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Madrid. Jifuseum. Christ on the Mount of Olives.
Paris. Louvre. Virgin glorified.

Pistoia. S. Domenico. Miracles of St. Charles Borromeo.
Vienna. Susanna at the Bath.

CHINNERY, GEORGE, exhibited portraits at the
Royal Academy from 1791 to 1846. He at one
time resided in Dublin, and in 1798 was elected a
member of the Royal Hibernian Academy. He
etched some portraits, which show much ability,
and made spirited sketches of scenes in India and
China, where he lived for nearly fifty years. He
died at Macao about 1850.

CHINTREUIL, ANTOINE, a French landscape
painter, was born at Pont-de-Vaux (Ain) in 1816.
He showed an early taste for drawing, and took to
teaching it in order to support his family. Later
on he opened a bookshop in Paris and continued
his drawing work in the evenings, till meeting with
assistance from Beranger he was able to establish
himself in Tournelle Septeuil near Nantes, and
devote himself entirely to his art. He painted,
although only self-taught, landscapes remarkable
not merely for originality but also for deep feeling.
He fell a victim to over-exertion in his youth,
combined with disappointment at the difficulty he
experienced in finding purchasers for pictures
which now realize very high prices. Amongst his
works may be noticed ' Morning in the Country,'
' A Shower on the Plain,' ' Entrance to a Wood,'
and 'After a Storm.' Two landscapes by him
are in the Lille Museum. He died in 1873.

painter, was living in the 15th century. Little
further is known of him than that the fresco of
' An Angel crowning St. Valerian and St. Cecilia,'
executed about 1509, in the oratory of St. Cecilia,
attached to San Giacomo Maggiore, in Bo'ogna, is
by tradition assigned to him. It is part of a series,
the rest of which were done by Francia, Aspertini,
and Costa. A ' Nativity ' in the Bologna Gallery
is also ascribed to Chiodarolo.

CHIRINOS, JUAN DE, a Spanish painter, was
born at Madrid in 1564. He was probably a
scholar of El Greco, and painted, in conjunction
with Bartolom4 de Cardenas, the greater part of
the pictures in the convent of Our Lady of Atocha,
at Madrid. He was an artist of great merit, and
died at Madrid in 1620.


CHISHOLM, ALEXANDER, was born at Elgin
in the year 1792 or 1793, and at an early age was
apprenticed by his father to a weaver at Peterhead.
He had a great aversion to the trade, and his predi-
lection for art was so strong that he was accus-
tomed to sketch figures upon the cloth on which he
was occupied at the loom, and when his leisure per-
mitted him to resort to the sea-shore, he found great
pleasure in sketching on the smooth sand. When
about fourteen years of age, he walked from Peter-
head to Aberdeen, where he received his first
lessons in light and shade. At this time there was
a meeting of the Synod, the members of which he
was permitted to sketch ; and his work gave such
satisfaction, that he was forthwith commissioned
to paint it, but this he was compelled to decline,
as lie was totally ignorant of the use of colours.
He must have employed his leisure profitably, for
when about twenty years of age he went to Edin-
burgh, where he was patronized by the Earls
of Elgin and Buchan, and was subsequently ap-
pointed an instructor at the Royal Scottish Aca-
demy. In 1818 he went to London, still under the
patronage of the Earl of Buchan, and met with
much encouragement. In 1829 he became an
Associate Exhibitor of the Water-Colour Society
and frequently sent works to th.it Institution. His
favourite department of art was history, but he also
painted portraits with eminent success. Having
suffered from severe illness during nine years be-
fore his death, his later productions do not exhibit
that degree of vigour which characterize his
earlier works. ' The Pedlar,' a water-colour paint-
ing by him, is in the South Kensington Museum.
He died at Rothesay, in the Isle of Bute, in 1847.
The following are some of his most important
works exhibited at the Royal Academy :

Boys with a Burning Glass. 1822.

The Cut Foot. 1823.

