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portrait of Thomas Wyndham painted by him, which
has been mezzotinted by R. Tompson.

COLE, THOMAS, the landscape painter, was born
at Bolton-le-Moors, Lancashire, in 1801. His father
emigrated whilst his son was only eighteen years
of age, in the hope of bettering his fortunes, and
established a paper-hanging manufactory at Steu-
benville in Ohio, and it was while assisting in this


business that tne son learnt the rudiments of his
art. At length a portrait-painter visited the place
where he lived, whose works so awakened Cole's
dormant spirit that he left his home suddenly to
follow out the object he had so much at heart. Amid
many difficulties and much privation, he found his
way to Philadelphia, and thence to New York,
where he set up his easel in a garret. His talents
soon introduced him to the notice of Trumbull and
other older brother artists, and likewise to some
wealthy patrons ; from the former he received pro-
fessional advice and assistance, and from the latter
more substantial encouragement. He subsequently
visited Italy and England, and finally settled down
in the land which his parents had adopted. He
was long known as one of the best landscape paint-
ers in the States ; we also find his name in the cata-
logues of our Royal Academy, he having exhibited
in the year 1830 a 'View in New Hampshire,
United States,' and the ' Tomb of General Brock,
Lake Ontario, in Upper Canada;' and in 1831 a
'View in the United States.' He died in 1848,
at his residence near the town of Catskill, on the
banks of the Hudson. Of Cole's works, the New
York Historical Society possesses the ' Course of
Empire ' (five landscape scenes), his master-piece.
His ' Voyage of Life ' was formerly in the Taylor-
Johnston Collection at New York. The ' Mountain
Ford ' and ' Kenilworth Castle ' were exhibited
at Philadelphia in 1876. Cole was the first good
landscape painter in America.

COLEMAN, EDWARD, of Birmingham, painted
still-life subjects. He exhibited at the Royal
Academy in 1819, 1820, and 1822.

COLEMAN, WILLIAM, was one of the early
wood-engravers. He died in London in 1807.

Dutch painter of still-life and interiors, who was a
native of Leyden, flourished from 1673 to 1691.
He was dead in 1702. Some of his works are
mentioned in the catalogues of Hoet and Terwesten.
COLIBERT, NICOLAS, a French painter and en-
graver, was born in Paris in 1750. He executed in
the dotted style some landscapes after Casanova,
and about 1782 came to London, where he pro-
duced two oval plates of ' Pity ' and ' Youth,' and
two subjects from ' Evelina." During the Revolution
he returned to Paris and engraved several of
Schall's designs for ' Les Amours de Psyche et de
Cupidon,' published in 1791, and some illustrations
after Monsiau to the poem ' La Moil d'Abel,' pub-
lished in 1793. Colibert died in London in 1806.

landscape painter, was born at Valenciennes in
1754, and died in the same town in 1824. He also
painted scenery and views of towns.

COLIGNON, FRANCOIS, a French designer and
engraver, was born at Nancy about the year 1621.
He was a pupil of Callot, and studied the works of
Delia Bella and Silvestre. He engraved some of
the plates of the towns conquered in the reign of
Louis XIV., published by Beaulieu. We have also
several plates from different masters, and from his
own designs. His best works are views of build-
ings, with small figures, in the style of Callot,
which he executed with great spirit and freedom.
We have by him, among others, the following
prints :

A set of twelve Landscapes.
The Buildings at Rome under Sixtus V.
A View of Malta with its ancient Fortifications.


The Flight of Attila ; after Raphael.

The five canonized Saints, St. Gaetauo, St. Francis

Borgia, St. Philip Benizio, St. Bertrand, and St. Rosa ;

after J. B. Gaetano.
View of Florence ; after S. della Bella.
Plan of the Castle of Hoyen ; after Callot.

