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subjects of an easel size, but was more successful
in landscapes, in candle-light subjects, and moon-
light. He finally settled at Hamburg, where he
died in 1599. The Museum of Antwerp contains
320



a ' St. George ' and a portrait by him, and that of
Cassel a ' Venus and Cupid ' of the year 1579.

CONINCK. See KONINCK.

CONINCK, DE (or CONINGH). See DE KO-
NINCK.

CONINXLO, CORNELIS VAN, (or CONIXLO,) was a
Flemish painter of the 16th century, of whom
nothing has been recorded. He is only known by
a painting which bsars his signature, ' Cornilis va
Conixlo Scernir 1526,' in the Brussels Gallery; it
represents the ' Parentage of the Virgin.'

CONINXLO, GILLES VAN, (CONINGSLOO or Co-
NINCXLOY,) a Flemish painter of landscapes, and a
relation of the other artists of the same name, was
born at Antwerp in 1544. He was first instructed
by Leonard Kroes, but afterwards became a scholar
of Gilles Mostaert. He travelled through France to
Italy, and on his return to Flanders, was much em-
ployed in painting landscapes, in which the figures
were frequently added by Martin van Cleef. Co-
ninxlo was esteemed one of the ablest artists, in
the branch that he followed, of the time in which
he lived. His touch is spirited and light, and his
colour clear and agreeable. He died at Antwerp
in 1609. His only known -work, a landscape
dated 1604, is in the possession of Prince Liechten-
stein at Vienna. Nicolaas De Bruyn engraved
much after him.

CONINXLO, JAN VAN, was born at Brussels in
1489 (?), but nothing is known of the details of
his career. His father, who bore the same Christian
name, had another son, Pieter van Coninxlo : both
were painters. The name is found written in a
variety of ways Coninxlo, Conninxlo, Connixlo,
Cooninxloo, Conixloo and sometimes with the
additional name of Schernier. The Brussels Gallery
contains five works by Jan van Coninxlo : a trip-
tych of the ' Life of St. Anne,' which bears on
its right wing (representing the death of that
saint) the signature ' Jan van Conixlo 1546 ' ; the
' Birth of St. Nicholas,' and the ' Death of St.
Nicholas,' both of which were formerly in a church
in Louvain ; ' Christ among the Doctors,' and the
'Marriage at Cana.' These were formerly attri-
buted to Gilles van Coninxlo.

CONJOLA, CARL, a landscape painter in water-
colours and oil, was born at Mannheim in 1773,
and died at Munich in 1831. His views are prin-
cipally of the mountainous parts of Bavaria and
the Tyrol.

CONQUY, EPHRAIM, a French line-engraver, was
born at Marseilles in 1809, and died in Paris in
1843. His works, many of which are portraits, are
noticeable for vigour and for delicacy of finish.
The most important are the following :

The French Mother ; after Steulen.

The Child Jesus on the steps of the Temple ; after Carlo

Dolci.

St. Catharine ; after the same.
St. Cecilia ; after Domenichino,
The Neapolitan Mother ; after Horace Vernet.

CONRAD, a monk, who lived about the middle
of the 13th century, compiled a number of learned
works, which he illustrated with pictures. The
Court Library at Munich possesses several of his
designs for these, especially an 'Evangeliarium' and
' Lectionarium,' in which there is evinced a more
advanced perception of the true natural form than
is to be found in most miniatures of the Roman
style in Germany.

CONRAD, ABRAHAM, (or CONRADUS,) was a Dutch
designer and engraver, who flourished about the




- >.



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



year 1650. His plates consist chiefly of portraits,
part of which are from hia own designs. They
possess great merit, and some of them are success-
ful imitations of the style of Lucas Vorstermans.
The following are his principal prints :

PORTRAITS.

Christopher Love.

Jacob Triglande, professor of Theology at Leyden.

Thomas Maurois, of Canterbury, ecclesiastic at Amster-
dam ; after D. JBoudringhen.

Godefroid Hotton, Pastor of the French Church at
Amsterdam ; after H. Mermans ; very fine.

The Flagellation ; after A. Piepenbeeck.

The Crucifixion ; after the same.

CONRAD, CARL EMANUEL, an architectural
painter, was born at Berlin in 1810, and instructed
first in that city, and afterwards at Diisseldorf.
the Academy of which town he attended from 1835
till 1839. Both in this institution and at the Real-
schule he gave instruction in perspective to young
artists, and received the title of professor, the Order
of the Red Eagle, and a medal from the Pope. Hs
painted buildings of the middle ages, with land-
scape surroundings, such as ' The Church of St.
Quirinus in Neuss,' 'The Cloister of St. Severinus
in Cologne ' (1837), ' The Cathedral of Mayence '
(1841), 'Custom House in London' (1852),
' Views of Cologne Cathedral,' &c. He also exe-
cuted some excellent acquatints, as ' Pius IX. in his
Cabinet,' and ' An Assemblage at Sigmaringen in
the Olden Time ' (1872). He died at Cologne in
1873.

