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brought up in the school of Guido. He possessed
powers for the higher work of art, as is evident
from the proofs he has given in the churches at
Bologna. His ' Stoning of Stephen,' ' Christ pray-



ing in the Garden,' the ' Flagellation,' and the
'Ecce Homo,' which he painted for the church of
San Stefano, and his ' St. Agatha,' for the church of
that Saint, are productions not unworthy of a dis-
ciple of Guido. Yet, whether he was allured by the
encouragement given to the painters of ornamental
cabinet pictures, or from his own caprice, this able
artist descended to the humble imitation of still-
life. Many of his pictures of dead game, fruit, and
flowers, are in the collections at Bologna, where he
died in 1681. An 'Adoration of the Shepherds'
by him is in the Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; and
the Dresden Gallery contains ' Hagar and the
Angel,' ' Lot and his daughters leaving Sodom,'
and a picture of still-life. Three paintings by him
are in the Bologna Gallery. Albani called the
three sons of this painter, ' I Fruttajuoli ' and
' I Fioranti '

CIVALLI, FRANCESCO, who was born at Perugia
in 1660, was a scholar of Andrea Carlone. On leav-
ing that master he went to Rome, where he studied
some time under Giovanni Battista Gauli, called
Baciccio. He was a reputable painter of history ;
but his chief merit consisted in his portraits, which
are very generally esteemed. He died in 1703.

at Crema towards the close of the 15th century. He
has also been styled " IL FORNARO," and was at
Brescia for the first time in 1493, where he spent
four years in the decoration of the old cathedral,
a labour which has now entirely disappeared. The
churches of Santa Barnaba and Sant' Alessandro,
Brescia, contain altar-pieces by him, dated 1495
and 1504. His earliest known remaining work at
Crema is the altar-piece in the duomo, representing
' St. Sebastian, between SS. Christopher and Roch,'
dated 1509. In 1526 he painted the portraits of the
illustrious citizens of Crema, and likewise restored
a miraculous Pieta, which belonged to the duomo.
The date of his death is uncertain. He was living
in 1539, for that date is found on a ' Baptism of
Christ ' by him in the Tadini Collection at Lovere.
The following of his paintings are worthy of note :
Brescia. S. Alessandro. Pieta. 1504.

Scenes of the Passion. 1504.

Crema. Bishop's Chapel. An Annunciation.

Town Hall. St. Mark between Justice and

Temperance. 1507 1509.

,, Several portraits of personages of

distinction in that city. 1526.

Cathedral. St. Sebastian between SS. Roch

and Christopher. 1515 or 1519.
Gessate. S. Pietro. Pieta.

Lovere. Tadini Coll. Baptism of Christ. 1539.

Casa Carioni, 15 Scenes from the Story of

Psyche (as a frieze). 1540.

S. Andrea. Trinity.

SS. Nicholas, Sebastian, and


Palazztiolo. Church. The Madonna and Child, with
Angels and Saints. 1525.

Vasari by mistake speaks also of an older painter
of the same name.

CIVETON, CHRISTOPHE, a French engraver and
draughtsman, was born in Paris in 1796. He
studied under Berlin, and made drawings of Views
in the environs of Paris. He died in 1831.


CLACK, RICHARD AUGUSTUS, the son of a Devon-
shire clergyman, whose chief works were portraits,
exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1830 to 1857.
He lived for some time at Exeter, and afterwards
at Hampstead, but the dates of his birth and death
are not recorded.


Pieter Claes the elder, painted historical and alle-
gorical subjects, and portraits. He was a native
of Bruges, and there entered the Guild of St. Luke
in 1575, and became its dean in 1586, 1590, and
1601. He died in 1613. His works, several of
which are in the H6tel-de-Ville and churches of
Bruges, are distinguished by their fine colouring
and finish. In the H6tel-de-Ville is a ' Grand
Banquet,' with many portraits of magistrates of
the time, dated 1574.

