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usually well chosen, and consisted chiefly of views
in North Wales, Cheshire, Yorkshire, and the mid-
land counties. Allen took an active part in the
establishment of the 'Society of British Artists,'
of which he became the secretary, and attached
himself to its interests with such devotion that he
latterly refused to exhibit anywhere else in London
than at its Gallery in Suffolk Street. There is little
doubt that his influence tended much to heighten
the repute for landscape painting which the ex-
hibitions of this Society have generally enjoyed.
He was also professor of drawing ai the City
of London School, from its foundation. He died
in 1852.

ALLEN, THOMAS, was an English marine painter,
who flourished in the middle of the 18th century.
He painted scenes from Queen Charlotte's voyage
and arrival in England. Allen's works were en-
graved by P. C. Canot.

ALLET, JEAN CHARLES, a draughtsman and en-
graver, was born at Paris about the year 1668.
He resided a long time in Italy, and is supposed
to have died at Rome in 1732. Owing to his having
marked his plates sometimes Jean Charles Allet,
and sometimes Carolus Alet, collectors were for
some time inclined to believe that they were two
distinct artists ; but from the evident similarity of
style, it is no longer doubted that all those phvtes
are by the same hand. Allet engraved portraits
and subjects from sacred history, and appears to
have wished to imitate the manner of F. Spierre
and Cornells Bloemaert, but his imitation has not
been very successful. His principal plates are the
following :


Andrea Pozzo, Jesuit and architect ; dated 1712.
Cardinal Aloisio Amadei ; after J. Moraiidi, 1690.
Ferdinand Charles Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua ; after

Ant. Lesma.

Pope Alexander VIII. ; after H. Calendrucci. 1695.
St. Aloysius Gonzaga, Jesuit ; oval.
St. Ignatius; after P. Lticatelli ; oval.

The Conception of the Virgin ; after And. Pozzo ; oval.

The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after S. Cnntariin
The Virgin Mary and St. Joseph adoring the Infant

Jesus ; after the same.

The Saviour brought before Pilate ; after P. de Pielri.
Ananias restoring sight to St. Paul; after Pietro da

The Vision of St. Paul ; after the same painter.

The last two plates are considered his best his-
torical works.

The Death of a Saint, in presence of the Virgin, St.

Joseph, and St. Francis Xavier.
The Death of St. Stanislaus Kostka ; after P. Le Gros,

St. Gae'tan, accompanied with a figure of Religion, and

Christ holding His Cross ; after Laz. Baldi.
St. Andronicus, and St. Athanasia after J'\ 13. Ztic-

St. Augustine with a child, getting water from the sea ;

after J. 11. Leonardi.
St. Kosa, crowned by angels ; Carolus Altet, del. $

" .'
Twelve plates of the Life of Christ; after 1' <

engraved in conjunction with A., v. Westerkout.

ALLOM, THOMAS, architect and landscape
painter, was born in March, 1804. He was
articled to Francis Goodwin, the architect, in
1819; and, while his pupil, was engaged upon
the Manchester Town Hall, Derby Gaol, West
Bromwich Church, and many other public build-
ings. He also assisted in making designs (1834)
for the then-existing Parliament Houses, which
were lithographed by him by order of the House
of Commons. Wishing to travel, with the object
of gaining a more enlarged knowledge of his pro-
fession, he turned his attention to painting views
for the purpose of publication. The first illustrated
work which made its appearance under these cir-
cumstances wag ' The Scenery of Devonshire and
Cornwall.' This was followed by a similar work
on the ' Lake District, and Northern Counties,'
'Scotland Illustrated,' the historical portion of
which was written by Dr. Beattie. In producing
these illustrations he endeavoured to give the
scenes additional interest by depicting the cele-
brated historical incidents connected with them
thus, in the ' View of Lochiel,' is represented the
gathering of the clans of Prince Charlie ; in that
of the ' Castle of Doon ' we see prisoners taken at the
battle of Falkirk; 'Linlithgow Palace' is represented
as being burnt by Haw ley's dragoons. His more
strictly professional engagements, however, inter-
fered with the completion of these works, and he
was obliged to give up a portion to other hands.
Soon after this a proposal was made to him to go
to the East, and this, being more in accordance
with his legitimate profession, was too tempting
to be refused. His work on ' Constantinople and
Asia Minor' was the result of this journey, in
which he again introduces historical events, such
as the unfolding of the standard of the Prophet in
the mosque of Sultan Achmet previous to the
massacre of the Janissaries by Mnhmoud. His
subsequent work on France is, perhaps, his best
work, and in this his intimate knowledge of
architecture proved of the greatest advantage. In
1846 he had an audience of Louis-Philippe at
Paris, when the king expressed his great appro-
bation of the work, and invited him to visit St.
Cloud the following season, and requested him to
make drawings of the king's own estate at Dreux,
with monuments to the royal family. In 1846-8
his designs of proposed improvements on the banks
of the Thames were exhibited by him in London,