CONRADER. See KONRADER.
CONSCIENCE, FRANCOIS ANTOINE, a French
painter of animals, who always exhibited under the
name of FRANCIS. He was born at Besancon in
1795, became a pupil of Guerin, and died at Luxe-
uil in 1840.

CONSETTI, ANTONIO, an Italian historical
painter, who was born at Modena in 1686, and died
in 1766, is represented in the Estense Gallery, in
his native city, by ' The Virgin of the Rosary with
St. Dominic,' and ' St. Joseph and Angels.'

CONSORTI, BERNARDO, an Italian line-engraver,
was born at Rome about 1785. He engraved the
' Holy Family with the Family of St. John ' after
Garofalo, the ' Entombment ' after Van Dyck, and
' Psyche ' and other sculpture after Canova.

CONSTABLE, JOHN, one of the greatest realistic
landscape painters of England, was born at East
Bergholt, in Suffolk, on the llth of June, 1776.
It is recorded that he was so weakly at his birth,
that he was baptized on the same day. He was
sent to school at Lavenham and afterwards to
Dedham, where, it, is said, the boy was distin-
guished for little more than his penmanship. His
father, a wealthy miller, at first intended him
to enter the Church, but as he had no taste for
theological studies, the old man changed his
mind, and determined that his son should follow
his own trade ; and, although the youth showed a
decided taste for painting, he would on no account
hear of his making that a profession. John, how-
ever, made friends with a village plumber and
glazier, of the name of Dunthorne, who was an
enthusiast in art, and these two used to study
painting in the fields ; and thus it was that he took
his study from the books of nature. As Constable
grew up, he was known from his good looks and
fine figure as the ' handsome miller ' ; and when he
was eighteen years of age, he spent a year, under
the pretext of carrying on his business as a miller,



in observing the picturesque effects of the heavens
and the earth, and copying the drawings of Girtin,
which had been lent to him by Sir George
Beaumont.

In 1795, Sir George's patronage and his own
unmistakable genius for art, induced his parents to
allow him to go to London to study painting.
Shortly afterwards, however, he was recalled to
his native village, where he for some time shared
his father's labours ; and it was not until 1799
that he revisited London. In the same year
he was admitted as a student into the Royal
Academy, and he received some instruction from
Farrington and Reinagle, and painted a few por-
traits, and attempted historical subjects ; but his
true instructor was Nature, and his true branch of
art was landscape painting ; and in the year 1802
one of his landscapes was included in the Royal
Academy Exhibition.

During the following years he stayed in the
summer months in the country, " living nearly
always in the fields, and seeing nobody but field
labourers," and sent to the Royal Academy and the
British Institution numerous landscapes and studies.
He was twice induced to paint an altar-piece : one,
' Christ blessing little Children,' for Brantham Church,
in 1804, and the other, ' Our Saviour blessing the
bread and wine,' for Nayland Church, in 1809 ; but
it is believed that he never again attempted sacred
subjects.

The whole life of Constable is a testimony to his
preference for the study of nature : his letters to
Archdeacon Fisher, of Salisbury, and to his old
friend, John Dunthorne, are full of delicate observ-
ations on the subject, and show a fresh appreciation
of the qualities of the country and the various
methods of landscape painting. The more his talent
was developed, the greater became his wish to
depart from the popular style of classical painting
at that time in vogue, and to observe directly all
the different aspects of nature.

Though a hard worker, it appears that Constable
met with little success for many years, and in 1811
he was still without reputation, except among a few
friends ; some of whom were Sir George Beaumont,
Reinagle, Bishop Fisher, and Miss Mary Bicknell,
whom he married, secretly, in 1816. But in the
year 1819 Constable was elected an Associate of
the Royal Academy, and ten years afterwards an
Academician.

About this time Constable's pictures began to
gain notoriety, and a French speculator, who had
bought three at the Royal Academy, sent them to
the Paris Salon in 1824. These were ' The Hay
Cart,' a ' View near London,' and ' The Lock on
the Stour.' These pictures were much admired at
Paris ; the native artists were astonished at the
power displayed in them, and the King of the
French awarded Constable a gold medal.

In the year 1827, 'The Corn-Field,' one of his
masterpieces, was exhibited at the British Institu-
tion, where it held its own even in the neighbour-
hood of works by Claude and Cuyp.