Baptism of Ben Jonson's Daughter (with portraits of

Shakespeare, Jonson, Ueaumont, Fletcher and Baleia/t]

The Lords of the Congregation taking the oath of the

Covenant. 1842.
The Minister and his Wife concealing the Scottish

Eegalia in the Church (his last work). 1846.

and engraver, was born at Dantzic in 1726. He
was obliged at first to devote himself to shopkeep-
ing, and could only practice drawing and painting,
which he did in company with his brother Gott-
fried, in his leisure moments both of them having
received some instruction from their father. His
progress at last enabled him to follow these studies
alone. He took to copying engravings and then
to painting enamel snuff-boxes, in which he was
aided by Haid the Pole, and in which he made
experiments with designs of his own. He then in
1745 tried miniature-painting ; his portraits, which
were remarkable for their characteristic resemblance
and lifelike qualities, meeting with a favourable re-
ception in all quarters. At this time he improved
himself by practising drawing in Rode's studio,
and then turned his attention to oil painting. Thus
far he had only the nights to devote to these employ-
ments. His first essay in etching was made in
1758. His etchings were drawn with such spirit
that they soon attracted the attention of connois-
seurs, and when he had painted the ' Separation of
Jean Galas from his family,' and, in accordance
with the wishes of his friends, had made an
etching from that picture, his fame was fairly
D 2

established. Orders from amateurs and dealers
became so numerous that he was obliged to aban-
don his miniature-painting. The Academy of
Painting received him as its Rector in 1764. In
1773, he made a journey on horseback to Dantzic,
taking sketches of whatever there might be of
interest on the route. On this journey, and during
nine weeks spent in Dantzic, he kept a diary with
drawings, preserved in the Berlin Academy, which
presents a most life-like picture of the then social
condition of that city. On his return lie received
commissions from Lavater, for whom he executed
many designs and some copper-plate engravings
for his ' Essays on Physiognomy.' His fame spread
so wide that it was with the greatest difficulty
that he could meet the demands of the book-
sellers for drawings and engravings for books and
almanacks. The number of paintings, designs, and
etchings which he produced at this period was some-
thing prodigious. This severe labour was injurious
to his health, and during the last twenty years of
his life he suffered from swollen feet but that did
not prevent his following his ordinary pursuits.
He became Vice-Director of the Academy in 1788,
and Director in 1797. He was active and laborious
up to within a few weeks of his death, which took
place at Berlin in 1801. The Berlin Museum con-
tains ' Blindman's Buff ' and ' Der Hahnenschlag,'
both of the year 1768.

Chodowiecki was a highly-gifted artist, who
owed all his knowledge of art to his own study.
This lack of instruction was the real cause why
works on a larger scale lay beyond the limits of
his artistic sphere, but the same reason led to his
smaller works being so carefully finished. The
genuine originality displayed in them, and a cer-
tain easy spiritual rendering, stamp most of his
works with a peculiar character. He represents
the feelings and affections, virtues and vices, just
as he had observed them around him, with singular
acuteness. Not unfitly has he been spoken of as
the great depictor of the morals of his day. His
productions are not disfigured by anything in the
way of excess or defect. His drawings are marked
by delicate but at the same time firm and clear
outlines, the shadows being worked in with a light
hand, but well defined. His early works in enamel
are small masterpieces in respect of finish, and
are full of life, grace, and cheerfulness. The same
holds true of his miniatures. His performances
in oil painting scarcely went beyond the range of
experiments. As an engraver of small subjects he
stands almost unsurpassed. He was the founder
of a new style, representing modern figures with
such truth and animation, and at the same time
with such correctness of outline, as had till then
never been thought possible on so small a scale.
Apart from single plates, he illustrated with designs
of his own composition the principal literary pro-
ductions of his time, such as ' Minna von Barnhelm,'
'The Vicar of Wakefield,' 'Gellert's Fables,' 'Gil
Bias,' Schiller's 'Robbers,' Sterne's 'Sentimental
Journey,' as well as ' Don Quixote,' and the works
of Shakespeare and Voltaire.