Manchester, and Paris, and a diploma of merit was
forwarded from the last of these. He -was one of
the founders of the Institute of British Architects.
Amongst his architectural works are : Christ-
church, Highbury, the Cambridge Military Asylum
at Kingston, Kennington Workhouse, and St.
Peter's Church, Notting Hill. Auiongst his paint-
ings, which exhibit true feeling and nice execution,
are those of the ' Cities of the Seven Churches of
Asia Minor,' which were engraved in the ' Art
Journal ' in 1862-3. He died at Barnes, in October,

BRONZING, was born at Florence in 1535. He
was the son of a painter ; but having the misfor-
tune, when he was only five years of age, to lose
his father, ho was placed under the care of his
uncle, Agnolo Bronzino, who brought him up with
all the affection of a parent. Before he was seven-
teen years of age, he had made such progress
under this able master, that he painted, from his
own design, an altar-piece representing the Cruci-
fixion, a composition of several figures, ingeniously
arranged and well coloured. When he was nine-
teen, he visited Rome, where lie remained two
years. The chief objects of his admiration and
study in that city were the works of Michelangelo,
and the grand style of that master is discernible in
his pictures. On his return to Florence, he was
greatly occupied for the churches and other public
edifices. He was, however, occasionally prevailed
on to paint the portraits of some of the distin-
guished personages of his time, which be treated
in a great and admirable style. In 1590, he
published Dialof/o sojrra V arte del disegnare le
figure, illustrated with anatomical plates. " Some
of his pictures in Rome, representing horses, are
beautiful. His ' Sacrifice of Isaac,' in the Royal
Museum, is coloured almost in the Flemish style.
He was expert in portrait painting, but he abused
his talent by introducing portraits in the modern
costume in ancient histories, a fault not uncommon
in that age. On the whole, his genius appears to
have been equal to every branch of painting ; but
it was unequally exercised, and consequently un-
equally expanded" (Lanzi). In the Berlin Gallery
there is a female portrait by him, probably repre-
senting Bianca Cappello, wife of Francis II. of
Tuscany ; and there are no less than sixteen works
by him in the Uffizi, Florence. He died at Florence
in 1607.

eminent Florentine painter and poet, was born at
Monticelli near Florence in 1502. He studied first
under an obscure painter, then under Raffaelino
del Garbo, and subsequently became the favourite
disciple of Jacopo Carrucci, called Pontormo, and
assisted that master in some of his most consider-
able undertakings, particularly in the chapel of
San Lorenzo at Florence, which he was employed
to finish after the death of that master. He ap-
pears to have studied with attention the dignified
style of Michelangelo, and there is something of
the grandeur of that master discernible in all bis
productions. His principal works are at Florence
and Pisa. He worked both in fresco and oil. He
also excelled in portraits, and painted the most
celebrated personages of his time, among whom
were Dante, Boccaccio, and Petrarch. He frequently
painted the portraits of Cosimo I., Grand Duke of
Trscany, and his wife Eleonora, and there are
XT.iny replica besides. He died at Florence in


1572. The following
portant works :

are some of his most im-

Dresden. Gallery.
Florence. Academy.

S. Lorenzo.

S. Girolamo tl.
Pitti Pal.

London. J,~at. Gall.

Lucca. Communal Gal.

Soyal Palace.
Madrid. Museum.
Paris. Louvre.
Petersburg. Hermitage,


Leuchtenlierg Col,

Rome. JJortfhese Pal.

Vieaua. Gallery.

Portrait of Cosimo I.

Portrait of his wife, Eleonora.


Cartoon for the 'Descent into


St. Benedict on thorns (fresco).
Martyrdom of St. Laurencu

Xoli me tangere (fresco).

Holy Family.

Portrait of Cosimo I.

Portrait of Francesco I. de' Me-
dici, and others.

The Descent into Hades (his

Portrait of Pontormo.

Descent from the Cross.


Pieta. BEOZ: FAC:

An Allegory Prosperity crowned
by Victory. BEOZ : FAC :

Portrait of Eleonora, wife of
Cosimo I., and others.

Portrait of a Lady.

Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time.

A Knight of St. Stephen.