COLIN, a French historical painter and engineer,
who became painter to the Duke of Burgundy in
1420. He was an artist in every acceptation of
the term, and executed at the castle of Hesdin
many undertakings in painting and architecture, as
well as curious hydraulic works.

COLIN, of Amiens, a French portrait painter, who
flourished in 1482, was commissioned to paint the
portrait of Louis XL His praises were sung by
the poets of his time.

COLIN, ADRIAAN VAN, a Dutch painter of the
17th century, painted poultry in the manner of

COLIN, ALEXANDRE MARIE, a French painter
of historical and genre subjects, was born in Paris
in 1798. He was a pupil of Girodet. His religious
and historical paintings are characterised by a
style based on a careful study of the old masters,
while his genre pieces are vigorous and life-like.
Amongst these latter may be noticed his ' French
Fish-Market ' (1832) in the Berlin Gallery, and his
1 Gipsies Resting.' Amongst the former may be
named a ' Christopher Columbus,' a ' Flight into
Egypt,' and an ' Assumption of the Virgin.' He
died in 1875.

COLIN, FRANC.OIS, who was born at Bordeaux m
1798, studied under Lacour, the elder, and died in
his native city in 1864. The Bordeaux Museum
has two works by him a ' Fountain of Love ' and
' Crispin Messager.'

COLIN, JEAN, a French line-engraver, who flour-
ished in the latter half of the 17th century. He
was a native of Rheims, but the dates of his birth
and death are unknown. He engraved an 'As-
sumption ' after A. Carracci, an equestrian portrait
of Louis XIV. crowned by Victory, and having at
his feet a map of Holland, and several other por-
traits which bear date from 1665 to 1688. Some
of his plates are signed, Collin.

COLLADO, JUAN, a Spanish painter, was a native
of Valencia, and a scholar of Richarte. He painted
in fresco the dome of the chapel of St. Francis
Xavier in the Jesuits' church, and its lateral altar-
pieces in oil ; and also executed various works for
the parish church of Santa Catalina, and other
churches of his native city. He died at Valencia
in 1767.

COLLAERT, ADRIAEN, a Flemish designer and
engraver, was born at Antwerp, but in what year is
not known. After having learnt the principles of
the art in his own country, he visited Italy for
improvement, where he passed some years. On
his return to Flanders, he engraved a great number
of plates, executed in a neatly finished style, bnt
with a certain degree of dryness. He died at
Antwerp in 1618. His drawing is correct,_and his
heads expressive. He sometimes marked his plates

with the cipher

The following are his principal productions :

A Man and hia Wife, conducted by Death. 1562.
A Man in Armour, to whom a Woman brings a Child,

a Dog, and a Cock.
The Four Elements ; in four plates.



The Life of Jesus Christ ; in thirty-six plates.
Thirty plates of Birds.

One hundred and twenty-five plates of Fishes.
Twenty-four plates ; entitled Florilegiwn ab Hadriano

Collaert calatum, SfC.
The Temptation of St. Anthony.
St. Apollonia.


The Twelve Mouths of the Tear; after Josse De

Momper ; the same that Callot has engraved.
The Last Judgment ; after J. Stradan.
St. Hubert ; after the same.
Twelve plates of Horses ; after the same.
A Huutiug and Fishing Party ; after the same.
The Israelitish "Women singing the Soug of Praise for

the Destruction of the Egyptian Host in the Red

Sea ; after the same.

A Woman saving her Child from a Lion ; after the same.
Twelve Landscapes ; after Hendrik van Cleef.
A set of Hermitesses ; after M. de Tos ; engraved con-

jointly with his son Hans Collaert.
The Calling of St. Andrew to the Apostleship ; after


The Repose in Egypt ; after H. Goltzius. 1585.
A set of six plates, called the Annunciations ; considered

among the best of his works.