His son, PIETER ANTHONIE, was dean of the
Guild of St. Luke at Bruges in 1607, and died in

CLAES, FLORENT, a Belgian painter of interiors
and genre subjects, was born at Antwerp in 1818.
He studied under N. de Keyser, and died in his
native city in 1870.

CLAES, GILLES, (or CLAESRENS,) an historical
painter, was the son of Pieter Claes the elder. He
was born at Bruges, and in 1570 was admitted into
the Guild of St. Luke, of which he became dean in
1577. He became domestic painter to Alessandro
Farnese, Duke of Parma, Governor of the Nether-
lands, and to the Archduke Albert and Infanta
Isabella. He died at Bruges in 1607.

CLAES, PIETER, (or CLAESSENS,) the elder, a
Flemish painter of history and portraits, was the
earliest of a large family of artists who lived at
Bruges, where he was born in 1500. He was a
pupil of Adriaan Bekaert, and was admitted into
the Guild of St. Luke in that city in 1516, made a
master in 1529, and dean in 1572. He died at
Bruges in 1576. In the collection of the Prince
of Orange at Brussels was a painting by him of a
knight kneeling, with four sons, and in the Copen-
hagen Museum is a Man's Portrait by him. The
name has been often written Claeis, Claeissens,
Claeyssens, and Claeyssoone.

CLAES, PIETER, (or CLAESSENS,) the younger,
was the son of Pieter Claes, the elder. He was
born at Bruges, and died there in 1612. He painted
history, allegories, and portraits, and became a
master of the Guild of St. Luke, at Bruges, in 1570,
and dean in 1687, 1600, and 1606. His masterpiece
is a triptych in the church of St. Walburga at
Bruges, representing ' Notre-Dame de 1'Arbre-Sec,'
painted in 1606-1608, and long erroneously attri-
buted to Pourbus. There is also a triptych, an
' Ecce Homo,' by him, in the cathedral, and the
' Pacification of Ghent' in the Academy at Bruges.
His works are remarkable for their design and
colouring, but are wanting in animation.

This artist had a son, also named FIETER, who
died in 1623. His ' Christ bearing the Cross ' is in
the Hospital of St. John at Bruges.

painter, born at Leyden in 1498. He was a scholar
of Cornelis Engelbrechtszoon, whose manner he at
first imitated ; but on seeing the works of Schoorl
and Heemskerk, he changed his mode of design-
ing, which was neither correct nor agreeable, and
adopted the style of those masters. He painted
historical subjects, and composed his subjects with
surprising facility. He also made many designs
for painters upon glass. Van Mander speaks in
very favourable terms of two pictures by this
master at Leyden, one representing the 'Cruci-
fixion, with the Virgin, Mary Magdalen, and the
Disciples ; ' the other, ' Christ bearing his CroBS."
He died in 1564. There are paintings by him in


Brpgi photd\ \Brera Gallery, J\Iilan



the Berlin Gallery, of ' Christ before Caiaphas,' and
a ' Holy Family.'

CLAESSEN, ALAERT, a Dutch engraver, who
flourished at Amsterdam between 1520 and 1562.
He copied Lucas van Leyden, Albrecht Diirer, and
H. S. Beham. There is also a plate by him after
Mantegna. His engravings, which are among the
best productions of his time, are executed with a
light touch, but are not correctly drawn. He there-
fore shows to more advantage in his smaller than
in hia larger works, of which he executed but very

Bartsch and Passavant describe 142 works by
this artist, amongst which are :

David and Goliath.

The Baptism of the Eunuch. 1524.

St. Margaret.

A Nativity.

The Baptism of Christ.

The Death of General Gattamelatta ; after Mantegna.

A Naked "Woman, with a Dragon.