Chodowiecki's etchings and engravings amount to
2075 distinct works upon 978 plates. They are fully
described in Engelmann's 'Daniel Chodowiecki's
Sammtliche Kupferstiche ' published at Leipsic in
1857-60. Among his principal plates may be
mentioned :

Jean Calas bidding farewell to his Wife. 1767-8.
Frederick the Great, accompanied by Peace ; rare.



A Review at Potsdam. 1777.

Sixteen plates for the Life of Bunkel.

The Progress of Virtue, and the Progress of Vice.

Twelve plates for the Gottingen Almanac in 1778.
Wilhelm Tell.

Ziethen seated before the King.
Ziethen asleep at the Table of Frederick II.
The Painter's Studio.
The Artist's own Family. 1771.

engraver, and a brother of Daniel Chodowiecki,
was born at Dantzic in 1728. He painted land-
scapes, battle scenes, hunting pieces, and animal
subjects in miniature and in enamel. He also
etched plates from the designs of his brother,
as well as from his own. He died at Dantzic in

CHODOWIECKI, WILHEOI, the son of Daniel
Chodowiecki, was born in 1765. He was a pupil
of his father, and followed his style with consider-
able success : in fact, the father published many
of his son's plates witli his own name attached to
them. He died at Berlin in 1805.

draughtsman and engraver, was born in Paris in
1731. Whilst still very young he showed great
aptitude for drawing flowers and ornaments, and
was placed with an engraver of maps named
Dheulland, but he afterwards received lessons
from Babel, an engraver of ornaments, and is said
to have had also the benefit of the advice of Nicolas
Edelinck, Balechou, and Cochin. Commencing
with the cartouches of maps, which date from 1753
to 1756, he next engraved invitation and address
cards and book-plates, and these drew attention to
his abilities and secured for him the commission to
execute the tail-pieces for the celebrated edition of
the ' Contes ' of La Fontaine published by the
Fermiers-Generaux in 1762. The fertility of in-
vention and the taste displayed by the artist in
these gems of art are known and admired by all.
The series ends with his own portrait in profile as
the tail-piece of ' Le Rossignol.' To these suc-
ceeded, among a host of minor pieces, the large
ornaments placed at the head of each book of the
Ovid's ' Metamorphoses ' of 1767-1771, the head-
pieces to Saint-Lambert's poem, ' Les Saisons,'
issued in 1769, and again with some alterations in
1775, those to Imbert's poem, 'Le Jugement de
Paris,' 1772, and the tail-pieces to Desormeaux's
' Histoire de la Maison de Bourbon,' published in the
years 1779-1788. All these combined to establish
his reputation as a designer of ornament without a
rival. Besides these, the ornamental pieces which
he executed for the ' Voyage pittoresque de Naples
et de Sicile' of Saint-Non, published in 1781, and
the plates of ' Les Amants surpris,' ' Les Amours
champetres,' and ' Marchez tout doux, parlez tout
bas,' after Baudouin, and a view of Narbonne,
after Monnet, must be ranked among his best

ChofEard wrote in 1804 a ' Notice historique sur
1'art de la Gravure,' and was about to undertake
a more extensive work when he was struck down
by death at Paris in 1809. MM. Portalis and
Beraldi give in their ' Graveurs du Dix-huitieme
Siecle' a detailed catalogue of his engravings,
which number 855. ft. E. G.

