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returned to Granada in 1701, and died there soon
after his arrival. His works are confounded with
those of his father in Granada, and with those of
his brother in Madrid.

CIGNANI, Conte CARLO, a distinguished painter
of noble family, of the Lombard School, was born
at Bologna in 1628. He was of an honourable
family, and his first essays in the art were some
drawings he attempted after the pictures in his
father's collection. He was first placed under the
tuition of Giambattista Cairo, but he afterwards
entered the academy of Francesco Albani, and
became the most celebrated of his disciples. The
works of Correggio and the Carracci had an in-
fluence in the formation of his style. On his return
to Bologna, he was employed by the Cardinal
Farnese to ornament the great saloon of the palace
at Bologna, where he painted his celebrated work
of the ' Entry of Pope Paul III. into Bologna,' and
the ' Passage of Francis I.' through that city. He
afterwards visited Leghorn and Rome, where he
stayed three years, during which time he painted
294



among other works two pictures for the church of
Sant' Andrea della Valle, representing subjects
from the life of that Saint ; and several pictures
of Venus. On his return to Bologna he was em-
ployed in the execution of some important works
in San Michele in Bosco ; they represent scenes
taken from the time of the Plague, and are in
the style of Correggio, painted in ovals, supported
by angels of extraordinary beauty, and are held
amongst the most admired features of that city.
He also executed several paintings for the nobility:
amongst others, for the Archbishop of Milan, a
' Holy Family ; ' for Prince Adam of Liechtenstein,
' Cupid,' ' Bacchus,' ' Danae,' and a ' Virgin and
Child." After decorating the gallery of Duke
Ranuccio II. at Parma, he was knighted by that
prince and by the Pope. Other important works
by him are, ' The Virgin treading on the head of a
Serpent,' for the cathedral at Piacenza ; ' Joseph
tempted by Potiphar's Wife,' for the Marquis Pal-
lavicini ; ' Hagar and Ishmael,' for the King of
Poland ; ' The Descent from the Cross,' and ' Christ
as a Gardener,' for Louis XIV. The great monu-
ment of his fame is the cupola of the duomo at
Forli, which occupied him from 1686 to 1706. It
represents the ' Assumption of the Virgin,' an im-
mense work of the highest merit. After having
finished this grand composition, he was elected
senator of that town, and Clement XI. appointed him
president of the newly- founded Clementine Academy
at Bologna. Such was the attachment of his pupils
to Cignani, that, whilst he was still working at
Forli, they followed him there, where his instruc-
tions were continued until his death in 1719.
During the latter period of his life, he painted
among other pictures ' Aurora,' for the Marquis
d'Albiccini ; ' Adam and Eve,' for the Cardinal
Spinola; 'The Birth of the Virgin,' for Clement
XI. ; ' John the Baptist as a Child,' and ' Jupiter
nursed by the goat Amalthea,' for the Elector-
Palatine John William. The following are some
of his best works :



Berlin.

Copenhagen.



Dresden.
Dulwich.
Florence.

Hague.
Munich.

Petersburg.
Vienna.



Jf/'seum. Venus and Anchises.

Gallery. Joseph and Potiphar's Wife.

Tarquin and Lucretia.

., Holy Family.

Gallery. Joseph and Potiphar's Wife.

Gallery. The Magdalen,

f^/i-z. His own Portrait.

Madonna and Child.

Gallery. Temptation of Adam and Eve.

Pinakothek, The Infancy of Jupiter.

The Assumption of the Virgin.

Hermitage. Charity.

Madonna and Child.
The Roman Charity.



His paintings may also be found at Hampton
Court and in the collection of the Duke of Devon-
shire at Chatsworth. He died at Forli in 1719.