CLAESSENS, ANTHONIE, a painter of Antwerp,
is said to have been a pupil of Quentin Massys.
There are two works from his hand in the Academy
at Bruges, painted in 1498 for the town hall, and
which have until recently been attributed to
Gheerardt David ; they represent the ' Judgment
of Cambyses ' and the ' Flaying of Sisamnes.'
These works are correctly drawn, of remarkable
expression, and cleverly coloured, but somewhat
cold in tone and with the shadows too deep. There
was also a picture in the church of the Car-
thusians at Miraflores in Spain, representing ' St.
John the Baptist and a Bishop,' which bore the
legend ' Antonio Claesins Brugensis.' In the Dublin
National Gallery is a ' Nativity ' said to be by

at Antwerp in 1764, and commenced his artistic
career as a painter of landscapes ; but abandoned
the palette to exercise his talents as an engraver,
and became highly proficient, combining the use of
the graver with that of the etching needle in a
most happy manner. He studied under Bartolozzi,
and engraved plates after the works of Rubens,
Rembrandt, Gerard Dou, Ostade, and other eminent
painters of the Netherlands. He practised in
London, Amsterdam, and Paris, where he settled
about 1810. He died at Rueil, near Paris, in 1834.
Claessens married the widow of the French minia-
ture painter Pelletier, who was herself an artist.
His best works are :

The Descent from the Cross ; after Rubens.
The Dropsical Woman ; after G. Dou.
The Night Watch ; after Rembrandt.
The Laugher ; after F. Hals.

CLARET, WILLIAM, an English portrait painter,
flourished from about 1670 to 1680. He was a
scholar of Sir Peter Lely, and copied many of the
pictures of that master. Of his own productions,
one of the most successful was a portrait of John
Egerton, Earl of Bridgewater, of which we have a
mezzotint print by R. Thomson. He died in
London in 1706.

CLARK, JOHN HEAVISIDE, who was born about
1770, was sometimes known as ' Waterloo Clark,'
because of the sketches he made on the field directly
after the battle. He was the author of ' A prac-
tical essay on the art of Colouring and Painting
Landscapes,' with illustrations, published in 1807,
and 'A practical Illustration of Gilpin's Day,' with

thirty designs, in 1824. He died in Edinburgh in

CLARK, THOMAS, a native of Ireland, studied in
the Dublin Academy, and about 1768 entered the
studio of Sir Joshua Reynolds, with whom, how-
ever, he did not remain long. He drew heads
well, but was a very poor colourist. He died

CLARK, W., a corporal in a Light Dragoon
Regiment, practised successfully as an aquatint
engraver. He died at Limerick in 1801.

CLARKE, JOHN, an engraver, was born in Scot-
land about 1650, and worked with success at Edin-
burgh. He died about 1697. We have by him
the following plates :

A Medallion of William and Mary, Prince and Princess
of Orange. 1690.

Sir Matthew Hale

George, Baron de Goertz.

Andrew Marvell.

Humphrey Prideaux.

Seven small Heads on one plate : Charles II.. and his
Queen, Prince Kupert. Prince of Orange, Duke of
York, Duke of Moumouth, and General Monk.

The Humours of Harlequin (from his own designs).

CLARKE, JOHN, an engraver mentioned in Wai-
pole's ' Anecdotes,' resided in Gray's Inn, London,
and worked during the latter portion of the 17th
century. He engraved a portrait of Rubens, and
a print of ' Hercules and Deianira.'

CLARKE, THEOPHILDS, was born in 1776. He
studied under Opie, and became a student of the
Royal Academy in 1793, and an Associate in 1803.
He chiefly practised portrait painting, but occa-
sionally exhibited fancy subjects, such as ' The
Pensive Girl,' and 'The Lovers,' from Thomson's
Seasons. It is not known when he died, but his
name was retained on the list of Associates till

CLARKE, WILLIAM, was an English engraver
mentioned by Vertue. He engraved the portraits
of George, Duke of Albemarle, from a picture by
Barlow ; Elizabeth Percy, Duchess of Somerset ;
and John Shower, from a painting by himself.
The latter is a small mezzotint. His last work is
dated 1680.

