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portraits of Van Dyck. His success was equal to
his merit. His single heads, and his groups of
family portraits, were esteemed superior to those of
every artist of his time, Van Dyck alone excepted.
He was employed by the principal potentates of his
day, among whom were Charles I., the Archduke
Leopold, and the Prince of Orange. To those who
have not seen the pictures of this extraordinary
artist, it will be difficult to give an idea of the
beauty of his style. Although his heads rarely
exceed the length of an inch and a half, they have
all the breadth, freedom of touch, and animated
character of the portraits of Van Dyck. Hence he
is sometimes called the ' Little Van Dyck.' The
heads and hands are drawn with the utmost cor-
rectness ; his colouring has the freshness, and his
draperies the ease, that we admire in the works of
that master. In regarding them, we lose sight of
the scale on which they are drawn, and they assume
the size of life. He was peculiarly happy in the
composition and arrangement of his family groups,
and the accessories which accompany them. Cocx
died at Antwerp in 1684. His compositions are
few in number, and are extremely valuable : there
are but 46 described in Smith's ' Catalogue raisonne,'
vol. 4 and Suppl. It is supposed that as he was
wealthy, he painted more for pleasure than for
profit ; but of this there is no proof. He painted
landscapes skilfully, and dogs and other animals
with much success. Among his principal works

Antwerp. Museum. Portrait of a Lady.

Berlin. Museum. Portrait of Cornells de Bie, the

writer on art.
Cassel. Gallery. Philosopher and his Wife. 1640.

Family group.

Darmstadt. Gallery. Portrait of a Man.

Portrait of a Lady.

Dresden. Gallery. Family Portrait.
Hague. Gallery. Interior of a Picture Gallery.

(The Jiyures and accessories are

by (.'ocx. Tlte paintings, forty-
four in number, are by contem-
porary artists, several of whom
nave signed their work.)

London. Airt. Gal. Family Portraits. (Party in a

Portrait of a Lady.

Paris. Louvre. The Artist and his Family.

Petersburg. Hermitage. Portrait of a Man.


CODA, BARTOLOMMEO, (or CODI,) flourished
about the year 1543. He was called DA RIMINI,
as was also his elder brother FRANCESCO, who
painted in 1533. He was instructed in the art
by his father, Benedetto, whom he surpassed. In
the church of San Rocco at Pesaro, is a fine picture
by this master, bearing the above date ; which
Lanzi says in every respect bears the character of
the golden age of the art. It represents the Virgin
iind Infant enthroned, with a Choir of beautiful
Cherubs, and with St. Roch and St. Sebastian.

CODA, BENEDETTO, (or CODI.) was a native of
Ferrara. born about the year 1460, and was a dis-
ciple of Giovanni Bellini. According to Lanzi he
resided chiefly at Rimini, where he painted some
pictures for the churches, which prove him to have
been an able artist. His principal works are, the
'Marriage of the Virgin with St. Joseph,' in the
cathedral at Rimini; and the 'Rosary, 1 in the church
of the Dominicans. He died about the year 1520.


Antwerp, is mentioned as designing some cartoons
for glass-painting in the church of St. Catharine,
at Breda ; and a portrait by him of Philip the Good,
Duke of Burgundy, bears the inscription ' oud 42
jaren.' If this date refers to the Duke, the picture
must have been painted about 1438. Codde is
mentioned as a painter as early as 1426 ; and
his name is the second inscribed in the register of
the Guild of St. Luke, of which he was a master
in 1453, and dean in 1455, 1457, 1460, and 1464.
He died in 1469. He belonged to a family of
artists ; his brother Jan is mentioned as a carver
in 1450.; another brother, Willem, was a sculptor ;
and a brother-in-law, Willem Coeman, was a painter.

