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table in a farm-house.' He became a member of
the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp in 1551, and
died about 1570.

CLEEF, WILLEM VAN, who was also a brother
of Hendrik van Cleef, was received into the
Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp in 1 550. It is thought
that he may have studied under Floris. He painted
figure subjects, and died young.


CLE1N, HANS, an engraver on copper and wood,
as well as a goldsmith, was a native of Nuremberg,
where he died in 1550. The only engraving by
him mentioned by Passavant (' Peintre-Graveur,' iii.
38,) is a ' Battle of eleven Naked Men,' after the
Master IB., dated 1527. The woodcuts which are
known to be by him are :

St. John the Baptist preaching in the Desert.

An Apostle preaching from a Ship.

The Betrayal of Christ.

The Battle of Naked Men. 1524. (After the Master IB.)

engraver, born at Golnau near Stettin in 1749,
studied painting in the Copenhagen Academy under
Mandelberg, and engraving under J. M. Preisler,
and then in Paris under Wille and Delaunay. He
visited Berlin and London ; but worked after 1795
in Copenhagen, where he died in 1831. His best
plate is the ' Death of General Montgomery at the
Battle of Quebec,' after Trumbull, engraved in
London in 1792. Besides this he engraved ' Fred-
erick the Great with his Generals,' after Cunning-
ham, a ' Holy Family,' after Taraval, and a number
of portraits.

whom he was married in 1781, was also an artist.
She was born in Paris in 1755, and worked at first
in pastels, but afterwards studied engraving. She
died at Berlin in 1790 or 1791.

CLEMENT, F^LIX AUGUSTS, was born at Pou-



zere, Dr6me, in 1826. He was a pupil of Drolling
and Picot, and obtained the first ' prix de Rome ' in
1856. He settled in Cairo, and contributed pictures
of Oriental subjects to the Salon. Later in life he
painted French landscapes and some portraits.
He died in 1888.


CLENNELL, LUKE, an English painter, and
engraver on wood, of extraordinary genius and
talent, the son of a farmer, was born at Ulgham,
near Morpeth, in Northumberland, in 1781. His
early disposition for drawing, and neglect of other
studies or pursuits, induced his friends to place him,
in 1797, with the celebrated Bewick, in whose art
he soon showed great skill. But he did not confine
himself to engraving ; he produced several pictures
which attracted public attention, and gave promise
of future excellence as a painter. Among these
were the ' Arrival of the Mackerel Boat,' and the
' Day after the Fair,' in which he gave a happy
delineation of rustic character, and showed great
knowledge of colour. His picture of the ' De-
cisive Charge made by the Lifeguards at the Battle
of Waterloo,' which was afterwards engraved by
Bromley, established his reputation ; but its excel-
lence assisted in the melancholy termination of
his existence. In consequence of the sensation
which it produced, he was selected to paint the
entertainment given by the city of London at the
Guildhall to the allied sovereigns, nobles, and
generals who had shared hi that memorable battle.
The honour was fatal to his health and life. The
vexations he had to encounter from vanity, caprice,
and supercilious arrogance, affected his mind so
much that lie lost his reason. This was in 1817,
and though he recovered his reason partially for
some years, yet the malady returned in 1831, and
he was removed to an asylum at Newcastle-on-
Tyne, where he died in 1840. Clennell was skilful
in composition, and in seizing the true points of
character; he had great power of execution, and
was well acquainted with the practical parts of art.
He engraved the cuts to Falconer's ' Shipwreck,'
and Rogers 's ' Poems,' after Stothard, as well as
the Diploma of the Highland Society after West.
He made many drawings for Scott's ' Border Anti-
quities,' and was a frequent exhibitor at the Royal
Academy and the Water-Colour Exhibition. The
South Kensington Museum has three picturesby him.

CLEOPHANTUS, an ancient Corinthian artist,
who flourished about B.C. 650, and is said to have
been the first to fill up the contour of the figure
with one colour, for which invention he received
the name of ' Monocromatos.'




