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plates, most of which were for the illustration of
books. He was received into the Academy in
1663, and, died in Paris in 1676. He was the
father of Evrard Chauveau, the painter, and Rene:
Chauveau, the sculptor. His plates are signed
FC fe.; FC in et fc. ; FG. in et sc. ; F. C. ;
F. Ch. d. ; or with ciphers. The following are
his principal works :


Les Devices de 1'Esprit ; fifty plates, designed and en-
graved by himself.

Nineteen plates for the History of Greece.

Many plates for Benserade's translation of Ovid's ' Meta-
morphoses.' 1676.

The Bible History ; in nineteen plates.

Several plates for Tasso's ' Jerusalem.'

The same for the Fables of La Fontaine.

Some plates for Scarron's * Virgile Travesti.'

Twenty-one plates for the poem of Clovis.

Twelve plates for the Pucelle d'Orlt'aus.


Two hundred and forty-three medals in the collection
of F. Orsini.

The Annunciation.
The Repose in Kgypt.
The Virgin and Child, with St. John.
The Crucifixion.

The Mystery of the Sacrament ; 1676 ; in two sheets.
Meleager and Atalauta ; circular.
Venus and Adonis ; the same.
The Carrousel of 1662.
Hia own Portrait.

Christ with the Disciples at Emmaus ; after Titian ;

the same subject that is so finely engraved by Masson,

called the ' Table-Cloth.'

A Concert; after Vomenichino ; also engraved by Picart.
The Life of St. Bruno ; after the pictures by Le Sueur,

originally iu the Convent of the Carthusians at Paris ;

twenty-three plates.
The Nativity ; after L. de La Hyre.
The Holy Family ; after the same.
Meleager presenting the Head of the Boar to Atalanta;

after the same.
The Triumphal Arch for the Place Dauphine ; after

Portrait of Kabelais ; frontispiece to the first edition of

his ' Epitres,' 1651.

scape painter, was born in Paris in 1774. He was
a pupil of Valenciennes, and passed the greater
part of his life at Rome, where he died in 1832.
Many of his works are in England, Russia, and
Germany. A ' View in the environs of Naples ' is
in the Museum of Montpellier.


CHAVARITO, DOMINGO, a Spanish historical
painter, was born in Granada in 1676, and there
learned the rudiments of art from Josef Risueno.
He afterwards went to Rome and studied under
Benedetto Luti, but returned to his native city, and
died there in 1750. His works, which are chiefly
in the private houses of Granada, are good in
colour and in composition.

CHAZAL, ANTOINE, a French painter of flowers
and of portraits, as well as an engraver, was born
in Paris in 1793. He studied under Misbach,
Bidauld, and Van Spaendonck, and became Pro-
fessor of Iconography at the Jardin des Plantes.
Besides portraits, flowers, and fruit, he painted a
few landscapes and altar-pieces for churches. He
also engraved a portrait of Cardinal La Fare.
Chazal died in Paris in 1854.

CHAZAL, CHARLES CAMILLE, a French painter,
and son of Antoine Chazal, was born in Paris in
1825. He studied under Drolling and Picot, and
entered the Ecole des Beaux- Arts in 1842. His
' Institution of the Eucharist,' painted in 1863, is
in the church of St. Louis-en-1'Ile at Paris. He
died in 1875.

French historical painter, was born at Besanyon
in 1757. The Museum of his native city has some
paintings and sketches by him which are not with-
out merit. He died at Besan9on in 1795.

CHEDEL, QUINTIN PIERRE, a French designer
and engraver, was born at Chalons-sur-Marne in
1705. He received his earliest instruction in the
studio of Le Moine, but having chosen engraving
as his profession, he afterwards became a pupil of
Laurent Cars. His talent in designing and engrav-
ing vignettes caused him to be much employed by

the booksellers of Paris. His plates are etched
with great spirit, and sometimes finished with the
graver in a style of unusual ability. He died at
Paris in 1762. Among his numerous works the best
known is the series of illustrations after Boucher
to Duclos' romance, 'Acajou et Zirphile ' ; the
following are also deserving of notice:


A set of six Landscapes ; dedicated to Madame de Pom-

Six plates of Battles ; dedicated to Count Turpin de

The Village "Wedding, and the Village Feast.