Cignani's powers were more profound than
prompt; he conceived his subject with facility, but
he found difficulty in finishing it to his satisfaction.
Though his works always seem finished, they have
nothing of the appearance of labour. In his
design he emulated Correggio, without arriving at
the grandeur and vagueness of contour that are
peculiar to his unrivalled model. In his colouring
he resembles rather the suavity of Guido than the
tender blending of Correggio. Like the Carracci,
he possessed a faculty, by means of extraordinary
relief, of making his figures appear larger than
they really are. He excelled in painting women



CIMABUE




Alinari photo} [ Sta - Maria Novella, Florence

THE MADONNA AND CHILD



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



and children, in which to something of the grace
of Alhani, he added a more elevated character.

CIGNANI, FELICE, the son and scholar of Carlo
Cignani, was born at Bologna in 1660. Under the
able instruction of his father, and endowed with
a natural disposition for the art, he became a
painter of considerable ability. Enriched by an
ample fortune left him by his father, he appears
to have exercised the art rather as his inclination
prompted him, than as a regular professor. In
the Church of the Carita at Bologna is a picture
by him of the ' Virgin and Infant Jesus, with
St. Joseph, and St. Anthony of Padua;' and at
the Cappuccini, a much-admired picture of ' St.
Francis receiving the Stigmata.' He died in 1724.

CIGNANI, PAOLO, the nephew and scholar of
Carlo Cignani, was born at Bologna in 1709. Lanzi
mentions in favourable terms a picture by this
painter at Savignano, ' St. Francis appearing to St.
Joseph of Copertino.' The subject is represented
by candle-light with a fine effect ; the figures are
well designed in the style of the antique. He died
in 1764.

CIGNAROLI, GIAMBETTINO, was born at Salo,
near Verona, in 1706. He first studied under Santo
Prunato at Venice, but gained further improve-
ment by travelling 'in the Venetian States and
Lombardy, and by copying the works of Paolo
Veronese and Correggio. He may be ranked
among the best painters of the modern Venetian
school. Although he was invited to several of
the courts in Italy, he preferred a residence at
Venice. At Pontremoli is an admirable picture
by him of 'St. Francis receiving the Stigmata.'
Lanzi extols as one of his finest pictures the
' Flight into Egypt,' in Sant' Antonio Abbate, at
Parma. The grave and dignified beauty of the
Virgin, and the angelic character of the cherubs
that are their guides, partake of the charming ex-
pression of Carlo Maratti, although unequal to that
master in unity of effect and harmony of colour-
ing. His backgrounds are ingeniously composed
of well-chosen architecture and pleasing landscape,
and his subjects, usually devout, are enlivened by
groups of cherubs and angels, which he introduced
with the happiest effect. He was the founder, and
in 1769 the director, of the Academy at Verona.
He died at Verona, in 1770. Among his principal
works are:

Madrid. Museum. Assumption of the Virgin.
Venice. Gallery, The Death of Rachel (a replica is

in the Lille Museum).
Verona. Jlfuseum. The Triumph of Pomponius.

Cathedral. The Transfiguration.

Vienna. Gallery. Madonna and Child, with SS. Ottilia
and Peter Martyr.

CIGNAROLI, MARTINO, was born at Verona in
1649, and studied in the school of Carpioni, under
whom he became an able artist in landscapes of an
easel size. He died at Milan in 1726.

His brother, PIETBO CIGNAROLI, who was also a
painter, was born at Verona in 1665, and died at
Milan in 1720.

CIGNAROLI, SCIPIONE, the son of Martino, re-
ceived his first instruction from his father, and
afterwards went to Rome, where he became a
scholar of Tempesta. He was a successful imitator
of the style of his master, and of the works of G.
Poussin and Salvator Rosa. His pictures are chiefly
at Milan and Turin.

CIGOLI. See CARDI.

CIMA DA CONEGLIANO. See CONBGLIANO.