CODDE, PIETEB, the son of Marten Codde, was
born in 1610, married in 1637 at Amsterdam, and
was probably dead in 1666. Ho executed^ genre
pictures in the style of Palamedes. His paintings
are distinguished for the liveliness of their com-
position and the fineness of their colouring. He
painted figures in Dirk van Delen's interiors.
KABEL CODDE, who was a native of the Hague, and
died in 1698, was probably his son. He imitated
the manner of Both and Berchem, and painted his
figures in the style of Terburg with much taste
and finish. Pieter Codde's best works are :

Preparation for the Carnival.
The Dancing Lesson. 1627.
The Ball. 163G.
Backgammon Players.
The Evening Party. 1633.
Soldiers playing at Dice.

Berlin. Museum.
Dorpat. Hirers Coll.
Hague. Uullcry.

Vienna. Gstll Coll.



CODORfi, OLIVIER, a French engraver, was the
author of the plates which accompanied the 'Entrde
de Charles IX. a Paris,' 1572. They are executed
with much facility, but display no great artistic


COELENBIER, JAN, a Dutch landscape painter



who flourished in the 17th century, was a native
of Utrecht. He became a pupil of Van Goyen,
whose works he imitated so closely that they passed
for the originals. He was received into the Guild
of St. Luke at Haarlem in 1632, and was still
living in 1671.


COELLO, CLAUDIO, was of Portuguese parents,
but was born at Madrid about 1621. He was there
instructed in the art by Francisco Rizi, and executed
while yet in that school an altar-piece for San
Placido at Madrid. His acquaintance with the
court painter, Juan Careno, procured him the per-
mission to visit the royal collection, where he
made his greatest advance by studying the works
of Titian, Rubens, and Van Dyck. His friendship
with Josef Donoso, under whom he studied at
Rome, was not less advantageous for him. In con-
junction with that artist he painted frescoes at
Madrid and Toledo, and executed the Triumphal
Arch for the entrance of the Queen, Maria Louisa
of Orleans. By these paintings he became well
known, and was employed by the Archbishop of
Saragossa in 1683. He was made painter to Philip
IV., by whom he was employed in the Escorial.
Coello never travelled out of Spain, and his extra-
ordinary talents are only known in that country.
He was the last Spanish painter of eminence, as
from the time that Luca Giordano was summoned
to Spain, the art sank gradually to its decay.
Many excellent specimens of his ability are to be
seen in the churches and convents at Madrid,
Saragossa, and Salamanca. But his principal work
is the famous altar-piece in the sacristy of San
Lorenzo, in the Escorial, representing the 'Adora-
tion of the Miraculous Host.' It is an immense
composition, and occupied the painter seven years.
In the crowd of personages that form the pro-
cession, are no less than fifty portraits, including
those of the king and the principal persons of the
court ; it is painted with the utmost precision, yet
in a bold and masterly style, and there is a majes-
tic solemnity in the arrangement of the whole,
which suits well to the grandeur of the subject.
It is a very extraordinary performance, and holds
its place even by the side of the works of Titian
and Rubens. The preference which was given to
Luca Giordano, who came to Madrid in 1692, in
painting the grand staircase in the Eseorial, morti-
fied Coello so much that he died of vexation at
Madrid in 1693.

Coello etched three plates, viz. : ' Christ on the
Cross, with the Virgin, St. Augustine, and St.
Monica,' and the portraits of Charles II. and his
Mother. He was the instructor of Sebastian Munoz
and Teodoro Ardmans.

The following is a list of his best paintings :

Buda-Pesth. Gallery, St. Joseph with the Virgin and

An altar-piece.

Cartoons, representing the Fable
of Cupid and Psyche, painted
by Ant. Palomino.

Assumption of the Virgin. (Two.}

Portrait of Charles II. of Spain.

St. Kosa of Lima.

The Apotheosis of St. Augustin.

St. Peter of Alcantara.

His own Portrait.

The Magdalen.

The frescoes in the cupola.

The Adoration of the Host. (Hii


S. Placido.


Munich. Gallery.
Petersburg. Hermitage.


