ; after the same.
The Death of Germanicus ; after the same.
The Virgin and Infant Jesus ; after Noel Coypel.
The Holy Family ; after the same.

ANTOINETTE CHASTEAU, the wife of Guillaume
Chasteau, was a daughter of the landscape painter,
Antoine Herault. She was bom in Paris in 1642,
and distinguished herself as a painter of miniatures,
executing both portraits and copies of the works of
great masters, among the latter being the ' Family



of Darius,' after Lebrun. She married in 1686, as
her second husband, the painter Jean Baptiste
Bonnart, and died in Paris in 1695.

CHASTEAU, NICOLAS, (or CHATEAU,) a French
engraver, was born in Paris about the year 1680,
and died about 1750. We have the following
plates by him :

A Young Lady, with a Mask in her Hand ; half-length ;

after Santerre.
A Young Lady in a Spanish Dress ; half-length ; after

the same.
Summer, represented by a female figure ; half-length ;

after P. van den erye.
Venus and Adonis ; after L. Silvestre.
Daphne and Apollo ; after the same.
Rinaldo and Armida ; after the same ; finished by J.

Audran.

There was likewise a painter named NICOLAS
CHASTEAU, who died in Paris in 1704, at the age
of 44.

CHASTEL, FRANCOIS DU. See DUCHATEL.

CHASTILLON, CLAUDE, a French engineer, topo-
grapher, and engraver, was born at Chalons-sur-
Marne in 1547, and died in Paris in 1616. There
is by him a valuable series of plates entitled, ' Topo-
graphie francoise, ou representation de plusieurs
villes, bourgs, chasteaux, maisons de plaisance,
mines et vestiges d'antiquitez du royaume de
France,' published in 1641, and again with additions
in 1647.

CHASTILLON, Louis DE, a French painter in
enamel and miniature, and an engraver, was born
atSte. Menehould in Champagne about 1639. He
excelled in enamel painting, and executed all the
portraits which the king gave, set in jewels, to
the foreign ambassadors. He engraved several
large plates after the designs of Tortebat, and ap-
pears to have been an imitator of the fine style of
Gerard Audran. His prints are not without merit,
though greatly inferior to those of his model. He
died in the Louvre in 1734. We have by him the
following plates :

The Adulteress before Christ ; after S. Bourdon.

The Conversion of St. Paul ; after the same.

The Seven Sacraments ; after Poussin.

St. John in the Isle of Patmos ; after the same.

Jupiter and Leda ; after the same.

The Fates spinning the Destiny of Marie de' Medici ;

after Eutens.

Two sets of prints of the Fountains at Versailles.
A set of plates of the Pavilions at Marly.

CHATAIGNIER, ALEXIS, a French engraver,
born at Nantes in 1772, was a pupil of Queverdo.
He executed a large number of plates for Filhol's
'Musee Francals,' and died in Paris in 1817.

CHATARINUS. See VENETIIS.

CHATEL, FRANCOIS DU. See DUOHATEL.

CHATELAIN, JEAN BAPTISTS CLAUDE, an en-
graver, was born in Paris about 1710. One account
given of his history states that his proper name
was Philippe, and that he served as a French
officer in the campaign in Flanders, but afterwards
devoted himself to the pursuit of art. He was
endowed with extraordinary capacity ; and had his
application been but equal to his genius, few
would have surpassed him in the branch of art to
which his natural disposition directed him. He
had a peculiar talent for drawing landscapes,
either from nature or his own fancy, with a readi-
ness that was altogether surprising. Unfortunately,
from his idle and dissolute course of life, he seldom
exercised his abilities until compelled by necessity.
The drawings, in chalk and with the pen, which

285



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



he has left make us deeply regret that the irregu-
larity of his life has limited these admirable pro-
ductions to a much smaller numher than his
uncommon facility would otherwise have secured
to us. Chatelain was much employed by Boydell,
especially in engraving with Vivares the series of
landscapes after Claude, Rembrandt, Guaspre, arid
others. Vivares being more appreciated by the
public, his name was often placed on plates en-
graved by Chatelain alone, as in the case of a fine
landscape after Pietro da Cortona, and another
named ' The Storm,' in which Poussin has intro-
duced the story of Pyramus and Thisbe. He en-
graved, also for Boydell, eleven views in London
and in Italy. He died in London in 1771. The
following list comprises his most important works :

The Four Times of the Day; etched by Chatelain,
afterwards finished in mezzotint by Houston.

Eight Landscapes ; afttr Gaspard Poussin.

A Landscape ; after Rembrandt.

Eight Views of the Lakes in Cumberland and West-
moreland ; after Sellers.