CLERISSEAU, CHARLES Loois, an architect and
water-colour draughtsman, was born in Paris in
1722. He visited Rome, where he resided some
time, and became well acquainted with the artists
of that city, especially Winckelmann. He accom-
panied Robert Adams to England, where he re-
mained some time, and made the drawings for
the ' Ruins of Spalatro,' which was published in
1764. On his return to France in 1778, he pub-
lished the ' Antiquites de France,' ' Monumens de
Nimes,' and other works ; and was appointed, in
1783, architect to the Empress of Russia. He is,
however, best known to the world by his fine
drawings in water-colours of the remains of ancient
architecture, which are held in high estimation.


An example, ' Tivoli,' executed in 1769, is in the
South Kensington Museum. The figures in his
works were drawn by Antonio Zucchi. He died at
Auteuil, near Paris, in 1820, in his 99th year.

CLERK, JOHN, of Eldin, an amateur draughts-
man and etcher, was a son of Sir John Clerk, of
Penicuik, Bart. He was born at Penicuik in 1728,
and was for some years a merchant in Edinburgh,
but he relinquished mercantile pursuits to become
Secretary to the Commissioners on the Annexed
Estates in Scotland. From an early period of his
life he evinced a fondness for sketching from
nature, and many of these sketches he afterwards
etched on copper. In 1855 the Bannatyne Club
issued a series of his etchings, chiefly views in
Scotland, and some of his drawings were engraved
for Sibbald's ' Edinburgh Magazine.' He was
the father of Lord Eldin, one of the Lords of
Session, and was the author of an essay on ' Naval
Tactics,' which gave rise to much controversy.
He died at Eldin in 1812.



CLEVELEY, JOHN, an English marine painter,
was born in London about 1745. He was Drought
up in the dockyard at Deptford, and studied water-
colour painting under Paul Sandby ; afterwards,
lie became a draughtsman in the navy, and in
1774 accompanied Captain Phipps (afterwards Lord
Mulgrave) in his voyage of discovery to the Arctic
Regions. He also went with Sir Joseph Banks
to Iceland. He sometimes painted in oil, and
was an exhibitor at the Royal Academy from 1770
till 1786. Many of his drawings have been en-
graved. In the South Kensington Museum is ' A
Launch at Deptford Dockyard about 1760,' in oil,
and three water-colour drawings by him. He died
in London in 1786.

CLEVELEY, ROBERT, who in early life was a
sailor, exhibited marine pictures at the Academy
from 1780 to 1803, and was appointed marine-
painter to the Prince of Wales. He frequently
painted naval actions such as ' The " Solitaire "
striking her colours to the "Ruby,"' 'Nelson
boarding the San Josef,' and ' Earl Howe's Victory.'
He died, through falling from the cliff at Dover, in
1809. In the South Kensington Museum are two
water-colour drawings of English Ships of War.

CLEVENBEKGH, ANTOINE, a Flemish painter
of still-life, was born at Louvain in 1755. He
studied historical painting under Verhaeghen, and
made large pen-and-ink drawings, which possess
much merit. He died in 1810.

CLEYN, FRANZ, (also KLEYN, or CLEIN,) was
born at Rostock, in Mecklenburg-Schwerin, about
1590 or 1600, and was for some time in the em-
ployment of Christian IV., King of Denmark. He
afterwards went for improvement to Rome, where
he passed four years, and acquired a talent for
designing ornaments, by which he afterwards dis-
tinguished himself. He came to England in the
reign of James I., and was taken into the service
of the king, who first employed him in designing
subjects for tapestry at the Mortlake manufactory.
He received a pension from the king, which he
continued to enjoy under Charles I., until the Civil
War. He died in London in 1658. Cleyn was
much employed in decorating the mansions of the
nobility. Some of the best preserved of his
works are in Holland House, where he painted a
chamber, with a ceiling, and small compartments
on the chimneys, which bear some resemblance to


the style of Parmigiano. He also made designs
for Virgil and for jEsop's Fables, which were en-
graved by Hollar. Cleyn etched a few plates, which
he sometimes signed with his name, and sometimes
with the initials F. C. and F. K. We have by
him :

A set of five Plates of the Senses, with grotesque orna-

The Seven Liberal Arts ; F. Cleyn j Kit. 1645.
A set of ten Plates of Grotesque Ornaments.