CIMABUE, GIOVANNI, who was of a noble family,
was born at Florence in 1240. He is extolled by
Vasari as having shed the first light on the art of
painting, and the title of the ' Father of Modern
Painting' has been bestowed upon him. Most
writers, however, now agree in regarding him as
the last of the old, rather than the first of the new,
line of painters in Italy ; for although he undoubt-
edly infused a certain amount of new life into the
old worn-out types, he never quite rid himself of
the dismal asceticism of the Byzantine School, and
therefore can scarcely be placed on a level with
his great contemporary Niccolo Pisano, who really
gave the new impulse that art received at this time,
an impulse that was carried on by Cimabue's pupil
Giotto, and transmitted by him through all the
great line of Italian artists.

Vasari states that he was educated in the Convent
of Santa Maria Novella, and was trained in art by
certain Greek masters who had been invited to
Florence to paint the chapel of the Gondi in Santa
Maria Novella ; but as this church was not built
until Cimabue was about forty years of age, thia
could not well have been the case. There were,
however, many native painters in Italy at this time,
and from some of these he probably received in-
struction. Of Cimabue's works by far the most
important is the famous colossal Madonna still
preserved in the church for which it was painted
Santa Maria Novella. This Madonna was so
admired by Cimabue's contemporaries that the3'
carried it, according to Vasari, in festive procession
through the streets. It was the largest altar-piece
that had as yet been painted, and in many respects
is important in the history of art. The expression
of the Virgin, though doleful, is different from the
hard staring grief depicted by preceding artists,
and the Child stretches out his two fingers in bene-
diction in quite a natural manner. The little
medalions of apostles and saints on the frame are
especially worthy of notice. In this work indeed
distinct progress is visible, but this was a late
work of the artist ; a Madonna in the Florentine
Academy, and others in the Louvre at Paris and
in the National Gallery, scarcely attain to the
same degree of improvement

Besides his Madonnas and other altar-pieces,
Cimabue was doubtless the master who executed
many of the wall-paintings in the church of St.
Francis, at Assisi. " Of Cimabue's presence at
Assisi," Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle pronounce
that " there is not the slightest reason to doubt,"
but it is very difficult to assign precisely his portion
of the artistic work accomplished there. This
church has a peculiar interest in the history of Art,
for the whole progress of painting in the 13th and
14th centuries may be studied on its walls. It was
built as an Upper and Lower Church during the
first half of the 13th century, when the worship of
St. Francis, the Patron Saint of Poverty, had grown
to be second only to that of Christ. It was first
decorated by the rude artists of that early day, and
probably, amongst others, by Giunto Pisano ; but
Cimabue appears to have had the superintendence
of all the paintings executed there in his time.
Vasari indeed assigns the whole of the paintings
of the walls and the vaulted roof of the Lower
Church to him and " certain Greek masters " whom
he "greatly surpassed ;" but it is more probable
that he merely painted the south transept. All
his paintings in the Lower Church have perished,
but some still remain in the Upper Church that are

295



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



assigned to him with every probability of truth.
According to Vasari the whole series of the History
of the Virgin, and of Jesus Christ, together with
the eight historical subjects from the Old Testa-
ment, were all painted by Cimabue ; but modern
writers find in these paintings the work of many
different hands. In this church, which seems to
have been a sort of training ground for most of
the artists of that time, we may see the progress
that Italian art had just begun to make, tracing
the development from Giunto Pisano to Cimabue,
and from Cimabue to Giotto.

Vasari speaks of Cimabue having painted a small
picture of St. Francis "from nature," not meaning
from St. Francis himself, who had long been dead,
but from the living model, "which was a new thing
in those times." This likeness still exists in the
church of Santa Croce, but its authenticity is rendered
doubtful by its being placed amongst other works
that are attributed to Cimabue without any reason-
able foundation. Cimabue probably died in 1302,
in which year, according to Ciampi, he was engaged
upon a mosaic in the Duomo of Pisa, which be left
unfinished. He was buried in the church of Santa
Maria del Fiore in Florence, and the following
epitaph was afterwards composed upon him by one
of the Nini :

" Credidit ut Cimabos picturse castra tenere,
Sic teiiuit, vivens ; nunc tenet astra poll."