Saragossa. Auyustinian )
~' urch. j





COELMANS, JACOB, a Flemish engraver, born at
Antwerp about the year 1670. He was a pupil of
Cornelis Vermeulen. After engraving some plates
in his native city, he was engaged by Boyer
d'Aguilles to undertake the plates for the pictures
of his collection. They consisted of one hundred
and eighteen prints, and form the principal works
of this artist, of which the following are the most
esteemed :


Olympia Maldachini, niece of Innocent X. ; after Giu-
seppe Cesari.

Paolo Veronese, a Bust ; after a picture by himself.
Vincent Boyer, seigneur d'Aguilles ; after Le Grand.
Jean Baptiste Boyer ; after Hyacinthe Rigaud.


The Holy Family, with St. John embracing the Infant

Jesus ; after Parmigiano.
The Meeting of Jacob aud Eachel ; after Michelangelo

da Caravayr/io.

Laban giving Eachel to Jacob ; after the same.
Jacob's Departure from Labau ; after . Castiffliane,
A Company of Musicians, Dancers, &c. ; after the same.
Diana and Actceon ; after Otto van Veen.
A Satyr drinking, with a Nymph and a Cupid ; after

N. Poussin.

The Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew ; after S. Bourdon.
Mount Parnassus, with Minerva and Mercury ; after Le


The Flight into Egypt ; after Pujet.
The Murder of the Innocents ; after Claude Spierre.
The Head of the Virgin ; after Sel>. Barras.


history, genre, and landscape, was bom in 1780 at
Vilvoorden. He first studied under Hendrik van
Assche, and in 1809 removed to Amsterdam and
became the pupil of Barbiers. He then went to
Brussels, and in 1820 was made Professor at the
Academy. His picture of ' Rubens receiving from
Charles I. the sword with which he had been
knighted ' gained for him the grand prize at Ghent,
and is now in the Museum of that city. His ' Soldier
returning from the Battle of Waterloo ' also gained
him much praise. He died at Brussels in 1841.


COENRADT, LAWERS, who flourished about the
year 1690, engraved some of the portraits for the
collection of Cardinals published by Rossi. They
are very indifferent performances.

COENTGEN, GEORG JOSEPH, a painter and en-
graver, was born in 1752 at Mayence. He was a
pupil of his father, the engraver Heinrich Hugo
Cb'ntgen, but removed in 1776 to Frankfort-on-
the-Main, where he painted and etched portraits
and views of local events, and founded a Drawing
Institution which still exists, and at which his wife,
the flower painter Elisabetha Mund (who was born
in 1752, married in 1776, and died in 1783), im-
jarted instruction. He died at that city in 1799.

COFFRE, BENO!T, a French painter, who in
1692 gained the 'prix de Rome,' the subject being
"Abraham sending away Hagar and Ishmaei.' He
went to Denmark, where he painted the ceilings of
the castle of Fredriksborg between the years 1709
and 1717.

COGELS, JOSEPH CHARLES, (sometimes called
COGELS MABILDE,) a landscape and marine painter,
was born at Brussels in 1786. He studied at the
Academy of Diisseldorf ; and, after spending some
time in France, returned to Belgium in 1806, and
was admitted a member of the Royal Society of


the Fine Arts at Ghent. In 1810 he went to Munich,
where he wag employed by the King and Queen
and the Duke of Leuchtenberg in painting cabinet
pictures for their private collections, and for the
Gallery at Schleissheim. His paintings, which are
principally landscapes, water-falls, and old monu-
ments of his native country, are held in high esti-
mation. In the Cassel Gallery is a view of the St.
Salvator Platz, Munich (1819).