His sons, CHARLES CLEYN and JOHN CLEYN, were
also painters. They both died young in London.
Franz was born in 1625, and died in 1650. Their
sister, PENELOPE CLEYN, practised miniature paint-
ing with Rreat success.

quis de, a Frencli painter and author, was born
at Toulon in 1787. He was destined to a naval
career, but his health failing he went to Paris,
where he studied painting under Lebarbier and
Girodet. He gave to his native town several reli-
gious and historical pictures : ' Christ healing the
Sick of the Palsy,' 'The Sons of Zebedee,' ''The
Death of Pliocion,' 'The Baptism of St. Mandrier,'
and a ' Crucifixion,' which was his best exhibited
work. He wrote some works on perspective, and
several dramatic pieces. He died in Paris in 1880.
CLINT, ALFRED, painter, born in 1807, was the
son and pupil of George Clint, A.R.A. He first
appeared at the Academy in 1829, with 'A Study
from Nature,' and several of his later works were
exhibited with that body. He contributed more
frequently, however, to the shows of the British
Artists, of which society he became a member in
1843, secretary in 1858, and president in 1870. He
painted a few portraits early in his career, but his
popularity rested chiefly on his landscapes and
coast studies. In 1849 he published a ' Guide to
Oil Painting.' He died in 1883.

CLINT, GEORGE, who, like Turner, was the son
of a hairdresser, was born in London in 1770.
In early life he occupied his leisure hours in
miniature painting ; but eventually, he took to it as
a profession. His miniatures produced at this
period have been highly spoken of. He next be-
came acquainted with Mr. Bell, the publisher of
the illustrated edition of the British Poets, whose
nephew, Edward Bell, a mezzotint engraver, initi-
ated him into the mysteries of engraving. He not
only painted miniatures, but made drawings of
machinery and philosophical apparatus, and en-
graved in mezzotint, in the chalk style, and in out-
line. Among his early works are 'The Frightened
Horse,' after Stubbs, a chalk engraving ; ' The
Entombment of Christ,' after Dietrich ; numerous
portraits in the chalk style ; a large bold engrav-
ing in mezzotint of the ' Death of Nelson ' (1807),
after the fine picture painted by W. Drummond,
A.R.A. ; and a set of Raphael's Cartoons in outline.
He was introduced to Sir Thomas Lawrence, who
gave him some of his pictures to engrave. He
was also commissioned to engrave 'The Kemble
Family,' containing portraits of John Kemble,
Mrs. Siddons, Charles and Stephen Kemble, Blanch-
ard, Wewitzer, Conway, Park (the oboe player),
Miss Stephens (afterwards Countess of Essex),
and other celebrities which had been recently
painted by Harlow for Tom Welsh the musician,
and had created an immense sensation on being
exhibited at the Royal Academy. Its popularity
was so great that it was engraved three times.