Two Landscapes with Burns, called 'Les Ruines de


Four of Attacks of Cavalry ; after Van derMeulen.

Four of Landscapes with Ruins ; after Boucher.

Two of Sea-pieces with Fishermen ; after A. Willaerts.

Day-break, a Landscape ; after Tenters.

A Landscape, figures and horses ; after Woutcerman.

A Sea-port ; after the same.

The Writing School ; after Ostade.

The Reading School ; after the same.

CHEESMAN, THOMAS, a pupil of Bartolozzi,
was a well-known engraver, who was born in 1760.
He worked both in stipple and in mezzotint. Among
his best works are some portraits after Romney, and
'The Lady's Last Stake' after Hogarth. He also
exhibited water-colour drawings at the Academy
He died about 1820, the date of his last exhibition.

CHELINI. PIERO, a painter of Florence, who in
the 15th century executed frescoes in the Bigallo of
that city, consisting of scenes from the life of St.
Peter Martyr, and representations of the reception
of lost children (the purpose of that building) ; these
he completed in 1444. A ' Burial of Christ ' in the
belfry of San Remigio is also by him.

CHENAVARD, AIME, a French decorative
painter and draughtsman, was born at Lyons in
1798. He published ' Nouveau Recueil de Decor-
ations interieures,' 1833-35, and 'Album de 1'Or-
nemaniste,' 1835. He died in Paris in 1838.


CHENOIS, CLAUDE, a French historical painter,
was a native of Lorraine, and flourished at Nancy
in 1527. The Museum of that city possesses a
picture by him which shows considerable talent.

CHENU, AUGUSTIN FLEURY, a French landscape
painter, was born at Lyons about 1835. He re-
ceived his art education in the Academy of his
native city, and became a successful painter of
snow-scenes. He died in 1875.

CHENU, PIERRE, was a French engraver, born
in Paris in 1718. He was a pupil of P. Le Bas,
and engraved several portraits and other subjects,
in a slight, agreeable style. Several of his engrav-
ings were executed for the work on the Dresden
Gallery. He likewise engraved some of Oudry's
designs for La Fontaine's Fables, and some plates
after Eisen for the ' Christiade ' of the Abbe de
La Baume-Desdossat. He died about 1780. We
have also by him the following :


Francis I., King of France ; after Niccolb dell' Atbate.

Antoine Perrenot, Cardinal de Granvelle.

Pierre Carlet de Champlaiu de Marivaux, of the French


Madame Favart, actress ; after Garand.
Bust of Diderot.

Count Caylus's Monument at St. Germain 1 Auxerrois.



The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after Bassano.
Christ driving the Money-changers from the Temple;

after the same.

The ancient Temple at Ephesus ; after Breenberg.
Kuins at Ephesus ; after the same.
A Landscape, with cattle ; after A. van de Velde.
The Sailor's Amusement ; after D. Teniers.
The Dutch Baker ; after A. Ostade.
View of the Castle of St. Angelo ; after Vernet.

His two sisters, THERESE and VICTOIRE CHENU,
also received lessons from Le Bas, and engraved
some landscapes.

CHEREAU, FRANIJOIS, a French engraver, was
born at Blois in 1680. He was a pupil of Gerard
Audran, and of Pierre Drevet, the elder, and proved
himself a worthy successor of these masters. He
distinguished himself by the beauty of his touch
and the correctness of his drawing, particularly in
his portraits, some of which are admirable. His
portrait of the Duke of Antin, after Rigaud, which he
engraved twice, has rarely been surpassed. He died
in Paris in 1729. The number of his plates is con-
siderable, but the following are the most esteemed :


Louis de Boullongne ; after himself; engraved by Chereau
for his reception into the Academy in 1718.