He etched also several plates, partly after J.
Both, partly from his own designs. In 1817 he
was made a member of the Academy at Antwerp.
He, however, established himself at Munich, and
was an honorary member of the Academy there.
He died in 1831, at the Castle of Leitheim near

COGET,JozEF ANTOON, was an engraver, probably
a Fleming, who lived about the year 1650. Le
Blanc calls him in error Cochet. By him we have:

Time crowning Industry and punishing Idleness ; after

Portrait of David Beck, the painter ; after himself.

COGHETTI, FRANCESCO, was born at Bergamo
in 1804, and instructed in painting by Diotti di
Casalmaggiore. He went afterwards to Rome,
where he became a disciple of Camuccini, and
studied the works of Raphael. He presided for
many years over the Academy of San Luca at
Rome, and was the representative of classic art in
the early part of the 19th century. He died at
Rome in 1875. His best works are as under:

Bergamo. Gallery. Two Altar-pieces.

Cathedral. Frescoes (in the cupola).

Rome. Villa Torlonia. Scenes from the Life of Alex-


The Four Elements.

The Triumph of Bacchus.

The Battle of the Amazons.

Porto Maurizio. Church. The Assumption.
Savona. Cathedral. The Martyrdom.

COGNIET, LEON, was born in Paris in 1794, and
studied art under Guerin. In 1817 he obtained the
first ' grand prix de Rome,' and painted for some
time in that city. He then settled in Paris, and
devoted himself to teaching, and to the production
of historical works, which earned for him much
praise mingled with a certain amount of adverse
criticism. He was appointed Professor of Drawing
in the Lyceum of Louis le Grand and in the Poly-
technic School. He died in Paris in 1880, having
been a member of the ' Academie des Beaux-Arts'
since 1849. The following are his principal works:
Metabus, King of the Volscians, expelled by his subjects

(painted in Rome in 1822).

Marius in the Euius of Carthage. 1824. ,

Numa (burned, in the Palace of the Conscil d'Etat,

duriny the Commune).
The Massacre of the Innocents. 1824.
The Charity of St. Stephen (in the Church of St. Nicolas-

des-Ckamps, Paris').
The National Guard marching to join the army in 1792

(at Versailles). 1836.
The Battle of Rivoli (at Versailles).
The Battle of Limburg (at Versailles).
An Angel announcing the Resurrection to the Magdalen

(in the Madeleine, Paris).
A Scene at the Barricades. 1830.
Tintoretto painting his dead Daughter (in the Bordeaux

Museum). One of his best works. 1845.

In addition to the above, he executed, among

other portraits, those of Marshal Maison, Louie

Philippe in his youth, and the painter Guerin, and

also painted at Versailles, in conjunction with
Philippoteaux, Karl Girardet, Vignon, Guyon, and
other artists, episodes in the campaign of Egypt.

COGNIET, MARIE AMLIE, who was born in
Paris in 1798, studied under her brother, Ldon
Cogniet, and exhibited from 1831 to 1843. She
painted genre subjects and portraits, and died in
Paris in 1869. The Lille Museum contains an
' Interior of a Studio ' by her.

COIGNARD, S., was a French engraver of little
note, who worked in London during the early part
of the 18th century, chiefly after Kneller. He has
left us some indifferent portraits, amongst which
are the following :

John Dryden.

Sir Christopher \Vren.

George Parker, astrologer.


C01GNET, JULES Louis PHILIPPE, a landscape
painter, was born in Paris in 1798, and who
studied under Berlin. He travelled a good deal in
his own country as well as in Italy and the East,
and produced a considerable number of views. He
holds a middle place between the Idealists and the
Realists, and his work is remarkable for the com-
bination of vigour and delicacy in the effects of
light and shade, for poetical feeling, for a firm
brush, and occasionally for grandeur of conception.
His chef-d'oeuvre is ' The Ruins of the Temple
of Picstum,' now in the New Pinacothek at Munich.
In addition to producing many water-colours and
chalk-drawings, he wrote a book on landscape
painting, and published in 1825 a series of sixty
Italian views. He died in Paris in 1860.