CHOLLET, ANTOINE JOSEPH, a French engraver
in line and mezzotint, was born in Paris in 1793.
He was the son of an architect, and studied under
Bervic in Paris. He gained considerable reputation


by the excellence of his plates, amongst which may
be noticed :

Christ crowned with Thorns ; after Colin.
The Orphan ; after Eohn. 1822.
' J'ai perdu ; ' after the same. 1824.
Galileo in the Inquisition ; after Laurent. 1827.
The Proposal; after Geirnaert. 1837.
The Last Cartridge ; after Horace f'ernet. 1830.
Mile. Leontine Fay, as Malvina : after Dulufe.
Portrait of Mme. de Warens ; after (?) Desenne and

CHOQUET, Louis, a French draughtsman and
miniature painter, was a pupil of Aubry. He
produced illustrations for the works of Le Sage,
Marmontel, Florian, Fielding, &e. He died about

CHRETIEN, GILLES Louis, a French musician,
was born at Versailles in 1754. In 1787 he in-
vented a machine called a ' physionotrace,' with
which he took portraits in profile from life, which
were reduced to silhouettes, usually by Fouquet,
and then engraved in aquatint by himself. Many
of them are of great interest on account of the
celebrity of the persons represented, ' L' Incorrupt-
ible Robespierre,' Mirabeau, and Marat being among
the hundreds which he produced. Edme Qu6nedey
was at first associated with him, but Chretien
afterwards worked alone. He died in Paris in

CHRIEGER, CHRISTOPH, called in Italian CRIS-
TOFORO GUERRA, was a native of Nuremberg, who
went to Venice and died there in 1589. He exe-
cuted a.magniticent engraving on wood, representing
the sea-fight at Lepanto. The design is cut on
two blocks of wood, in the form of an oval, about
two feet long, by sixteen inches in height. It was
published at Venice in 1572, by Cesare Vecellio, a
relation of Titian, who is supposed to have made
the design. Chrieger also engraved on wood the
420 illustrations of costumes for Veceliio's ' Habiti
anticlii et moderni di Diuerse Parti del Mondo,'
published at Venice in 1590.

CHRIST, JOSEPH, a painter of "Winterstetten,
executed portraits and frescoes in Augsburg and
St. Petersburg in the 18th century.

CHRISTFELD, PHILIPP, a porcelain-painter, was
born in 1797 at Frankenthal, in the Palatinate, and
placed when young' in the porcelain manufactory
there. He afterwards pursued academical studies
at Nymphenburg, and then devoted himself to the
painting of porcelain,- and later still to the pro-
duction of fac-similes of celebrated gallery pieces.
He died at Munich in 1874.

CHRISTIE, ALEXANDER, who was born at Edin-
burgh in 1807, entered the Trustees' Academy in
1833, and after studying for a short time in London,
settled in his native city. In 1843, he was made
assistant, and two years later director, of the orna-
mental department of the Trustees' Academy. He
was elected an Associate of the Scottish Academy
in 1848, and died in 1860. He painted portraits
and subject-pieces.

trait and subject painter, was born about 1850.
She was tne eldest daughter of Mr. Charles Tovey,
a Bristol merchant, and niece of Samuel Griffiths
Tovey, who gained a local reputation by his Vene-
tian pictures. She received instruction at the
South Kensington and Bristol Schools of Art and
at the Royal Academy. In 1878 she married Mr.
Robert Christison and went to Queensland, where
she died at Lammermoor in 1879.


CHRISTOPHE, CLAUDE, a French historical and
portrait painter, who flourished at Nancy in the
early part of the 18th century, was a native of
Verdun. He studied under Rigaud, and gave up-
wards of two hundred pictures to the poor churches
of Lorraine.

CHRISTOPHE, JOSEPH, the brother of Claude
Christophe, was born at Verdun in 1662. In 1696
he painted as a " mai " for Notre-Dame the ' Mira-
cle of the Loaves and Fishes.' He was received
into the Academy in 1702, and in 1724 became
painter to the Archduke Leopold, for whom he
executed many portraits. At Versailles there is by
him 'The Baptism of the Dauphin, son of Louis
XIV.' He died in Paris in 1748.