Clint painted in water-colour as well as in oil, and
his painting-room in Gower Street became thronged
with all the distinguished actors and actresses of
the day, and with the supporters of the drama. The
result of this popularity was a series of fine drama-
tic pictures which will preserve his name along
with that of Zoffany, to whom, in many respects,
Clint was superior. The first of these theatrical
subjects was a picture of Farren, Farley, and
Jones, as Lord Ogleby, Canton, and Brush, in the
comedy of the 'Clandestine Marriage.' Then fol-
lowed Munden, Knight, and Mrs. Orger, in ' Lock
and Key,' painted for the elder Mathews. This
picture secured his election as an Associate of the
Royal Academy, in 1821. At this time Welsh
proposed to Clint to paint a companion subject to
'The Kemble Family,' the last scene in 'A New
Way to pay Old Debts,' in which Kean as Sir
Giles Overreach was drawing all the town and an
admirable picture was the result. The picture of
the 'Beggars' Opera,' perpetuating Blanchard, Mrs.
Davenport, and Miss M. Tree, was Clint's next pro-
duction. Then followed:

Tayleure, Mrs. Davenport, and Clara Fisher, in the
'Spoilt Child' (painted/or Lord Liverpool).

Fawcett and Charles Kemble as Captain Copp and
Charles II. (painted for Matheics).

Mathews, Liston, and Blauchard, in ' Love, Law, and
Physic ; ' Mathews as the Lying Valet ; Hartley as
Sir John Falstaff ; Oxberry as Master Peter ; Har-
ley as Popolino in ' The Sleeping Draught ; ' Liston
and Farren in ' Charles XII.' ( painted for Lord

Miss Foote as Maria Darlington (painted for Colonel

Young as ' Hamlet.'

Keau as ' Richard III.'

Macready as 'Macbeth.'

Liston, Madame Vestris, Miss Glover, and AVilliams, in
' Paul Pry.' 1831. In the South Kensinyton Museum.

Charles Young as ' Hamlet,' and Miss Glover as
' Ophelia.' 1831. In the South Kensington Museum.

Many of this interesting series of pictures, repre-
senting a phase in our drama which has since
entirely passed away, ornament the walls of the
Garrick Club. Falstaff and Mistress Ford by him
is in the National Gallery. The talent displayed
by Clint procured him the friendship of Law-
rence, Beechey, Mulready, Stanfield, Roberts, and
other members of the Royal Academy. But, in
spite of all, Clint remained for sixteen years an
Associate, and never attained the higher rank of
Academician. Younger men passed over his head,
and some less worthy of the honour than himself.
At last, finding the efforts of his friends of no
avail, he determined to resign his position as an
Associate, which he did in 1835. He died at
Kensington in 1854. In portrait painting Clint
was eminently successful : his men were gen-
tlemen, and his ladies modest and charming.
Associated with Mulready, Cooper, and other dis-
tinguished artists, he laboured unceasingly to estab-
lish those valuable institutions, the Artists' Bene-
volent and Annuity Funds. He had four sons, of
whom LORE, the eldest, after giving great promise
as a scene-painter, died young. RAPHAEL was a
a;em-engraver, and possessed considerable talent.
SCIPIO distinguished himself as a medallist, and
died in 1839, aged 34, just as patronage was about
to be bestowed on him.

CLOCHE, C., was a French engraver, who flour-
ished about the year 1616. He engraved amongst
other plates a portrait of Jean Boisteau de La
Broderie, and a view of the city of Rennes.



CLOCK, NICOLAAS, or CLAAS, a Dutch engraver,
was born at Leyden about the year 1570. Accord-
ing to Heinecken, he was a disciple of Frans Floris.
His style resembles that of Cornelis Cort, with-
out being nearly equal to that master. We have
by him the following prints :

The Fonr Elements ; represented in half-length figures.

The Judgment of Midas ; after Karel van Mander. 1589.


CLOSE. SAMUEL, a native of Dublin, was an en-
graver, who was deaf and dumb, and of intemperate
habits. He died in 1817.

CLOSS, GUSTAV, a landscape painter, was born
at Stuttgart in 1840, and received his first instruc-
tions in the School of Arts there under Funk, but
afterwards studied in Rome, Naples, Munich, Paris,
and other places. He also made a number of
student-tours,especially to the Chiem-See in Bavaria,
on the borders of which he died in 1870 at Prien.
He produced a number of Italian views, and also
published ' Illustrations to Wieland's Oberon,' a
magnificent volume entitled Truth and Fiction,'
and ' Uhland and his Home at Tubingen, ' the plates
in which show the influence of Dore. Of his
paintings may be mentioned :

The Villa of Hadrian.