COLLAERT, HANS or JAN, the son of Adriaen
Collaert, was born at Antwerp about 1540. After
being instructed by his father for a while, he fol-
lowed his example in visiting Italy, where he
passed some time. He assisted his father in many
of his works, and engraved a great number of
plates, dated from 1555 to 1622, which are executed
in the style of Adriaen, but with more taste and
less stiffness. He died at Antwerp in 1628. He
sometimes signed his plates with his name Hans
Collaert fecit, sometimes with the initials //. C. F.,

and sometimes with the cipher

The following are his prints most worthy of
notice :

The Life of St. Francis ; in sixteen plates, with grotesque


The Dead Christ in the Lap of the Virgin.
The Last Judgment, surrounded with small subjects of

the Life of Christ.
Ten plates ; entitled ilonilium Bullarum inaunumqut

Jcones. 1581.


St. John preaching in the Wilderness ; G.A. Z. jnv.
Moses striking the Rock ; after Lambert Lombard; very-

Marcus Curtius throwing himself into the Gulf ; after

the same.

A Satyr pursued by Women ; after J. Stradan.
Time and Truth ; "after the same ; very fine.
Mars and Venus ; after the same.
Tho Loves of Mars and Venus ; four plates ; after P.


The Title to the Biblia Sacra; after Rubens ; fine.
The Title to the Kerkelyke Historic; after the same;

The Title to the Heyliae Voders Boeck ; after the tame ,

Twelve plates for a ' Missal ; ' after the designs of Rubens

The subjects are taken from the Lives of Christ am

the Virgin.


COLLANTES, FRANCISCO, a Spanish painter, was
born at Madrid in 1599. He was instructed by
Vicente Carducci and painted figures, animals
landscapes, fruit, and flower-pieces, and often
united historical subjects with landscapes. His


works are executed in a bold and masterly manner,
n the style of Rubens, richly coloured, and with
rery romantic scenery. Of his historical works, the
irincipal are ' St. Jerome,' and a picture of the
Resurrection, in the Buen Retire. He died at
Madrid in 1656. There are by him :

lopenhagen. Museum. St. Jerome.
Madrid. Gallery. The Vision of Ezekiel.

St. William of Aquitaine.

Landscapes (tieo).

The Burning of Troy,

tfuuich. Pinalcothek. Landscape.
Paris. Louvre. Jehovah appearing to Moses in the

Burning Bush.
Petersburg. Hermitage. St. John the Baptist.

COLLAS, ACHILLE, a French mechanician, was
born in Paris in 1795. He was the inventor of the
process of engraving in imitation of bas-reliefs
md cameos which is known by his name. His
principal work is the ' Tresor de Numismatique et
le Glyptique,' 22 volumes in folio, published in
1834-1850. He died in Paris in 1859.


COLLEONI, GIROLAMO, was a native of Bergamo,
born, according to Tassi, about the end of the
15th century. Most of the works of this able
artist, in his own country, were formerly in the
church of Sant' Antonio dell' Ospitale at Bergamo,
but were destroyed at the time the church was re-
built. In the church dedicated to St. Erasmo, at
San Borgo Canale near Bergamo, is preserved one
f his most esteemed works, painted in 1538. This
picture is described by Tassi as one of the most
admirable productions of Bergamese art. It repre-
sents the Virgin and Infant, with Mary Magdalene,
St. John, and St. Erasmus. Lanzi mentions a pic-
ture by Colleoni of the ' Marriage of St. Catharine,'
in the Carrara Gallery, which was thought^ by the
best judges to be a work of Titian, until the inscrip-
tion, Hieronymus Colleo, 1555, was found on it.
Not meeting with the distinction he merited in his
own country, and disgusted at the encouragement
given to inferior talents of foreign growth, he
determined to leave it ; but, previous to his depar-
ture, Tassi asserts, he painted in one night on the
facade of his house a very beautiful horse, and
inscribed under it_ Nemo propheta acceptus in
patria sua. He went to Spain, where he met with
due encouragement, and was employed in the

COLLET, JOHN, known as ' John Collet, senior,'
died in London in 1771. He painted portraits.