CHUPPIN, MEDARD, a French historical painter,
flourished at Nancy from 1542 to 1580. He was a
pupil of Hugues de La Fare, whose picture of the
'Last Supper,' in the church of the Cordeliers at
Nancy, he finished with credit to himself after the
death of his master. He worked almost always in
conjunction with Claudin Crocx. He was painter
to the Duke of Lorraine, as were likewise CHARLES
CHDPPIN, his son, and NICOLAS CHUPPIN, his

scape painter, born in Hartford, Connecticut, May
4, 1826. He became a pupil of Thomas Cole in
Catskiil, where he worked several years before
establishing himself in New York city. His
pictures attracted much notice, and he became
a full member of the National Academy in 1849.
In 1853 and 1857 he travelled in South America,
and exhibited his large picture, ' The Heart of the
Andes,' in 1859, which created a sensation. Later
he visited Labrador, and his ' Icebergs ' was shown
in London in 1863. Three years later he went to
the West Indies, and in 1868 made his first trip
through Europe, going also to Palestine and
Greece, where he painted some important pictures.
His best-known work is that of ' The Great Falls
at Niagara' (1857), which, originally purchased by
John Taylor Johnstone, was bought, at the sale of
his collection in 1876, by the Corcoran Art Gallery
in Washington for 5000. This picture was
awarded a second-class medal at the Paris Exhibi-
tion of 1867. He was a great admirer of Turner,
whose influence can be traced in many details of
liis work. He died in New York on April 7,
1900. P. P.

CHURCHMAN, JOHN, was a miniature painter,
who died in London in 1780.

born at Pisa about 1600, and flourished, according
to Lanzi, about the year 1654. He belongs to the
Florentine school, and painted marine subjects and
seaports, which his residence at Leghorn enabled
him to study from nature. His pictures are highly
finished, and ornamented with small figures cor-
rectly drawn. He also painted architectural and
perspective views, and sacred subjects. His works
are principally at Pisa and Leghorn. An ' Ecce
Homo ' by him is in the Pitti Palace, Florence.

CIALDIERI, GIROLAMO, was born at Urbino in
1593, and was a scholar of Claudio Ridolfi. He
painted several pictures at Rome for the churches.
His best work is the ' Martyrdom of St. John,' in
San Bartolommeo. He flourished about 1640.

CIAMBERLANO, LDCA, was born at Urbino
about the year 1580. In the early part of his life
he applied himself to the study of civil law, in
which he had taken a doctor's degree, when he

abandoned the study of jurisprudence to devote
himself to painting and engraving, particularly the
latter. From 1599 to 1641 he resided at Rome,
where he executed a great number of plates from
his own designs, as well as after the works of the
most celebrated Italian painters, in the style of
Agostino Carracci. His plates, amounting to 114,
are entirely executed with the graver, which he
handled with neatness and intelligence ; his draw-
ing of the figure is tolerably correct. He some-
times signed his plates with his name, and some-
times marked them with the cipher (fc,.
Among them are the following :

Thirteen plates of Christ and the twelve Apostles ;
St. Jerome dead, lying upon a stone ; after Raphael.
St. Thomas ; after Bassano. Nine plates of Angels
carrying the instruments of the Passion. Duke
Francesco Maria II. of Urbino. Christ on the Mount
of Olives ; after A. Casolano. Christ appearing to
Mary Magdalen ; after Ftderiyo Barocci, 1609.
Christ appearing to St. Theresa ; after Carracci.

CIAMPELLI, AGOSTINO, was born at Florence in
1578. He was educated under Santo Titi, and
went afterwards to Rome, where he distinguished
himself by his efforts. He was employed by Pope
Clement VIII., and executed several paintings in
the Lateran and Vatican palaces. In the church
of Santa Maria in Trastevere is a ' Dance of Angels,'
and in Santa Pudenziana is a picture representing
' Holy Women interring the bodies of the Martyrs.'
In the Jesuit Church are two of his finest works
in fresco, the ' Martyrdom of St. Andrew," and in
the ceiling a ' Glory of Saints and Angels.' In
San Prassede he painted in oil, for his patron the
Cardinal de' Medici, the ' Crucifixion ' ; and in San
Stefano di Pescia is his celebrated picture of the
' Visitation of the Virgin to St. Elizabeth,' with
two wings. He died at Rome in 1640.