Portrait of Cosimo I.

Portrait of Piero de Medici.

Portraits of two children.

Portrait of Cosimo I.

Portrait of Cosimo I.

The Violin-player.

Male portrait.

Portrait of a Lady.

Portrait of a Lady.
. Portrait of a Lady. BEOXZIMO F.

Portrait of Cosimo I.



., Portrait of Cosimo I.

,, Portrait of his wife Eleonora.

ALLORI, CRISTOFANO (sometimes called BRON-
ZINO), the son of Alessandro, was born at Florence
in 1577. He was for some time instructed in
the art by his father, but be afterwards studied
under Santi di Tito, and finally improved himself
in colouring by imitating the harmonious tinting
of Lodovico Cardi, called Cigoli. He painted
several considerable works for the churches and
convents at Florence, and for the palace of the
Medici. He was also a very celebrated portrait
painter ; and many of the distinguished persons
of his time were painted by him. Owing to
vicious habits that often seduced him from his
labours, his works are extremely rare, and he
himself comparatively little known. The 'St.
Julian' of the Pitti Palace is the grandest effort
of his genius; his picture of 'Judith with the
head of Holofernes,' also in the Pitti Palace, is,
however, of wider acquaintance. Judith, so beau-
tifully and magnificently attired, is a portrait of
his mistress ; the attendant is that of her mother,
and the head of Holofernes that of the painter.
Numerous copies of this fine work (which has been
engraved no less than thirteen times), and duplicates
of his most celebrated pictures, are scattered over
Italy ; the productions of his scholars Tanteri,
Bruno, Certosini, Cerrini, and others. He died in
1621 at Florence. Allori made several copies, with
slight alterations in the background, of Correggio's
' Reading Magdalene,' which were such good imi-
tations that they have passed as replicas by Cor-
reggio's own hand. In addition to the, works
already noticed may be mentioned :




Brogi photo]


[Uffisi Gallery, Florence


Florence. Vffi:i. His own Portrait.

,. Adoration of the Ma^i.

,, The Magdalene.

Infant Christ sleeping.
London. Xat. Gall. Portrait of a Lady.
Paris. Louvre. Isabella of Aragon at the feet of
Charles VIII.

ALLSTON, WASHINGTON, one of tlie chief
painters of the American school, was born at
Waccamaw in South Carolina, in 1779. After the
completion of his university career at Harvard,
he took up his abode at Charleston/ where he,
however, did not long remain/ as he desired to
go to Europe for the improvement of his art. He
arrived in London in 1801, and at once entered
the Koyal Academy Schools/ where he became
acquainted with his fellow-countryman, West,
who was then president^ In 1804, Allston went
with his friend Vanderlyn and with C. R. Leslie
to Paris, and thence to Rome, where in the follow-
ing year he painted his ' Joseph's Dream.' I At
Rome, Allston commenced with Washington
Irving a friendship which lasted for life. He iilso
became acquainted with Coleridge, and the Danisli
sculptor, Thorwaldsen./ In 1809, he went back
to America, married a sister of Dr. Channing,
and then returned to London, where he produced
his ' Dead Man touching Elisha's bones,' which
g.'iirn <1 a prize of two hundred guineas from the
British Institution.) It is now in the Pennsylvania
Academy of Fine Arts at Philadelphia. Then
f(illd\ved the 'Liberation of St. Peter by the
Angel,' which was taken to America in 1859, and
presented by Dr. Hooper in 1877 to the Wor-
cester Lunatic Hospital, U.S. ; ' Uiiel in the Sun,'
in the possession of the Duke of Sutherland and
'Jacob's Dream,' in the Petworth Galleryi In
1818, Allston returned to America, and settled at
Boston, his health weakened by sorrow for the
death of his wife, and by overwork. In the same
year he was elected an Associate of the Royal
Academy. (Of the works which he executed in
the following years, we may notice, the ' Prophet
Jeremiah,' now in Yale College; 'Saul and
the Witch of Endor ;' 'Miriam's Song;' and
'Dante's Beatrice.',' In 1830, Allston married
again. His second choice was the daughter of
Chief Justice Dana, of Cambridge, Massachusetts,
where he settled. There he spent the remainder
of his life in secluded industry, occasionally in-
terrupted by illness. He then produced one of
his best known works, ' Spalatro's Vision of the
Bloody Hand,' from 'The Italian' by Mrs. Rad-
cliffe especially remarkable for the effects of
light and shade, and for the expression of fright
and a guilty conscience on the face of Spalatro,
and the firm determination visible on the counten-
ance of the monk./ This work, which was painted
for Mr. Ball, of South Carolina, is now in the
Taylor Johnston Collection in New York ; it has
been engraved by W. J. Linton. ) His ' Rosalie,'
executed late in life, is also worthy of mention.