COLLET, JOHN, an English artist, born in London
in 1725, was a scholar of Lambert, the landscape
painter. He painted subjects of humour, somewhat
in the manner of Hogarth, approaching him only
in vulgarity and caricature. In pieces wherein he
did not attempt to imitate that genius, and confined
himself to simple objects, he showed considerable
merit in the representation of the characters and
costume of his time. Several of his pictures have
been engraved, and there are some etchings by
him. He died in 1780. Two water-colour drawings
by him are in the South Kensington Museum.

COLLET, Louis, was a native of Paris, and
flourished about the year 1610. He engraved a set
of plates or ornaments for goldsmiths and jewellers,
from the designs of Giles Legare, which are exe-
cuted with the graver in a very neat Btyle : these
were published in 1663.

COLLETTE, ALEXANDRE, a French lithographer,
was born at Arras in 1814, and died in 1877.



(f '/iii;'i.\i/r tlal/erirs, (Ai'/rW


COLLIER, JOHN, who assumed the name of TIM
BOBBIN, was born at Warrington in the early part
of the 18th century. He was an eccentric indi-
vidual travelling the country, first as a school-
master, then as a sign-painter, portrait-painter, and
caricaturist, living from hand to mouth. He was
also an author, and issued in 1810, ' The Passions
humourously delineated,' with 25 coloured plates ;
a volume of his ' Miscellaneous Works,' with his
Life by R. Townley, and with portrait and copper-
piates,was published in 1818. He lived to the age
of 80, but the dates of his birth and death are

COLLIER, MARIAN, an English amateur painter,
was the daughter of Professor Huxley. In 1879
she married Mr. John Collier. She painted figure
pictures, and occasionally exhibited at the Academy
and the Grosvenor Gallery. She died November
18, 1887.

COLLIER, TOM, was born at Glossop, Derbyshire,
in 1840. Though he studied for a short time at
the Manchester School of Art, he was practically
self-taught. In 1861 he was elected a member of
the Royal Institute of Painters in Water-Colours,
to the exhibitions of which he was a frequent
contributor. He sent pictures to the Paris Ex-
hibitions of 1878 and 1889, and on the former
occasion was created a Knight of the Legion of
Honour. Collier painted landscapes of English
scenery, in water-colour, of which three examples
are at South Kensington. He painted also in oils,
and exhibited at the Royal Academy. He died at
Hampstead in 1891.
COLLIN, RICHARD, a German designer and en-
graver, was born at Luxemburgin 1627. He went
to Rome when young, and became a scholar of his
countryman, Sandrart, for whose 'Accademia' he
engraved some plates. On his return from Italy
he resided at Antwerp and Brussels, where he
engraved several portraits and other subjects, in a
neat but laboured style. The following are his
principal plates :


Jane Bickerton, Duchess of Norfolk.
Sir Godfrey Kneller ; for Sandrart's ' Accademia.'
John Zachary Kneller ; for the same.
Artus Quellinus, sculptor ; after E. Quellinus.
Jan Philip van Thielen, flower painter ; after the same,
Joachim Sandrart. 1679.

Bartolome Esteban Murillo, painter : after Murillo.
Christian Albert, Prince Bishop of Lubeck. 1654.
Anna Adelhildis, wife of the Prince de la Tour et

Tassis. 1682.
A set of forty portraits of the Saints of Mount Carmel.


Esther before Ahasuerus ; after Rubens.

Christ bearing his Cross ; after A. Diepenbeeck.

St. Arnold ; after the same.

historical painter, was born at Versailles in 1693.
He was a grandson of H. Rigaud and a pupil of
Jouvenet, and was received into the Academy in
1725, when he painted the ' Birth of Bacchus,' now
in the Museum of Tours. Collin de Vermont was
one of the twelve painters who in 1727 took part
in the competition held in the Gallery of Apollo.
He died in Paris in 1761.