Three Landscapes ; after Pietro da Cortona, N. Poussin,
and F. Bolognese.

Portrait of Crebillon.

Portrait of Meunier de Querlon.

CHATELET, CLAUDE Louis, a French painter,
was born in Paris in 1753. He produced Swiss
views, sea-pieces, and pastoral scenes in the style
of Vernet. Examples of his work are in the
Orleans Museum, the Palace at Fontainebleau, and
the Cottier Collection. He embraced with ardour
the cause of the Revolution, allied himself with
Robespierre and the leaders of the Jacobins, and
became a member of the Revolutionary Tribunal.
He was arrested some months after the 9th Ther-
midor, tried, condemned, and executed in Paris,
May 7th, 1795.

CHATFIELD, EDWARD, a portrait painter, was
born in 1802. He was a pupil of Haydon, and ex-
hibited at the Royal Academy from 1827. He also
painted some historical subjects the ' Death of
Locke' in 1833, the 'Battle of Killiecrankie ' in
1836, and 'Ophelia' in 1837 but his powers were
not equal to such works. He wrote some articles
for ' Blackwood's Magazine,' and the ' New Monthly
Magazine,' and died in 1839.

CHATILLON, CHARLES DE, a native of Doullens,
was a French painter who executed a fine portrait
of Napoleon I. as Emperor, of which there is an ex-
cellent engraving by Audouin. This engraving is
found surmounting a plate of 'The Battle of Aus-
terlitz,' engraved by Duplessis-Bertaux, and finished
by Bovinet.

CHATILLON, HENRI GDILLAUME, a French line-
engraver, and professor of drawing at the Military
School of St. Cyr, was born in Paris in 1780. He
was a pupil of both Girodet and Girardet. There
exists a large series of lithographs of the drawings
which he made for the use of his pupils. He died
at Versailles about 1856. The following are con-
sidered his best works :

The Madonna with the Fish ; engraved under Chatil-
lon's directions from his own drawing ; after Jtaphael.

The Holy Family ; after Giulio Romano. (Musee Fran-
cais.)

St. Michael and the Dragon ; after Raphael.

Endymion ; after Girodet.

An Offering to jEsculapius ; after Guerin.

Angelica and Medora ; after the same.

CHATILLON, Louis DE. See CHASTILLON.
CHATILLON, PAULINE. See GAUFFIER.
CHAUBERT, GERMAIN, a French painter and
286



engraver, was born at Grisolles in 1784. He
painted an ' Assumption of the Virgin,' and en-
graved an ' Ecce Homo,' after Mignard. He was
designer and engraver to the Academy of Sciences
at Toulouse, and died in 1821.

CHAUDET, ANTOINE DENIS, a distinguished
French sculptor, who was also an historical
painter, was born in Paris in 1763. When at
Rome he studied particularly the works of Raphael,
and has left behind him a picture on the subject of
' JSneas and Anchises.' The edition of Racine
published by Didot in 1801 1805, contains some
illustrations after his designs. He was elected a
member of the Institute in 1805, and died in Paris
in 1810.

His wife, JEANNE ELISABETH GABIOU, was like-
wise an artist of talent. She was born in Paris in
1767, and married in 1793. Her studies were
made under the direction of Madame Lebrun and
of her husband, and in 1799 she exhibited her best
work, ' L'Education du Carlin.' She also painted
some good portraits. After the decease of Chaudet
she married, in 1812, M. Husson, and died in Paris
in 1832.

CHAUFOURIER, JEAN, a French landscape
painter and engraver, was born in Paris in 1675.
He married a daughter of the celebrated engraver,
Gerard Edelinck, and taught drawing to Mariette.
He was received into the Academy in 1735, and died
at St. Germain-en-Laye in 1757. There are three
of his drawings in the Louvre, and we have a set
of eight landscapes engraved by him.

CHAUVEAU, EVRARD, a French painter, the son
of Fran9ois Chauveau, was born in Paris in 1660,
and studied under his father and Henri Lefebvre.
He was largely employed at Gaillon by Archbishop
Colbert, and in 1695 went to Sweden, where he
painted many ceilings and decorations for the
palaces of the Queen and nobles. He died in
Paris in 1739.

CHAUVEAD, FRANgois, a French painter and
engraver, was born in Paris in 1613. He studied
under Laurent de La Hyre, and painted small pic-
tures in the style of that master, but not meeting
with much success, he devoted himself entirely
to engraving. His first attempts were with the
graver, but he soon exchanged it for the point,
with which he could give more rapid expression to
the creations of a lively and fertile genius. His
smaller plates are much in the manner of Sebastien
Leclerc, and these are his best works. He is
said to have produced upwards of three thousand



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