Nicolas de Largilliere, painter ; after himself.

Cardinal Andre Hercule de Fleury ; after Riyaud ; fine.

Cardinal Melchior de Polignac ; after the same ; very

Louis Antoiue de Pardaillan de Gondrin, Duke of Antin ;
after the same.

Nicolas de Launay ; after the same.

Conrad Detlev von Dehn ; after the same ; very fine.

Louis Pecour, Maitre de Ballet ; after Tournieres.

Elisabeth Sophie Cheron, painter ; after herself.

Louisa Mary, Princess of England ; after A. 8. Belle.

The Princess Sobieska ; after Trinisani.


St. John in the Wilderness ; after the picture by

Raphael, in the Orleans Gallery.
The Crucifixion ; after Guido.
St. Catharine of Siena ; after J. Andre.
St. Cecilia ; after Jlfiynard.
St. Theresa in Contemplation.
St. Ignatius de Loyola, Founder of the Society of Jesus.

CHEREAU, JACQUES, the brother and pupil of
Francois Chereau, was born at Blois in 1688. He
engraved portraits and historical subjects, and was
little inferior to his brother, but he did not execute
many plates, having quitted the graver to follow
the business of a printseller. He came to England,
but not meeting with much encouragement, he
returned to France, and died in Paris in 1776. The
following are his best works :


Marie Leszczynska, Queen of France ; after Van Loo

Madame de Sabran ; after the same.

Madame de Prie ; after the same.

Henri. Duke of Harcourt, marshal of France ; after


Madame de Sevigne.

George I., King of Great Britain; profile, after Kneller.
Jeanne d'Aragon, Queen of Sicily ; after Raphael.


The Holy Family ; after Raphael ; in the Crozat Collec-

La Belle Jardiniere ; after the same ; in the same Collec-

The Transfiguration ; after the same.

David with the Head of Goliath ; after Teti; very fine.

David and Bathsheba ; after Raoux.

Christ washing the Feet of the Apostles ; after If.


Vertumnus and Pomona ; after F. Jlfarot.
The Descent from the Cross ; after Charpentier.

Fran9ois Chereau, born in 1748, was likewise an
engraver and printseller.


painter, was the daughter of Henri Cheron, and
was born in Paris in 1647. She learnt the element-
ary principles of design from her father, and exe-
cuted with much grace portraits, many of which
were of ladies, in water-colour, oil, pastel, and
enamel; her colouring being pleasing and her
draperies well handled. She produced also numer-
ous drawings of bas-reliefs and cameos after the
antique. She was admitted as a painter into the
Academy at Paris in 1672, painting her own por-
trait upon the occasion, and into that of Padua
in 1699. She was a lady of some literary power,
accomplished as a musician and a poetess. It is
stated that she was enrolled in the Academy in the
latter capacity in 1676. She married, in 1708,
Jacques Le Hay, an engineer, being at that time a
member of the Roman Catholic Church, though she
had been brought up in the Protestant religion.
There is an engraved portrait of her which she
executed in part in 1694, and which was subsequent-
ly finished by C. Simonneau. She died in Paris in
1711. She has left us some 59 plates either etched or
engraved, among which may be mentioned :

The Descent from the Cross (1710) ; from her own
paintiny after a design of the Abbe Zumbo.

St. Cecilia, St. Mary Magdalen, St. Augustin, St. John,
and St. Paul ; after Raphael.

Four plates of Gems (two dated 1710).

A drawing-book of thirty-six prints ; published in 1706.

CHERON, HENRI, a miniature painter and en-
graver, was a native of Meaux, where he worked
about the middle of the 17th century. We have but
one engraving by him ; a spirited portrait touched
with considerable delicacy, representing Peter Du-
moulin, a Calvinist Minister, who died at Sedan in
1658. Henri Cheron was the father of Louis,
Elisabeth Sophie, and Marie Anne Cheron. He
died at Lyons in 1677.