This probably was written in allusion to the well-
known lines in Dante's ' Purgatoria,' and not as
Vasari puts it.

Some critics question as to whether works attri-
buted to Cimabue should not rather be given to
Duccio the Sienese artist, and say there has been
some confusion between the histories of these
two men, but there is every probability that the
old Tuscan school before Giotto was very similar
in the two cities.

Bibliography : Vasari, ' Vite de' piu eccellenti
Pittori, &c.,' Crowe and Cavalcaselle ; P. Angeli,
' Storia della Basilica d'Assisi'; and ' Painters of
Florence,' Mrs. Ady, 1900.

CIMAROLI, GIAMBATTISTA, a Venetian landscape
painter, who was born at Salo on the lake of Garda,
flourished from 1718 to 1733. He was a pupil of
Antonio Calza, and it is conjectured that Zuccarelli
may have taken lessons from him, as his early pic-
tures have some resemblance to those of Cimaroli,
but with less warmth. The cattle and figures
introduced are of the same character. His pictures
are not uncommon in England, though his name and
works are confounded with those of the Cignaroli.

CIMATORI, ANTONIO, called IL VISACCI, an
Italian historical painter, was a native of Urbino.
He flourished in the 16th century, and excelled in
chiaroscuro and in pen-and-ink drawings.

CIMON, an early Greek monochromist of Cleonae,
appears to have flourished in the latter part of the
9tli century B.C., but his date cannot be determined
with any certainty. He seems to have been the
first to attempt to place the figure in different
attitudes, so as to display the joints, the veins of
the body, and the drapery. He may therefore be
considered the first painter of perspective.

CINCINNATO, DIEGO RGMULO, and FRANCISCO
ROMULO, were the sons and pupils of Romolo Cin-
cinnato. Diego was sent to Rome by Philip IV.,
where he painted for that monarch the portrait of
Urban VIII., by whom he was knighted, and pre-
sented with a gold medal and chain. He was
296



principally engaged, as was his brother Francisco,
in painting portraits. Diego died at Rome in 1625,
and Francisco in the same city in 1635.

CINCINNATO, ROMOLO, a Florentine painter,
who was born at Florence in 1502, and was a pupil
of Francesco Salviati. In 1567 he was invited by
Philip II. to Spain, where he passed the greater
part of his life. He was employed in the Escorial,
where he painted in fresco a part of the great
cloister, and in the church two pictures representing
' St. Jerome reading,' and the same saint preaching
to his disciples ; as well as two subjects from the
life of St. Lawrence. For the church of the
Jesuits at Cuenija, he painted in 1572 3 his most
esteemed work, the ' Circumcision,' now in the
Academy of St. Ferdinand at Madrid. He also
painted some mythological subjects in fresco, in
the palace of the Duke of Infantado, at Guadalajara.
Other works by him are in the Academy of Madrid,
viz.: 'The Transfiguration' after Raphael, in oil;
two pictures of ' St. Peter ' and ' St. Paul ' ; and a
fresco painting of ' St. Lawrence.' He died at an
advanced age in 1600.

CINERICIUS, PHILIPPUS, is the name of an en-
graver by whom there are two small plates repre-
senting St. Dominic and St. Peter Martyr, dated
1516. He appears to have been a monk of the
Dominican order, and was probably of German
origin, the name Cinericius being the Latin equiva-
lent of Ascher. The style of his engravings is
entirely that of the Italian school of the com-
mencement of the 16th century. See Passavant's
' Peintre-Graveur,' v. 228.