Allston died at Cambridge in 1843, leaving
unfinished a large work, on which he had been
engaged at various times for about forty years. It
represents 'Belshazzar's Feast,' and is now in
the Boston Athena?um, where there is also a
' Portrait of Benjamin West,' which, with that of
the poet Coleridge, in the National Portrait Gal-
lery, proves that Allston excelled in portraiture
as well as in historic painting.

The works of this artist, the pride of his country,
the ' American Titian,' are especially remarkable

for beauty and power of colouring. His fondness
for the terrible is especially noticeable in ' Spa-
latro's Vision,' in ' Saul and the Witch of Endor,'
and in the unfinished 'Belshazzar's Feast.'

ALMELOVEEN, JAN, a Dutch painter and
engraver, of Mijdrecht, near Utrecht, flourished
towards the close of the 17th century. He is better
known by some etchings of landscapes, executed
with great lightness and intelligence, after the
manner of Saftleven, than by anything he has left
us as a painter. Among his plates are :

A portrait of Gisbert Voetius ; signed J. Alineloveen, inv.

A set of twelre landscapes, with small figures ; /.

Almeloveen, inv. et fee.
Six mountainous landscapes, with figures ; Joan, ab

Almeloveen, IMP. etfec.
The Four Seasons ; after U. Saftleren.
Twelve Views of Dutch Villages ; after the same.


was born at Bologna in 1578, and was brought up
in the school of the Carracci, to whom he was
related. He was little inferior to the ablest of his
fellow-students ; of this he has given proof in
several of his works in the churches at Bologna,
particularly his admired picture of the ' Visitation,'
in La Carita, so highly commended by Malvasia ;
and the ' Virgin and Infant, with St. John the
Baptist and St. Francis,' in San Paolo in Monte.
He visited Rome during the pontificate of Urban
VIII., and here, accordingto Baglioni,hewasmuch
employed in painting portraits of the most illus-
trious personages of his time, which were admired
for the force and truth of their colouring, and for
their extraordinary relief. He also painted some
works for the churches at Rome, of which the
principal was the great altar-piece in the church of
Gesii e Maria, representing the 'Coronation of the
Virgin.' He died at Rome in 1638. He was also
an engraver, and imitated Lanfranco, Badalocchio,
and Guido Reni. He engraved fifly plates of
Raphael's works in the Loggie, in the Vatican.
Aloisi had two sons, VITO ANDREA and GIOSEKFO
CARLO, who were painters.

LUIGI), of Assisi, called L' INGEONO, was born about
the year 1470. He is said by Vasari to have been a
fellow-pupil with Raphael under Perugino, and to
have assisted the latter in the Cambio at Perugia, at
Assisi, and in the Sistine Chapel. Ingegno, Vasari
adds, became prematurely blind, and received a
pension from Pope Sixtus IV. This last statement
Rumohr points out to be an error, as the Pope
died in 1484, and Raphael did not enter Perugino's
studio till about 14%. Numerous pictures
scattered throughout Europe are attributed to
Ingegno, amongst them a ' Madonna and Child,'
in the National Gallery, which is now ascribed in
the catalogue to Pinturicchio. Most of his works
are in the manner of Fiorenzo di Lorenzo. Vasari
is the only early writer who mentions this painter,
and Rumohr has shown that part of the little ho
has said of him is incorrect. That there was such
a painter is certain, but at present no picture can
be pointed out as indisputably the work of his

ALS, PETER, a Danish historical and portrait
painter, born at Copenhagen in 1725, studied
for some time under C. G. Pilo. After gaining
the first great prize given by the Academy at
Copenhagen in 1755, he went to Rome and entered
the school of Mengs. He occupied himself chiefly



in copying the pictures of Raphael and Andrea del
Sarto, which, it is said, he did with great accuracy.
He also copied Correggio and Titian. On his
return to his own country he painted some good
portraits ; but his colouring was too sombre to
give a pleasing effect to his pictures of females,
and his work was frequently so laboured as to be
deprived of all animation. Copies of the works
of the old masters by AIs are to be seen in
Denmark. He died in 1775.