COLLINGS, S. , a caricaturist and subject painter,
flourished in the latter part of the 18th century.
He occasionally exhibited at the Royal Academy.

COLLINS, CHARLES, who died in 1744, painted
birds, game, and still-life.

COLLINS, CHARLES ALLSTON, a younger son i.f
William Collins, was born at Hampstead in 1828.
He first exhibited in 1847, and gave up the art in
1858. Among the chief pictures exhibited by him
at the Royal Academy we may mention ' Convent
Thoughts' (1851), 'The Devout Childhood of St.
Elizabeth of Hungary' (1852), and 'The Good
Harvest of 1854' (1855); which is now at South
Kensington. He was also an author, and con-
tributed to 'Household Words' and 'All the Year
Round,' when the latter was edited by Charles
Dickens. He also wrote (in 1863) ' A Cruise upon
Wheels,' a clever description of his travels, which
met with a deservedly favourable reception, and
several novels. He was a younger brother of
Wilkie Collins the novelist, and son-in-law of
Dickens, for whom he furnished the illustrated
title-page of ' Edwin Drood.' His contributions
to ' All the Year Round ' are amongst the most
charming- of its papers. He died after a long
illness in 1873.

the middle of the 18th century. She made designs
for book illustrations.

COLLINS, JACOB, an engraver of portraits and
frontispieces for books, worked in the 18th century.

COLLINS, JAMES, flourished about the year 1715.
We have some prints by him representing views of
buildings, among which is the large plate of
Canterbury cathedral.

COLLINS, JOHN, was an English engraver, who
flourished about the year 1682. He engraved some
very indifferent copies from the grotesque figures
published by the Bonnarts at Paris, called Scara-
mouch and his Company of Comedians. We have
also some portraits by him ; and the Funeral Pro-
cession of George, Duke of Albemarle.

COLLINS, JOHN, flourished in England about
1744. At Hampton Court are a 'Shepherd' and
a ' Shepherdess ' by him.

COLLINS, RICHARD, a miniature painter, was
born in Hampshire in 1755. He was a pupil of
Jeremias Meyer. In 1777 he exhibited some por-
traits at the Royal Academy, and in 1787 became
chief miniature and enamel painter to George III.
He died in London in 1831.

COLLINS, SAMUEL, a native of Bristol, practised
miniature painting at Bath, and there imparted
instruction to Ozias Humphrey. About 1762 he
removed to Dublin and practised there with success.
His death is not recorded.

COLLINS, WILLIAM, who is so well known by
the rustic simplicity of his pictures, was horn in
London in 1788. His father, a native of Wicklow
in Ireland, although of literary abilities and a poet,
was obliged also to carry on the business of a picture
dealer in order to obtain the means to support his
family. Amongst other works, he wrote a Life of
Morland, who allowed the young painter to visit his
studio and to watch him paint, and by examining
the works of the two men it will be seen that the
early impressions made by the eccentric artist had
a decided influence on the art of Collins, although
the latter denied that he ever obtained any great
advantage in the practical part of his art from the
instruction which he received from Morland.

In 1807, after having studied for many years
under his father's guidance, he at length obtained
admission as a student into the Royal Academy,
where he gained a silver medal for drawing from
the life in 1809. Even at this early period he
beffan to exhibit at the annual exhibitions, and his



first work was, ' Boys with a Bird's Nest.' In 1812
he lost his father, who died leaving his family in a
state of destitution, and wholly dependent on the
young artist for means of subsistence. Collins,
however, met with generous assistance from his
friends. Among his early patrons were Sir Thomas
Heathcote, Sir John Leicester, Sir George Beaumont,
Sir Robert Peel, and the Earl of Liverpool. In
this year he painted one of his principal pic-
tures of rustic life, 'The Sale of the Pet Lamb.'
'The Burial-place of a Favourite Bird,' exhibited
at the same time, and possessing the same qualities
of tender pathos and unaffected sentiment, so far
advanced Collins in the opinion of his brother artists
that in 1814 he was elected an Associate of the
Royal Academy.