CIONE, ANDREA DI, who was born at Florence
in 1308 (?), is commonly called ORCAONA, (supposed
to be a corruption of " Arcagnuolo,") the name
given to him by his contemporaries. His father,
a goldsmith, instructed him in the rudiments of his
art ; in 1343 he was registered in the Florentine
Painters' Guild, and nine years later he became
master in the Guild of the Stone-Cutters. Between
1350 and 1357, in conjunction with his elder
brother, Leonardo (more commonly called Nardo),
he painted in the Strozzi Chapel in Santa Maria
Novella, Florence. The frescoes, the ' Last Judg-
ment,' ' Paradise,' and an altar-piece of the year
1357, by Andrea, and 'Hell,' by Nardo, though
much damaged by damp and restoration, still
remain. For the same chapel he painted, in 1354,
an altar-piece of the ' Saviour enthroned with
Saints and Angels.' Early in 1358 Orcagna went
to Orvieto, where he worked at intervals until
1361.

The death of Orcagna is now usually placed in
136^, and accordingly 1308 is given as the year
of his birth, for he is said to have been sixty years
old when he died.

If the year 1368 be correct, it, of course, robs
him of thi- authorship of any works executed sub-
sequent to that date. Amongst the paintings
formerly ascribed to him, but now assigned to other
masters, are the great frescoes in the Campo Santo
at Pisa, representing the ' Triumph of Death,' the
' Last Judgment,' and ' Hell,' which are thought to
be of Sienese workmanship, similar to that of the
Lorenzetti.

Orcagna was also a sculptor and architect. On
his sculptures he wrote, " Fece Andrea di Cione,
Pittore " ; on his paintings, " Fece Andrea di Cione,
Scultore." The Tabern.icle with medallions illus-
trating the life of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Or
San Michele, Florence, built to enclose a miraculous



G. B. CIPRIANI.




CUPIDS ON A GOAT



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



picture, and finished in 1359, is his most notable
work. It is a white marble shrine with spiral
columns and pinnacles, rising almost to the roof of
the church, and is studded with jewels and enamels
of marvellous beauty. The following paintings
by him still remain :

Florence. <S. Maria Novella. Altar-piece (1357), Frescoes
of Paradise and of The
Last Judgment.

London. National Gall. Coronation of the Virgin
(an altar-piece in twelve
divisions : painted for S.
Pietro Mayyiore, Florence).

CIONE, LEONARDO DI, architect and painter, the
elder brother of Orcagna, is usually known by the
name of NABDO, which was supposed formerly
to be the diminutive of Bernardo, but is now said
to stand for Leonardo. If this be so, the works
signed " Bernardus de Florentia " e. g. a triptych in
the Florentine Academy, a ' Virgin and Saints ' in
the Ognissanti at Florence, &c. usually ascribed to
Orcagna's elder brother, cannot be by his hand.
But the Strozzi Chapel, in Santa Maria Novella,
Florence, still possesses frescoes which he is known
to have executed in conjunction with Orcagna. He
flourished about 1350-1360.

CIOR, PIERRE CHARLES, a French painter of
historical subjects, portraits, and miniatures, was
born in Paris in 1769. He was a pupil of Bauzin,
and became miniature painter to the king of Spain.

CIPPER. See ZIPPER.

CIPRIANI, GALGANO, an Italian line-engraver,
was born at Siena in 1775. He entered the school
of Raffaelle Morghen, and was professor success-
ively at the Academies of Naples and Venice. His
best plates are ' St. Peter and St. Paul,' after Guido
Reni, and ' St. John in the Wilderness,' after Titian.

CIPRIANI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, a painter ana
etcher, was born at Florence in 1727. He was of
a good family of Pistoia. He attended the school
of Ignatius Hugford, an Englishman settled in
Florence, where he was a fellow-pupil of Bartolozzi.
In 1750 he went to Rome for improvement, and
after his return to Florence, he painted the organ-
screen for the church of the convent of Santa
Maria Maddalena de' Pazzi. In 1755 he came to
England, whither his reputation had preceded him.
It was at a period when the talents of Bartolozzi,
the engraver, were in their prime, and the union of
the abilities of these two men soon became dis-
tinguished through every part of Europe. Perhaps
few instances have occurred in which the exertions
of the artist have been so happily supported by the
taste of the engraver.