ALSLOOT, DENYS VAN, a portrait and landscape
painter, who flourished towards the close of the
16th and the beginning of the 17th century, was
born at Brussels, but the date is nowhere recorded,
and but little is known of his life. He was, about
1600, painter to the Archduke Albert of Austria,
and his pictures were purchased for high prices.
He died in the year 1626, or earlier. A landscape
with the story of Cephalus and Procris, in the
Vienna Gallery, is dated 1608. The figures are
by H. de Clerck. Two pictures by him are in
the Brussels Gallery : they represent the Procession
of St. Gudule at Brussels. By mistake, a second
painter, DANIEL VAN ALSLOOT, has been recorded
by some writers ; but he apparently never existed.

ALT, JAKOB, who was born at Frankfort-on-the-
Main in 1780, received his first instruction in art
in his native city, and then removed to Vienna and
entered the Academy, and soon rose to fame as a
landscape painter. He then made various journeys
throughout Austria and Italy, painting, as he went
along, views in the neighbourhood of the Danube
and in the city of Vienna. In later life Alt
painted much in water-colour; he was also an
engraver on stone. He died at Vienna in 1872.
One of Ids best works is a 'View in Venice,'
in the Belvedere Gallery, signed and dated
1834. He was employed by the Emperor Ferdi-
nand to paint in water-colour a series of views of

ALTDORFER, ALBRECHT, a pa'nter, engraver,
and architect, was born not later than 1480. In
1505 he was enrolled a burgher of Ratisbon, in
which connection he was described as " a painter
of Amberg, twenty-five years of age." It is not
certain, however, whether this description proves
more than that he had fully attained the age
(twenty-five years) at which the freedom of the
city could be granted ; and, as the registration
took place immediately upon his arrival from
Amberg, it is possible he was older than the
letter of the record appears to state. The place
of Altdorfer's birth has not been determined, though
there are grounds for believing that he was of
Ratisbon stock and probably of Ratisbon birth,
Amberg being only the home of his young man-
hood. But, uncertain though it be whether the
migration to l.'atisbon in 1505 was a bold adventure
among strangers or merely a return home, it is
indisputable that events soon justified the young
burgher's choi:e of a city. In 15~>8 he received an
official appointment, and in 15U9 the city council
gave ten gulden towards the expense of a picture
which he painted for the choir of St. Peter's church.
Four years later he was in a position to buy a
house with a courtyard and a tower, the first of
four houses purchased by him during his thirty
years of citizenship. Of the furnishing of these
houses his will gives some inkling, with its notices
of chests, pictures, weapons, gems, stuffs, coins,
silver goblets, and of " a horse with trappings."
His worldly prosperity and opulent surroundings


account for a great deal both in the form and in
the matter of his art, while his practical activity
as city architect explains not a little more. The
bastions which he erected against the Turks have
been swept away, but the public slaughter-house
built from his designs is still standing ; while the
important architectural elements of ' Susannah,'
' Poverty and Riches,' ' The Birth of the Virgin,'
and other paintings, prove that he was not merely
a perfunctory Baumeister but an enthusiast for
builded stones. Nor was it only as painter and
architect that Altdorfer served Ratisbon ; he was a
city councillor, and it is characteristic of " Meister
Albrecht" that when a mob burned down the Jews'
synagogue a building of which he had twice
made etchings, and which he had used for a back-
ground in several pictures it was " Meister
Albrecht's " hand which signed the decree for the
Jews' expulsion. By virtue of so wide a knowledge
of the world, this wealthy burgher and busy man
of affairs was bound to differ strongly from mere
studio-artists, and, as the artist in him always had
the upper hand this appears from many incidents,
such as his retirement from high office while he
was painting 'The Battle of Arbela' his variegated
and energetic life was almost wholly to his artistic
advantage. The widespread belief that Altdorfer,
in respect of technical mastery, lags far behind the
great artists who devoted themselves almost wholly
to their art, is not shared by any competent person
who has made it his business to examine dis-
passionately the whole body of this master's work.
Paintings, drawings, etchings, and woodcuts in
turn exhibit an extraordinary sense and domination
of the particular medium. As a colourist he must
be placed very high indeed among the Northern
Masters, and his work is full of air. As for his
drawings, of which the Berlin Print Room has the
most important collection, they are so highly
charged with poetical feeling, and are so remark-
able for technical accomplishment, that these
almost unknown works should alone suffice to lift
their creator out of liis low estate as a mere " Little
Master." The etchings, especially the landscapes
and the woodcuts, some at least of which appear
to have been cut by his own hand, further establish
his right to be ranked immediately after Diirer and
Holbein in German art.

Altdorfer has been called "the Giorgione of the
North," and the phrase fits its subject neither
better nor worse than do most other phrases of the

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