CLARKSON, NATHANIEL, who began life as a
coach-panel and sign painter, afterwards became
known for his portraits. He was a member of the
Incorporated Society of Artists. In 1787 he
painted an altar-piece of the ' Annunciation,' which
he presented to St. Mary's church at Islington,
where he resided. He died there in 1795, aged 71.

CLAROS, Lois, was a Valencian painter, errone-
ously represented as a scholar of the Ribaltas. He
joined the Augustinian Order in 1663, and painted
for his convent a large picture of 'Christ ministered
to by Angels in the Desert,' besides other works, in
one of which he introduced his own portrait.


CLARY, JnsTiNiEN NICOLAS, Viscount, a French
amateur painter of animals, was born in Paris in
1816, and died in that city in 1869.

CLASENS, D., a Dutch engraver, flourished
about the year 1660. His name is affixed to a
coarse etching, representing the 'Virgin and Infant
Christ, with St. John and an Angel,' after Procac-

CLASERI, MARCO, was a native of Venice, and
flourished about the year 1580. He engraved
several wood-cuts, among which are the ' Four
Seasons ,' and the ' Four Ages of the World.'



CLASSICUS, VICTORIUS, was, according to Florcnt
Le Comte, a sculptor and an architect. He is said
to have engraved some plates from the paintings
of Tintoretto. There is a small portrait of
Tintoretto, engraved in a style resembling that of
Cornelia Cort, inscribed Alessandro Victoria Clas-
sico scit/p., which is probably by the same artist.

CLATER, THOMAS, exhibited portraits and sub-
ject pieces at the Royal Academy from 1820 till
1859. He died in 1867.

CLAUDE, a French painter upon glass, called
by the Italians OLAUDIO FRANCESE, born in the south
of France about 1470, to whom is due the honour
of having introduced the art into Italy. Claude
took with him to Rome a colleague, named Guil-
laume, and they together executed at the Vatican
many windows which were destroyed in the siege
of 1527. They also painted for the church of Santa
Maria del Popolo two windows representing the
history of the Virgin, which still exist. Claude
died soon after their completion.


painter of landscapes, flowers, and still-life, was
born at Badonviller (Vosges) in 1733. Several of
his works are in the Museum of Nancy, where he
died in 1814. He was the friend of Girardet and
Joseph Vernet.

CLAXTON, MARSHALL, a historical painter, was
born at Bolton, in Lancashire, in 1811. He became
a pupil of John Jackson, R.A., and was also a
student at the Royal Academy, entering the school
in 1831. The first picture which he exhibited was
a portrait of his father, in 1832. 'The Evening
Star ' appeared in the following year. He obtained
the first medal in the Painting School in 1834, and
the following year he was awarded the gold medal
of the Society of Arts, for a portrait of Sir Astley
Cooper. He exhibited at the Royal Academy, the
Society of British Artists, and the British Institu-
tion. In 1837 he visited Rome, and stayed in Italy
some time. At the Cartoon Exhibition at West-
minster Hall in 1843, he obtained a prize of 100
for his ' Alfred the Great in the Camp of the
Danes,' now in the Literary and Scientific Institu-
tion at Greenwich. In Westminster Hall, 1845,
he had a large oil picture of the ' Burial of Sir
John Moore at Corunna.' About 1850 he went to
Australia with the intention of raising a School of
Art, taking with him a large collection of nearly
two hundred pictures, which he exhibited to the
public free. Being disappointed in his endeavours,
he left about 1855, and went to India, where he
sold all his large pictures. He returned with a
portfolio full of sketches of Australian, Indian,
and Egyptian scenery and figures. The Baroness
(then Miss) Burdett-Coutts commissioned him,
while in Australia, to paint a large picture of
'Christ blessing little Children,' which is now in
the school-room attached to St. Stephen's, West-
minster. It measures twenty by sixteen feet.
Claxton died in London in 1881. Among his
principal works are the following :

Spencer reading the * Faerie Queene '")

to his Wife and Sir Walter Raleigh. Painted for

The Mother of Moses. ! the Baroness

The Free Seat. Burdett-Coutts.