Cipriani executed few large works in painting ;
the most considerable of them are at Houghton.
He also restored some of Verrio's paintings al
Windsor, as well as the ceiling by Rubens in the
chapel at Whitehall, in 1778. He left an infinite
number of drawings, which may be ranked among
the happiest efforts of the art. Cipriani was one
of the members of the Royal Academy at its
foundation in 1768, and was employed to make
the design for the diploma which is given to the
Academiciansand Associateson theiradmission,and
which was finely engraved by Bartolozzi. For this
work the Academicians presented him with a silver
cup, at the same time acknowledging the assistance
they had received from his great abilities in his
profession. The original drawing was afterwards
sold by auction for thirty-one guineas. He en-
graved a few plates, some of which are after his



own designs. These were done for Thomas Hollis,
to be inserted in his ' Memoirs.' On them is in-
scribed, 'Drawn and etched by J. B. Cipriani, a
Tuscan,' &c.

In 1761 Cipriani married an English lady, by
whom he had two sons, the younger of whom,
Captain SIR HENRY CIPRIANI, was brought up as
an artist, but afterwards became a clerk in the
Treasury, and died in 1820.

Cipriani died at Hammersmith in 1785, and was
buried in the Chelsea burial-ground, where Barto-
lozzi erected a monument to his memory. In the
year after his death 1100 drawings by him were
.fold by auction. His own portrait by himself is
in the Uffizi, Florence, and in the South Kensington
Museum are three water-colour drawings by him
'The Triumph of Cupid,' 'The Jealousy of Darn-
ley,' and ' Comedy ' (1783).

CIRCIGNANO, ANTONIO, who was born at Poma-
rance in 1560, was the son and pupil of Niccolo
Circignano, whom he assisted in many of his works.
After the death of his father, he resided some years
at Citta di Castello, where he painted some of his best
pictures, of which the most admired was the ' Con-
ception,' in the Conventual!, which Lanzi describes
as partaking of the styles of Barocci and Roncalli.
He returned to Rome, according to Baglione, in the
pontificate of Urban VIII., and was employed for
several of the churches. In La Madonna della
Consolazione, he painted some subjects of the life
of the Virgin ; in Santa Maria Transpontina, the
church of the Carmelites, several pictures from the
life of St. Albert. He died at Rome in 1620.

CIRCIGNANO, NicooL6, called DALLE POMA-
RANCE, or IL POMARANCIO, was born at Pomarance,
in Tuscany, in 1519. Baglione, without saying by
whom he was instructed, states that he visited
Rome when he was young, in the pontificate of
Gregory XIII., by whom he was employed in the
great saloon of the Belvedere. He lived the greater
part of his life at Rome, where there are many of
his works in the churches. In San Stefano Rotonilo,
is the Martyrdom of that Saint. In the Tempio
del Gesu. there are two chapels entirely decorated
by him ; in one he has painted several subjects
from the lives of St. Peter and St. Paul, in the
other, the 'Nativity;' in Sant' Antonio is the 'Cruci-
fixion.' The Cupola of Santa Pudenziuna is al*<>
by this master. Baglione says that he died in the
pontificate of Sixtus V. (1585-1590) in the 72nd
year of his age: therefore, in 1590.

CITTADINI, GAETANO, was the son of Carlo
Cittadini, and was instructed by his father. He
excelled in painting landscapes of a cabinet size,
with small figures, correctly drawn and spiritedly
touched. His works were held in estimation both
at Rome and at Bologna. He lived about the year
1725. His brother GIOVANNI GIROLAMO was also a
distinguished painter.

CITTADINI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, CARLO, and
ANGIOLO MICHELK, were the sons of Pierfrancesco
Cittadini, and painted animals, birds, fruit, and
flowers, in the style of their father. They resided
chiefly at Bologna. Giovanni was born in 1657,
and died in 1693: Carlo was born in 1669, and
died in 1744.

CITTADINI, PIERFRANCESCO, called IL MILANESE,
was born at Milan in either 1613 or 1616, and was



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