CHERON, Louis, a French painter and engraver,
was born in Paris in 1655. He was instructed by
his father, Henri Cheron, and went to Italy, where
he studied the works of Raphael and Giulio Romano.
Returning to Paris in 1688, he painted for the cathe-
dral of Notre-Dame two pictures, representing the
' Prophet Agabus before St. Paul,' and ' Herodias
with the Head of St. John the Baptist.' His drawing
is correct, but his colouring is cold and feeble, and
his composition tame and inanimate. Being a
Calvinist, the religious troubles which were then
rife obliged him in 1695 to leave France, when he
came to England, and was employed by some of
the nobility, and more particularly by the Duke of
Montagu, for whom he painted some ornamental
works. His ' Diana and her Nymphs bathing ' has
been engraved by Baron ; and his picture of ' The
Marriage of Charles I. and Henrietta Maria,' by
Dupuis. He died in London in 1725. This artist
engraved some plates from his own designs, which
are for the most part well drawn, with a distinct
attempt at Raphael's style, but are deficient in
general effect, the smaller plates for the Psalms
being very indifferent works. He also made designs


for an edition of ' Paradise Lost ' published in 1720.
We have by him :

St. Peter healing the Lame at the Gate of the Temple.

The Death of Ananias and Sapphira.

The Baptism of the Eunuch by St. Philip.

Hercules reposing after his Labours ; fine.

Hercules slaying the Wild Boar : finished by Van cler

Twenty-three subjects for his sister Sophie's poetical
version of the Psalms of David. 1694.

CHERON, MARIE ANNE, a French miniature
painter, and sister of Elisabeth Sophie and Louis
Cheron, was born in Paris in 1649. She was by
birth a Protestant, but in 1668 became a convert to
the Roman Catholic faith. In 1701 she married
the painter Alexis Simon Belle, and died not later
than 1718.

CHERPIGNON, , was a French engraver,
by whom, amongst other prints, we have a plate
representing the ' Holy Family,' in which the Virgin
is seated with the Child asleep on her lap, whilst
St. Joseph leans on a large stone behind her ; it is
after a picture by Laurent de La Hyre. It is etched
in a free and spirited style, and retouched with
the graver in a masterly manner.

CHERY, PHILIPPE, a French historical and por-
trait painter, born in Paris in 1759, was a pupil of
Vien. He took an active part in the French Revo-
lution, was wounded at the siege of the Bastille,
and on the 18th Brumaire left France, to which lie
did not return till 1802. He painted 'The Annun-
ciation ' in the church of Generville, ' St. Benedict
receiving the Viaticum,' and two other religious
subjects, which are in the church of Boulogne-sur-
Mer, 'St. Cecilia,' in the Benedictine Convent in
the same town, and several other scriptural and
religious subjects. He also painted ' The Treaty of
Amiens,' for which he received the prize of 12,000
francs in the competition in the year XI. ; ' The
Death of the Father of Louis XVI.,' exhibited in
1817; 'Thrasybulus re-establishing the Democratic
Government at Athens,' which passed into England,
'The Death of Alcibiades,' 'The Birth of Venus,'
' The Toilet of Venus,' and portraits of many of
the men of mark of the time. He died in Paris in

CHESHAM, FRANCIS, a designer and engraver,
was born in 1749, and died in London in 1806. We
find mention of the following plates by him :

Moses striking the -Rock ; after his own design.

Distant View of the Iron Mines in Coalbrookdale ; after
G. Robertson. 1788.

Several Views ; after Paul Sandly.

Britannia ; after Cipriani.