Road near Sorrento.

The Campagna near Rome.

Evening in the Villa Pamfili.

Cypresses in Tivoli.

Christmas Eve.

The Lonely Inn.

CLOSTERMANN, JOHANN, (known in England
as JOHN CLOSTERMAN.) was born at Osnabriick
in 1656. He was the son of a painter, who
taught him the rudiments of drawing. In 1679 he
went to Paris, where he was engaged by De
Troyes to paint his draperies. He came to Eng-
land in 1681, and was lor some time employed in
a similar way by Riley. After the death of that
artist, Clostermann painted the portraits of several
of the nobility, though he was an artist of very
limited merit ; but at that period the art was
in a very low state in England. He was several
times in Italy, and in 1696 was employed at the
court of Spain, where he painted the King and the
Queen. Portraits of Queen Anne and the Duke of
Marlborough by him are in the National Portrait
Gallery. A picture similar to the former is in the
Council Chamber. Guildhall, and a replica of the
latter is at Blenheim. Others of his portraits are
the Family of the' Duke of Marlborough, and
the Duke o"f Rutland. He died in London in 1713.

Flemish engraver, was the nephew of Pieter Clouet,
and was born at Antwerp in 1624. Following the
example of his uncle, he visited Italy in the early
part of his life, and became a pupil of Cornelis
Bloemaert. Among his first productions were some
plates of portraits of painters, for Bellori's ' Vite
de' Pittori,' published at Rome in 1675. He also
engraved several portraits for the work entitled,
'Effigies Cardinalium nunc viventium,' published
at Rome by Rossi. At Florence he engraved after
some of the pictures in the Pitti Palace. His plates
of historical subjects are executed in the neat and
finished style of Cornelis Bloemaert, but in his por-
traits he sometimes imitated the manner of Mellan
and at others that of F. de Poilly. He died al
Antwerp in 1687. The following are his principal
prints :


Nicolas Poussin, in Bellori's ' Vite de' Pittori.
Sir Anthony van Dyck ; the same.
Cardinal Thomas Philip Howard.
Cardinal Azzolini ; after Vouet.
Cardinal Rospigliosi : after Morandi.
Cardinal Rosetti.

Cardinal Francis "William of 'Wurtemburg.
Maximilian, Count of AYolfegg.
A Medallion of Pope Alexander VII.


The Image of the Blessed TJmiliana ; after Baldimicci.

Sepulchral Monument of Paul III. ; after Barriere.

The Miraculous Conception ; after fietro da Cortona ;
in two sheets, fine and scarce.

An Attack of Cavalry ; after Borgognone ; fine.

The Battle of Joshua with the Amalekites; in two
sheets; after the same.

JANNET, and more frequently JANET, a French por-
rait painter, was born, probably at Tours, between
.he years 1516 and 1520. His father, Jean Clouet,
he second of that name, (whose sobriquet derived
!rom his Christian name Jean, Francois also took,)
emigrated from Brussels to Tours, and after his
arrival in France held the joint offices of court
t . ainter and ' valet-de-chambre ' to Francis I. In
ihe year 1541, that of his father's death, Francois
Clouet was, in consequence of his father's services,
formally naturalised, and appointed to the vacant
position at court. In that capacity he was em-
ployed on the death of his patron, in 1547, to
make a wax cast of the hands and face of the de-
jeased monarch to be used at the great state funeral ;
and again had to perform a similar service on the
death of Henry II. in 1559. He retained his posi-
tion as court painter also under Francis II. and
Charles IX. He was still living in 1572, and
died most likely in the following year. His
paintings bear distinct traces of a Flemish origin,
and their style differs widely from that of the
Italian artists whose paintings were then in vogue
in France; paintings which were tainted with an
affected sentimentality, and a disregard of nature.
Clouet, on the contrary, like the Van Eycks and
Memling, had clearly made truth and accuracy
his principal aim. Still his works are not Flemish
throughout, as they possess also a distinctly
French element, which is observable in the ele-
gance that pervades them as well as in the taste
that grasps the most advantageous point of view
from which to treat them. His aim is apparent
on the surface, and yet it is the result of careful
study. The more closely the work is examined
the deeper is the insight obtained into the moral
and physical character of the person represented.
The delicacy of his form is all the more re-
markable from its being rendered through the
medium of simple pale tones without any attempt
at chiaroscuro ; and this fact has but to be
appreciated for it to be at once admitted what
a real master he was in respect of lightness of
hand and certainty of touch. The following
are some of the principal works ascribed to
him :