CIARLA, RAFFAELLO, a painter of Urbino, flour-
ished about the middle of the 16th century, and
excelled in painting majolica vases, which were
especially admired at the Spanish Court. He was
so skilful in imitating the great masters, that his
works have often been confounded with those of
Raphael. The identity of Christian name and of
birthplace have doubtless had much to do with this
confusion. He was a pupil of Orazio Fontana.

CIARPI, BACCIO, was born at Florence in 1578,
and was a scholar of Santo Titi. He was a good
painter of historical subjects, of which he gave
proof in his works in the Chiesa della Concezione
of the Capuchins at Rome. Ciarpi was the in-
structor of Pietro da Cortona. He died in 1642.


ARD, a French historical and landscape painter, was
born in Paris in 1799. His masters were Guerin
and Picot. His most important work is the series
of paintings representing ' Charity," in the church
of St. Leu at Paris. About 1853 he applied him-
self to landscape painting. He died in Paris in
1877. Amongst his best works are :

The Loves of the Angels, 1835. Eegina Cceli, 1848,
St. Theresa, 1847. Convicts in 1788, 1836. Chest-
nut-trees at Aulnay, 1855. Park at Orsay, 1857.
The Gouffre, near Seineport, 1864. (In the Luxem-
bourg Gallery.) View at Soisy-sur-Ecolle, 1865.


CICERI, BERNARDINO, was born at Pa via in 1650,



and was one of the ablest scholars of Carlo Sacchi.
He afterwards passed some time at Rome ; and on
his return to his native city, met with encourage-
ment in painting historical pictures of a small size.
He was also employed for the churches.

CICERI, PIERRE Luo CHARLES, a French artist,
born at St. Cloud in 1782, was chiefly engaged as
an architectural decorator and painter of theatrical
scenes. He is stated to have executed four hundred
opera decorations. He also produced some paint-
ings in water-colour, among which are views of
the Ponte di Sanita and Piazzetta della Cappella
Vecchia in Naples, and of Interlacken, Brunnen,
and Baden-Baden. Ciceri married a daughter of
Jean Baptiste Isabey, the miniature painter, and
died at St. Cheron in 1868.


CIERKENS, JEAN, a Belgian painter of histori-
cal and genre subjects, was born at Bruges in 1819.
He studied in the Academy of his native city, and
under Wallays and Wappers at Antwerp. He died
at Rome in 1853.

CIETENER, D., was a painter who from his
style appears to have belonged to the Flemish
school. There is in the Berlin Gallery the ' Bom-
bardment of a Fortified Town,' which is signed by
him, and dated 1630.

CIEZA, JOSEF DE, the son and scholar of Miguel
Geronimo de Cieza, was born at Granada in 1656.
He acquired much facility in painting in distemper,
and, going to Madrid in 1686, was employed to
paint scenes in the theatre of Buenretiro, and
became painter to the king in 1689. He likewise
painted in oil historical subjects, landscapes, and
flower-pieces. He died at Madrid in 1692.

CIEZA, MIODEL GERONIMO DE, a Spanish painter,
born at Granada, was one of the best scholars of
Alonso Cano, whom he imitated both in drawing
and in colour. He painted historical pictures with
reputation, and according to Palomino, his best
works are in the Convent of the Angel, and in the
Hospital of the Corpus Domini, at Granada. He
died in Granada at an advanced age in 1677.

CIEZA, VINCENTE DE, a Spanish painter, and a
native of Granada, was the son and pupil of Miguel
Geronimo de Cieza. Having lost his father he
went to Madrid to his elder brother Josef, whom
he succeeded as painter to the king in 1692. He

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