Admiral Parker's Victory in 1781.


better known as GAVARNI, a pseudonym which he
appears to have borrowed from the place from
which he dated his first designs, was born in Paris
in 1804. He began life in the workshops of an
engineer, where, showing a talent for drawing, he
was employed in sketching professional plans ; but
not till 1835 did he exhibit any signs of his future
skill as a caricaturist. About that date he under-
took the editorship of ' Les Gens du Monde,' a
series of satirical sketches of Parisian youth.
He afterwards conducted the ' Charivari,' and
came to England in 1848 in consequence of the
French Revolution. Whilst here he published a
series of sketches, entitled ' Gavarni in London,'
but these did not meet with any great success.
He was one of the most clever caricaturists that

has ever lived, and hit off, with a few strokes of the
pencil, the social life of Paris, from the highest
to the lowest grade, with great truth and skill.
Among his works we may mention ' Les Enfants
Terribles,' ' Les Parents Terribles,' and his ' Maris
Venges ; ' he also illustrated some of Hoffmann's
and Schmidt's tales in quite a different style. He
died at Auteuil in 1866.

CHEVILLET, JUSTUS, was a German engraver,
born at Frankfort-on-the-Oder in 1729. He was
first a pupil of G. F. Schmidt at Berlin, but after-
wards went to Paris, where he was instructed by
J. G. Wille. He engraved several plates of sub-
jects, principally from French artists, in a neat
style. He died in Paris in 1790. We have by him,
amongst others, the following prints :

Portrait of Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin ; after

Chardin ; his best work.
Portrait of M. Lenoir ; after Greuze.
La Sante portee, and La Sante rendue ; after Ter Borch.
A Girl sewing and another spinning : after Heilmitun.
A young Girl caressing a bird ; after a draining by


The young Coquette ; after J. Eaoux.
The dangerous Beauty ; after Santerre.
The Death of General Moutcalm ; after Watteau.


CHEVRON, BENO!T JOSEPH, a French line-en-
graver, was born at Lyons in 1824. He was a pupil
of Vibert, and died at Villefranche in 1875. His
best plates are the ' Kiss of Judas,' after Ary
Scheffer, the ' Assumption of the Virgin,' after
Guido Reni, and the ' Maison Mame.'

CHIALLI, VINCENZO, was born at Citta di
Castello in 1787. After having learned the rudi-
ments of art in that town, he visited Rome at the
age of seventeen years, and became a disciple of
Camuccini, whom he afterwards imitated. After
leaving Rome he painted religious subjects at Borgo
San Sepolcro, Urbino, Pesaro, and Venice, from
whence he retraced his steps to Rome ; but as the
climate did not suit him, he left that city in 1822
and returned to Citta di Castello. He became
Director of the School of Painting at Cortona in
1835, and died in 1840. His genre and historical
paintings gained him considerable credit. The most
important are :

The Churchyard ; ) ( h . k p . . pj , Florence.

The Mass ; )

Dante in the Abbey of Fonte Avellana.

Raphael and Fra Bartolommeo in the Convent of Sail

The young Eaphael with his Parents.

Novi in 1723. After studying some time at Rome,
he settled at Milan, where, according to the
Cavaliere Ratti, he painted some pictures which
gave promise of great ability. His best work was
in the church of Sant' Ignazio at Alessandria,
representing 'St. Ignatius with a Glory of Angels,'
grandly conceived and composed, the figure of the
Saint commanding and majestic, and of a fine ex-
pression. This artist died in the midst of a flatter-
ing career in 1765 ; and with him, says Lanzi,
perished the last remains of Genoese art.

CHIARI, FAERIZIO, a painter and engraver, was
born at Rome, according to Orlandi, in 1621. He
painted some frescoes in the palaces at Rome, and
died in 1695. We have some etchings by this
artist after N. Poussin, executed in a scratchy but
masterly style, amongst which are :

Mars and Venus, in a landscape ; Faliritius Clams. 1635.

Venus and Adonis ; signed A'icolaus Pussinus in. f.



This etching has been attributed to N. Poussin, but
it is by Chiari.
Venus and Mercury, with Children.