Althorp. Earl Spencer. Francis II.

Mary, Queen of Scots.

Antwerp. Museum. Francis II.
Berlin. Gallery. Francis II.

n Dukeof Anjou (Henry III.).

Dresden. Gallery. Jeanne dePisseleu, Duchess

of Etampes.
Florence. Pitti Palace. Henry II.

I'ffiii. Francisl.,equestrianportrait.


Hampton Court. Palace. Francis II.

> .< Mary, Queen of Scots.

London. 2fat. Gall. Man's Portrait.

> it Boy's Portrait.

,, Hereford House. Mary, Queen of Scots.

Munich. Pinakothek. Claudia, daughter of Henri

II. of France.
Pans. Louvre. diaries IX.

" n Elizabeth of Austria, wife of

Charles IX.
v lenna. Charles IX. 1563.

The Marquis of Biencourt possesses a remark-
able portrait of the Duke of Montmorency, besides
other works by Clouet. There are in the British
Museum some crayon heads, and at Chantilly there
are now eighty-eight portraits in black and white
chalk in the manner of Holbein, representing
persons _eminent at the French court in Clouet's
day, which are considered to be his work.

See Lord Ronald Gower's book on ' Castle
Howard pictures.

CLOUET, JEAN, (or CLOET,) the elder, a Flemish
painter of historical subjects and portraits, was
employed by the Duke of Burgundy, and was
living at Brussels in 1475. He died about 1490.
There is no proof of his having visited France,
much less of his having settled at Tours between
the years 1475 and 1485, as has been asserted. He
was an artist of great talent, and may be included
among the celebrated miniature painters of his

CLOUET, JEAN, the younger, was a painter oJ
Flemish origin who established himself in France
probably at Tours, prior to the accession oi
Francis I. It appears highly probable that his
father was the Jean Clouet who was painter to the
Duke of Burgundy. He himself became cour!
painter to Francis I., and his name occurs in that
capacity as early as 1518. He is supposed to have
been born about 1485. In the documents in which
reference is made to him he is called Jehan, Jehan-
not, and Jehannet. Besides the office of court
painter he held that of ' valet-de-chambre.' There
is much uncertainty about his works, but the fol-
lowing are generally attributed to him : a small
painting of Francis I. in armour, in the Uffizi at
Florence; a full-length figure of Eleanor of Spain,
wife of Francis I., at Hampton Court ; and a
picture of Margaret of Valois, in the Royal Insti-
tution at Liverpool. If these are correctly as-
signed to him, it would appear that his pictures
were distinguished from those of his son by sharper
outline, and by a more antique rendering. He died
in 1541, in all probability in Paris.

CLOVET,) a Flemish engraver, was born at Antwerp
in 1606, and died there in 1670. After having
learnt the rudiments of the art in his native city,
he went to Italy, and at Rome became a pupil of
Spierre, and Bloemaert. On his return to Antwerp,
he engraved several portraits and subjects after
Rubens. They are executed with the graver in a
firm, clear manner, resembling the style of Pontius,
but are not equal to the works of that master. His
plates, particularly those after Rubens, are con-

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