The Grandmother.

Genera] View of the Harbour and"}

City of Sydney. ( In the possession

Portrait of the Last Queen of the jo/ Her Majesty.
Aborigines. J

Christ at the Tomb of Lazarus.


Jews Mourning over Jerusalem.

Sir Joshua Reynolds and his Friends

Hagar and Ishmael.

High Church : Low Church : No Church (in three com-

The Death-Bed of John Wesley.

The Last Interview between Dr. Johnson and Sir Joshua

The Sepulchre. (Exhibited at the International Exhibi-
tion, London, 1862.)

CLAY, ALFRED BARRON, who was born at
Walton-le-Dale, near Preston, in 1831, first studied
for the law, but abandoning it in 1852, he went to
Liverpool, and in the same year carne to London
and entered the schools of the Royal Academy.
From 1855 he was a regular contributor to its
exhibitions. He began by painting portraits ; the
subjects of his best works are, however, taken from
Scottish and French history. In 1864 he exhibited
' Charles IX. and the French Court at the Massacre
of St. Bartholomew'; in 1865, 'The Huguenot';
and in 1867, his masterpiece, ' The Return of Charles
II. to Whitehall in 1660.' He died in 1868, at
Rainhill, near Liverpool.

CLAYS, PADL JEAN, Belgian marine painter,
born at Bruges in 1819. His artistic education
was completed in France, where he became a
pupil of Giidin. On leaving Paris he established
himself at Brussels, where he soon made a name
for himself. In the choice of his subjects, and in
their placid presentment he followed the methods
of the old Dutch masters, though occasionally he
could paint harbour-pieces full of the stir and
bustle of modern life. He had a fine sense for
colour, a broad and simple style, his atmospheric
effects being most remarkable. Among his most
important works we may mention ' L'Escaut a
Anvers,' ' Un Coup de Vent sur L'Escaut a
Anvers,' ' L'Entree de La Riviere de Southampton,'
' La Tamise aux Environs de Londres,' ' Le Zuider
Zee,' 'La Rade de Dordrecht,' &c. &c. Two
characteristic canvases of his were shown in the
Salon of 1899: ' Vue D' Anvers' and ' Calme au
Waal ' (in the environs of Amsterdam). Clays
was made a chevalier of the Legion of Honour in
1867, and was promoted to the grade of officer in
1881. He died at Brussels on February 10, 1900.


CLAYTON, JOHN, who originally studied surgery,
painted still -life and fruit in oil arid water-colours
about the middle of the 18th century. He has left
no remembrance of his works, some of the chief of
which were destroyed by fire in 1769. He died at
Enfield in 1800, aged 72.


CLEANTHES, who flourished at Corinth about
B. c. 900, was one of the earliest of the Greek artists,
and is considered by some as the inventor of the
'pictura linear is\oi monogram, a picture consisting
of a simple outline, with the interior lines of the
figures expressed, but without any light or shade
or local colouring.

CLEEF, HENDRIK VAN, the brother of Marten
van Cleef, the elder, and of Willem van Cleef, the
younger, was a native of Antwerp. It is not
known under whom he studied ; but he went to
Italy when young, and returned to his native
country a good painter of landscapes. His pic-
tures are distinguished by an uncommon lightness
of touch, and an excellent tone of colour. The
backgrounds of the historical works of his brother
Marten and of Frans Floris are frequently painted


by this artist, and are harmonized with the figures
with great intelligence. In the Belvedere at Vienna
is the ' History of the Prodigal Son ' by him. He
was received into the Guild of St. Luke at Ant-
werp in 1551. Hendrik van Cleef distinguished
himself as an engraver. We have several plates by
him of landscapes and views near Rome, after his
own designs or those of Melchior Lorch, which he
sometimes signed Henricus Clivensis, fecit, and
sometimes marked with the cipher ~\JiQT^~ They

are as follow :

A Bull-fight at Rome, before the Farnese Palace.
A Landscape, with Figures in a Cave, cooking.
Another Landscape, with Figures at Table ill a Cave
A set of six Landscapes, with Latin titles.
A set of four Views in the vicinity of Rome.