CHIARI, GIUSEPPE, was born at Rome, in 1G54.
He was a scholar of Carlo Maratti, with whom he
executed many excellent easel pictures, and added to
the unfinished works of Berrettini in Santa Maria
del Suffragio at Rome, the ' Nativity ' and the
' Adoration of the Magi.' His cabinet and easel
pictures are preferable to his larger works, although
he painted several frescoes of religious, historical,
and mythological subjects in the Colonna arid
Barberini palaces, and on the ceiling in Santa Maria
di Montesanto. In the Spada Palace are four pic-
tures by him of subjects from Ovid; in the Dresden
Gallery is an ' Adoration of the Magi ; ' and his own
portrait by himself is in the Uffizi, Florence. Three
examples of his art are at Hampton Court, and in
the collection of Lord Scarsdiile at Kedleston Hall,
is a ' Holy Trinity.' He died at Rome in 1727.

CHIARINI, MARCANTONIO, was born at Bologna
in 1652, and was first a scholar of Francesco
Quaino, under whom he remained four years ; he
afterwards studied under Domenico Santi. He ex-
celled in painting architectural views, in which the
figures were sometimes introduced by Sigismondo
Caula. He was much employed by the nobility
at Bologna, Modena, and Milan ; and his pictures
were in great estimation. He assisted Carlo Carlone
in his decorative fresco paintings in the Marble
Hall of the Belvedere, Vienna. He died in 1730.


CHIAVISTELLI, JACOPO, a Florentine painter
of perspective and architectural views, was born in
1618. He first studied under Fabrizio Boschi and
B. del Bianco ; but he received his best instruction
from Michelangelo Colonna. He painted chiefly
in fresco, and was employed in several works at
Bologna and Florence, particularly in the palace of
the Grand-Duke. He died in 1698. His own por-
trait by himself is in the Uffizi, Florence.

CHIBOUST, , was a French engraver, who
flourished about the year 1680. He etched a plate,
representing Dutch Boors playing at cards, which
was probably from his own design, as it is signed,
Chiboust fecit. There are also by him a ' Repose,'
and various landscapes engraved after J. F. Millet,
and other artists.

CHIBSA, SILVESTRO, an Italian historical painter,
was born at Genoa about 1623. He was a pupil of
Luciano Borzone, and when not more than eighteen
years of age had gained a great reputation by his
portraits, which were often painted from memory.
He gave promise of becoming a great artist, when
he was cut off by the plague at Genoa in 1657.


CHIFFELIN, OLIVIER, a distinguished historical
painter of the 15th century. He was a native of
Angers, and was commissioned in 1487 by Philippe
de Commines to decorate his chateau of Dreux,
the chapel of which has been described in the
most glowing terms.

CHILD, JAMES WARREN, a miniature painter,
exhibited for many years at the Royal Academy.
His chief sitters were actors and actresses. He
died in 1862, aged 84.

CHILDE, ELIAS, a landscape painter, exhibited
at the Society of British Artists from 1824 to 1848.
He also contributed to the exhibitions of the Water-
Colour Society and the Royal Academy. A moon-
light composition by him is in the South Kensing-
ton Museum.


was born at Empoli, near Florence, in 1554.
He was a disciple of Tomaso Manzuoli da San
Friano, whose style is discernible in all his works ;
he also studied the works of Andrea del Sarto,
whom he copied with success. His pictures pos-
sess an elegance of design, and a graceful impasto
of colouring, which distinguish the productions of
his master. The Abbate Moreni speaks in favourable
terms of his fresco works in the Certosa, and in the
monastery of Boldrone at Florence, but a fall from
the scaffolding obliged him afterwards to confine
himself to oil-painting. One of his best pictures is
his ' St. Ives,' in the Uffizi at Florence, which, from
its pleasing and graceful effect, is more generally
admired than works of higher pretensions. He
died in 1640. The following are among his
paintings :
Florence. Academy. The Call of St. Matthew.

SS. Annunziata. Virgin and Saints.

S. Maria Novella. St. Hyacinth.

Casa Buonarroti. Michelangelo before Leo X.

Uffi:i. St. Ives, Protector of Orphans.

His own Portrait.

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