In the same year Constable took up his abode at
Harnpstead, his dear Hampstead, his sweet Hamp-
stead, as he called it. He says, " My little studio
commands a view without an equal in all Europe."
Here he loved to sketch, and the neighbourhood
furnished him with many studies for his pictures,
as did also Osmington, the birthplace of his wife,
and Salisbury, the residence of his friend Fisher.
He continued to send many contributions to the

321



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Academy ; amongst the most noted may be men-
tioned 'Salisbury Cathedral,' and 'The Valley
Farm,' (known as Willy Lett's House,) situated on
the Stour near Flatford Mill.

Constable published in 1830-32 a set of mezzo-
tint engravings of ' English Landscapes,' by
David Lucas, from pictures painted by himself.
" The subjects of all the plates are taken from real
places ; they are mostly rural, and are meant par-
ticularly to characterise the scenery of England."
He also gave numerous lectures on the study of
nature, and occasionally painted in water-colour.

Constable died suddenly in Charlotte Street,
Fitzroy Square, London, on the 1st of April, 1837.
His ' Memoirs,' composed chiefly of his letters,
were published by C. R. Leslie, R.A., in 1843, and
again with additions in 1845. The first edition con-
tains the plates by Lucas of ' English Landscapes.'
He was one of the deceased painters who were
represented in the London International Exhibition
of 1874, when the following pictures by him were
lent for exhibition :
The Embarcation of George IV. from Whitehall on the

occasion of the opening of Waterloo Bridge.
Dedham Farm.
The Hay Wain.
The Leaping Horse.
Englefield House.
The Valley of the Stour.
A Dell in Helmingham Park ; besides numerous sketches

for his other well-known works.
The following are his principal works in public
galleries :
London. National Gall. The Cornfield (or Country Lane),

painted in 1826.

The Valley Farm (Willy Lett's

House), exhibited at the Jtoyal
Academy in 1835.

A Cornfield with figures.

Barnes Common.

S. Kensington Salisbury Cathedral (signtd and

dated 1823).
, ,, Dedham Mill (signed and dated

1820).
Hampstead Heath (exhibited at

the Royal Academy in 1827).
n Hampstead Heath (exhibited at

the Royal Academy in 1830).

Boat-Building, near Flatford Mill.

Water Meadows, near Salisbury.
Paris. Louvre. The Cottage.

The Rainbow (with a view of

Salisbury), a sketch.

Weymouth Bay. 1827.

View of Hampstead Heath (a

sketch).
The Glebe Farm.

CONSTANT, JEAN JOSEPH BENJAMIN, was born
in Paris in 1845, studied at the Beaux-Arts, and
then entered the atelier of M. Cabanel. His first
picture was hung in the Salon in 1869 before he
was twenty-four years old, and was called ' Hamlet
et le Roi.' Since that time down to the very year
of his death he was hardly ever absent from the
great Parisian Exhibition. Probably no French
artist has attracted moreattention than M. Constant,
or has liad his work so minutely studied, and his
methods more frequently copied by bis compatriots.
He was for years the master of the modern French
school, and could never complain that his country-
men failed to appreciate him. Amongst his notable
works are ' Trop Tard ' (1870), 'Samson et Delilah'
(1871), ' Femmes en Riff,' 'Boucher Maiires a
Tanrer,' ' Coin de Rue,' ' Carrefour a Tanger,'
1 Prisonniers Marocains,' ' Femmes de Harem a
Maroc,' all studies of life in Morocco, a country of
322



semi-barbarism which appealed to his imagination ;
' La Vengeance du Chdrif,' another Oriental subject
(1885), 'Judith' and ' Justinian ' (1886), ' Orphee'
and 'Theodora' (1887), 'Pope Urban II. entering
Toulouse,' ' Beethoven,' ' Victrix,' and others. In
addition to all these subject pictures he was an
eminent painter of portraits, and by them bis re-
nown in England and America has been chiefly
produced. He painted Queen Victoria, Queen
Alexandra, the Pope (Leo XIII.), the Due.
d'Aumale, the Marquis of Dufferin, Lady Helen
Vincent, the Duchess of Marlborough, and M.
Hanotaux. Two of his best portraits, those of Lord
Savile and M. de Blowitz, were upon the walls of
the Salon in 1902 when he died ; that of Queen
Alexandra having been exhibited in the previous
year. He was largely influenced in his technique by
a careful study of the work of Gainsborough, and
his paintings show evident signs of an entire
change of method after the works of the English
school first attracted his attention. His aim was
in all cases to produce a single well-balanced
harmony of light and colour. Few of his portraits
received such an excess of criticism as the one
of Queen Victoria which appeared at the Royal
Academy in 1900. Its stately but unaffected
grandeur was very attractive, but the somewhat
over-strained sentiment did not appeal to English
critics. There is no doubt that at times his
lighting was too artificial and almost garish, and
his colour false, and these qualities were discovered
in this celebrated portrait, and were vehemently
pointed out by many writers. The portrait will,
however, remain noteworthy as a majestic con-
ception grandly presented on canvas. Constant
was greatly affected by the death of his son in
1899, and never quite recovered from the blow.
In 1901 he caught an acute attack of influenza in
Scotland, and from the effect of this died in May
1902. He had painted many decorative canvases
for public buildings in Paris, especially at the
Hotel de Ville and Opera Comique, and was at the
very last engaged in setting out a new and even
more important work of this sort. He was a
member of the Institute of France, and Commander
of the Legion of Honour. G. C W-