In 1815 he thought he would try fresh subjects,
and accordingly went to Cromer to study the sea
and the habits of fishermen. At the Gillott sale in
1872 his large picture of ' Cromer Sands' brought
3600 guineas.

After visiting Norfolk he went to Hastings, and
there painted many pictures of coast scenery,
enlivened by groups of fisher-boys, boats, &c. In
1818 one of these, a ' Scene on the coast of Norfolk,'
was purchased by the Prince Regent, and now
hangs in Windsor Castle. This patronage by
royalty led to many other commissions, so that the
artist rapidly rose to fame and overcame all his
pecuniary difficulties.

He had previously been compelled to resort to
portrait painting as the only sure means of profit ;
but now he was able to abandon it entirely, and
having in his particular branch of landscape art, as
his intimate friend Wilkie told him, the ball at his
feet, he had but to paint as he had begun to widen
his popularity. In 1820 he became a Royal Aca-
demician, giving as a diploma picture 'The Young
Anglers,' and for the next sixteen years he was a
constant contributor to the exhibitions, sending
occasionally five and never less than three pictures.
In 1822, whilst on a visit to Scotland, he married
Miss Geddes, the sister of Mrs. Carpenter, the
portrait painter.

Collins continued to paint numerous pictures of
rustic life with great success ; amongst which
' Rustic Civility ' and ' As Happy as a King ' are
perhaps the most popular. A replica of the latter
now hangs in the National Gallery. Wilkie Collins
(the well-known novelist, and author of a Life of
his father, published in 1848), says that the subject
of this painting was suggested to his father by the
story of the country boy whose ideal of happiness
was swinging upon a gate all day long and eating
fat bacon.

In 1836 Collins visited Italy, having been re-
peatedly urged by his friend Wilkie to see the
beauties of that country. He remained two years
abroad, and on his return the pictures which he
exhibited surprised his former admirers ; but it is
doubtful whether the Italian journey was at all
beneficial to his reputation.

It is said that his unwise practice of painting at
all times of the day while at Sorrento, though he
was warned of its folly by his friends, sowed the
seeds of the disease by which he was vanquished at
last. A rheumatic attack left behind it disease of
the heart, and although he lived for eleven years
afterwards, he was never the same man again. It
was under great suffering that he painted, in 1846,
his beautiful picture of ' Early Morning.' He died
in London in 1847.

In 1817 he had visited Paris ; in 1828 Holland
and Belgium ; in 1840 Germany ; and in 1842 the
Shetland Isles.

His pictures were at first landscapes with figures
and simple incidents introduced then subjects on
the sea coast ; occasionally portraits ; and latterly,
after his Italian journey, sacred subjects.

His works are very numerous : there are no less
than twelve in the Sheepshanks and Townshend
Collections in the South Kensington Museum. The
following are some of the principal, and are typical
of the rest. Several have been engraved.

1811. A Country Kitchen (in the Sheepshanks Collection
at South Kensington).

1813. The Sale of the Pet Lamb.

1814. Bird Catchers Morning (one of the best of his

early works, the property of the Marquis of

1816. Shrimp boys at Cromer.

1817. Fishermen coming ashore before sunrise.

1818. Coast of Norfolk.

1819. Morning Fishermen on the look-out.

1822. Scene near Chichester.

1823. Scene in Borrowdale.
,, W aimer Castle.

1824. The Cherry Seller.

1825. Fishermen getting out their nets.
1S27. A Frost Scene.

1828. Scene in Freshwater Bay, Isle of Wight.

1829. Scene in a Kentish Hop Ga den.

1830. Waiting for the Arrival of Fishing Boats, Coast of


1831. The Prawn Catchers (in the National Gallery)

1833. Rustic Civility (at South Kensington).

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