There is a series of thirty-eight plates by this
artist, entitled Ruinarvm varii prospectus, ruri-
vmque aliquot delineationes, published by Theo-
dorus Galle. He died at Antwerp in 1589.

His son, HENDRIK VAN CLEEF, who was born at
Antwerp, settled about 1597 at Ghent, where he
was much esteemed, but his works are now con-
founded with those of his father. He died at Ghent
in 1646.

CLEEF, JAN VAN, a painter of the Flemish
school, was born at Venloo in Guelderland in 1646.
After receiving some instruction from Primo Gentil,
he entered the school of Gaspur De Craeyer,
at Brussels. Under that artist young Van Cleef
made, surprising progress, and in a few years
was able to assist his master in the immense
number of works on which he was engaged for the
churches in the Low Countries. On the death of
De Craeyer, Van Cleef was entrusted with the com-
pletion of the works left unfinished by his master.
He was now considered one of the ablest artists of
his country, and immediately received many com-
missions for the churches and convents, in which
he has given satisfactory proof of the respectability
of his talents. Without being an imitator of De
Craeyer, he followed the same simple purity of
colour, and was equally correct in his design, in
which he displayed something of an Italian style.
His great practice gave him an uncommon facility,
and his compositions are distinguished by judgment
and taste. His works are very numerous in
Flanders and Brabant ; the most esteemed of them
are at Ghent. In the church of St. Nicholas is a fine
picture of ' The Magdalen at the Feet of Christ. 7 In
St. Michael, there is the ' Immaculate Conception '
In St. James's church is a fine picture of the
' Assumption,' and in the gallery the ' Crowning of
St. Joseph.' His most admired work is in the
chapel of the Convent of the Black Nuns, represent-
ing Sisters of that Order administering succour to
a group of figures afflicted with the Plague. It is
an admirable picture, in drawing and colouring
approaching the excellence of Van Dyck. He died
at Ghent in 1716.

Cleef), was born at Antwerp about the year 1520,
and was instructed in painting by his father,
Willem van Cleef, the elder. Joost was an
excellent colourist ; and though it does not ap-
pear that he ever was in Italy, his pictures are
composed and designed more in the style of the
Italian than the Flemish school. He painted some
altar-pieces for the churches in Flanders, which
were so much praised that he became intoxicated
with conceit. Van Cleef came to England in 1554,

with the confident hope of brilliant success, and
was introduced to King Philip by his countryman,
Sir Antonio Moro. But, unfortunately for his
expectations, some of the fine pictures of Titian
had arrived before him, and Philip was too much
charmed with the beauties of the Venetian to do
justice to the undoubted merit of the Fleming.
Finding his prospects thus blasted, be became
furious, and vented his rage on Moro as the cause
of his disgrace. In the catalogue of the pictures
of James II. appear two by Van Cleef, ' The
Nativity' and 'The Judgment of Paris.' His
death occurred probably about 1556, for he is
said to have died at the age of 36. There is much
confusion in the records of the artists of this name.
Hendrik, Marten, and Willem were brothers, and
were contemporaries of Joost, but there is no
absolute proof that they were related to him.
Althorp. Earl ftpencer. His own Portrait.
Antwerp. Cathedral. St. Cosmo and St. Damian.
Berlin. Gallery. Portrait of a young man.

Windsor. Castle. The Artist and his Wife.

CLEEF, MARTEN VAN, was a brother of Hen-
drik van Cleef, and a disciple of Frans Floris.
He painted historical subjects, and was employed
for some of the churches, but was more esteemed
for historical pictures of an easel size, in which
the landscapes and backgrounds were painted by
his brother Hendrik. He is called the ' Master of
the Ape,' because he sometimes introduced the
figure of an ape (in allusion to his name) as his
mark. In the Belvedere at Vienna is a painting
by him of ' Men, Women and Children, seated at

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