COINY, JACQUES JOSEPH, a French line-engraver,
was born at Versailles in 1761. He was a pupil of
Suv^e and of Philippe Le Bas, and in 1788 went
to Rome, where he stayed three years. He en-
graved for the government the ' Battle of Marengo,'
after the large picture of Lejeune, exhibited in
1806; but his fame rests chiefly on the plates
which he executed after Lefevre for the ' Lettres
d'une Peruvienne ' and for ' Manon Lescaut' in the
' Collection Bleuet.' Coiny died in Paris in 1809.

COINY, JOSEPH, a French line-engraver, was the
son of Jacques Joseph Coiny. He was born in Paris
in 1795, and studied under his father, Gounod, and
Bervic. He engraved the ' Creation of Eve ' after
Michelangelo, Dante Alighieri after Raphael, and
the portraits of Michallon after L. Cogniet, and of
Raphael from the picture in the Florence Gallery.
He died in Paris in 1829.

COLA, GENNARO DI, an old Neapolitan painter,
was born in 1320. He was the disciple of Maestro Si-
mone, a friend and companion of Giotto, and painted
in his style. The principal works remaining of
this ancient artist are, the altar-piece in the church
of Santa Maria della Pieta, representing the Mater
Dolorosa with the dead Christ, and Angels holding
the Instruments of the Passion ; and in a chapel
uf the same church, a 'Penitent Magdalen.' In the
tribune of San Giovanni a Carbonara, the ' Annunci-
ation ' and the 'Nativity.' In the Chapel of the
Crucified in Sant' Incoronata, at Naples, a ' Corona-
tion of the Queen Johanna and Louis of Tarento,'
a weak composition. In the Museum of that city
is a ' Conception,' in the manner of a miniature
painting. It is distinguished for its warm colour-
ing. Many other works by this painter are men-
tioned by Dominici. His style, like that of the
painters of his time, is laboured and dry, but not
without expression. He died in 1370.



COLANDON, D., was a landscape painter who
also etched. He is supposed to have been the
same person as Collandon who was born at Cannes,
and was established in Paris in 1670. He studied
under P. F. Mola, his work being for the most part
in the style of Genoels. Two plates are known
signed with the name D. Colandon. One represents
a mountain landscape with two women seated, one
of whom is holding a child ; and the other is a
landscape with a stream introduced, on the right
bank of which is a woman with an infant.


COLAS, ALPHONSE, a French historical and por-
trait painter, was born at Lille in 1818, and studied
under Souchon at the school of his native town.
He first attracted attention by a large canvas at
the Salon of 1849, representing the 'Raising of the
Cross.' He was much employed as a decorative
painter in French churches, a good specimen of his
work in this genre being his paintings in grisaille
in the cupola of the Eglise de Notre Dame at
Roubaix. He held the post of director of the art
school of Lille, where he died in 1887. His por-
trait of Souelion is in the Lille Museum.

was a German engraver, who flourished about the
year 1610. Brulliot says he was born at Salzburg
in 1591 ; and Nagler, that he died at the age of 92.
He resided principally at Rome, where he engraved
several plates from the works of the Italian painters;
among others are the following :

The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after Dmnenichino.
TheTaking down from the Cross ; after Annib. Carracci.


COLE, B., an engraver of portraits, worked in
England in the early part of the 18th century.

COLE, GEORGE, painter, was born in 1808. He
was entirely self-taught, and began life at Ports-
mouth as a painter of portraits and animals. He
finally, however, devoted himself to landscape, and
settled in London. He first exhibited in 1840, and
was afterwards a pretty constant contributor to
the Old British Institution, and, later, to the Suffolk
Street Exhibitions. He died September 7, 1883.

COLE, GEORGE VICAT, R.A., was born at Ports-
mouth April 17, 1833, and died at Campden Hill
House, Kensington, on April 16, 1893. His father
was a successful artist, and in his studio Vicat
Cole worked during his early years, making copies
of works by Turner, Constable, and Cox. The most
important part of his art education, however, was that
which he obtained by sketching from nature during
the summer months, still under his father's direction,
both in England and abroad, and so effective was
this, that in 1852, at the age of nineteen, he secured
admission to the now extinct British Institution
with a picture of 'Ranmore Common," and to the
Society of British Artists in Suffolk Street with
drawings of the Wye and Teign, while in the
following year he was represented for the first
time at the Royal Academy by two pictures,
' Kloster Marienburg' and 'A Sunny View.' In
spite of these youthful successes his early years were
not without their healthy struggles with difficulties,
and he was well content often to dispose of his
works for quite insignificant sums. In 1859 he
was elected a member of the Royal Society of
British Artists, and in 1860 he was awarded a silver
medal by the Society for the Encouragement of the
Fine Arts for a painting entitled ' Harvest Time.'
He was then residing at Abinger in Surrey, but in


1868 he removed to No. 8, Victoria Road, Kensing-
ton, and his reputation was so well established that
in January 1870 he was elected an Associate of the
Royal Academy, which was followed ten years later
by his promotion to the full Academicianship. No
less than three of the works which finally assured
his claim to this distinction were renderings of the
Thames, 'A Thames Backwater,' 'The Mist of
the Morning, Sonning,' and 'The Silver Thames,
near Medmenham," and thenceforward he devoted
himself almost exclusively to the depicting of that
river, with the intention of recording its most
salient beauties from the source to the sea. Thus
in 1881 he exhibited 'Streatley' and 'Wargrave'; in
1882 'The Sources of the Thames' and 'Abing-
don' ; in 1883 'Windsor Castle'; in 1884 'Oxford
from IfHey,' ' Iffley Mill,' 'Mapledurham Lock,'
and 'Bisham'; in 1885 'Sinodun Hill from Day's
Lock' ; in 1886 ' Cornfields at Gatehampton,' ' The
Thames at Hartswood,' ' Pangbourne,' 'Cookham,'
'Great Marlow'; in 1887 'Streatley from near
Cleve Lock'; in 1888 'The Pool of London,'
'Cornfields at Goring,' and 'A Thames Backwater';
in 1890 ' Greenwich ' and ' The Meeting of the
Thames and the Isis at Dorchester' ; and in 1892
' Westminster' forme'l his last exhibit at the Royal
Academy, though 'Windsor Castle from a Back-
water' was his last completed picture, ' Gravesend'
and ' The Nore ' being left unfinished at his death.
He was typically a lover and painter of English
landscapes, and his work was characterized by a
straightforward directness of technique, a delicate
sense of colour, a keen eye for the picturesque, and
a close if not very inspired observation of nature.


COLE, HUMPHREY, a goldsmith and engraver
connected with the Mint in the Tower, was born
about the year 1530 in the north of England.
He engraved the Map of Canaan for the second
edition of the Bishops' Bible, published in 1572,
and is said by Horace Walpole to have also en-
graved the titlepnge containing the portrait of
Queen Elizabeth, as well as those of the Earl of
Leicester and Lord Burghley, for the first edition
of the same Bible, issued in 1568, but these are so
far superior to the map in execution as to render
the statement extremely doubtful.

COLE, JOHN, an English engraver, flourish' d
about the year 1720. He was much employed by
the booksellers, for whom he engraved some por-
traits and other book-plates ; among which is a
head of James Puckle, prefixed to his dialogue
called ' The Club.' He also engraved several plates
of monuments, and a copy from the print by Martin
Rota, representing the ' Last Judgment,' after

COLE, PETER, practised as a portrait painter in
the reign of Elizabeth. He was for some time
Director of the Mint. He is thought to have been
a brother of Humphrey Cole.

COLE, Sir RALPH, Bart., was an amateur who
studied under Van Dyck. The date of his birth
is not known, but he succeeded to the baronetcy in
1640, and died in 1704. There is at Petworth a

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