CONSTANTIN, ABRAHAM, a Swiss enamel
painter, was born at Geneva in 1785. He became
a pupil of Gerard, after whom he executed many
works on porcelain, including portraits of the
King of Rome, Charles X., and the Emp.-ror of
Russia. He was attached to the manufactory at
Sevres, and died at Geneva after 1851.

CONSTANTIN, JEAN ANTOINE, a landscape
painter, who also etched, was born at Bonneveine,
near Marseilles, in 1756. An enamel painter, dis-
cerning his talent, found him employment in
painting porcelain, an occupation which he quitted
to get lessons at Marseilles from Kapeller the elder
and David of Marseilles. From that city an amateur
took him to Aix, and arranged for his going to
Rome, where he worked hard for six years. On his
return to Aix he became the director of the School
of Design. He exhibited at the Paris Salon from
1817 to 1831. Many of his paintings and a thousand
drawings and etchings by him are in the Museum
at Aix, where he died in 1844.

CONSTANTIN, JOSEPH SEBASTIEN, the son of
JEAN ANTOINE Constantiu, and also a landscape
painter, was born at Aix in 1793. He lost his sight,
and died in the hospital of Bicetre in 1864.

CONSTANTINI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, (or CON-



BENJAMIN CONSTANT




HER MAJESTY QUEEN ALEXANDRA




x.
<



a
X
H



JOHN CONSTABLE




Ha nfsta ngl photo]



THE VALLEY FARM



\_Naticntcil Gallery, London



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



STANTINO), was a nativn of Italy, who flourished
about the year 1619. We have an etching by him,
representing a Bacchanalian subject, surrounded
with a grape vine, in the form of a border. It is
executed in a slight, free style, somewhat resem-
bling that of Guido, though less masterly, and
appears to have been the work of a painter.

CONTARINI, Cavaliere GIOVANNI, was born at
Venice in 1549. He was a contemporary of Palma,
and studied the works of Tintoretto and Titian.
His portraits and altar-pieces are distinguished by
their beautiful colouring : in the former he fol-
lowed the chaste and simple style of Titian. Con-
tarini was a perfect master of the sotto in su, as is
seen in his picture of the ' Resurrection ' in San
Francesco di Paola at Venice. He appears to
have been much engaged in painting easel pictures
of mythological subjects, which he had learning
enough to treat with propriety, but he excelled
especially in painting ceilings. He went to Ger-
many and passed some years at the court of the
Emperor Rudolph II., by whom he was knighted.
He died in 1605.

Amongst his works, which are principally to be
met with in the churches and palaces of Venice,
may be mentioned :

Berlin. Museum. St. Sebastian.

Florence. Gallery. His own Portrait.

Milan. rera. St. Jerome.

Paris. Louvrt. The Virgin and the Infant Jesns

enthroned, with St. Mark, St.
Sebastian, and the Doge Marino
Grimani kneeling ; formerly in
the Ducal palace at Venice.
His best work.

Venice. Osa delta j The e^g^

Vienna. Gallery. The Baptism of Christ.

CONTE, JACOPO DEL. See DEL CONTE.

CONTE, NICOLAS JACQUES, a French mechanician
and portrait painter, was born at St. Cenery in
Normandy in 1755. He was the inventor of a
machine for engraving and of the crayons which
bear his name. He died in 1805.

CONTI, BERNARDINO DE'. See DE' CONTI.

CONTI, CESARE and VINCENZIO, two brothers,
were natives of Ancona, but went to Rome during
the Pontificate of Gregory XIII., by whom they
were employed, as well as by his successors, Sixtus
V., Clement VIII., and Paul V. Cesare was es-
teemed for his grotesque ornaments, and Vincenzio
painted the figures. The former died at Macerata
about 1615 ; the latter went to the court of Savoy,
and died there in 1610. Some of their works are
in Santa Maria in Trastevere. In San Spirito in
Sassia is the history of San Giacomo del Zucchi ;
in Santa Cecilia, ' St. Agnes,' and the ' Martyrdom of
St. Urban.'

CONTI, FRANCESCO, an Italian historical painter,
was born at Florence in 1681. He was a pupil of
C. Maratti, whose style he imitated. He died in
1760. His own portrait by himself is in the Uffizi.

CONTRERAS, ANTONIO DE, a Spanish painter,
was born at Corrlova in 1587. He was a pupil of
Pablo de Cespedes, after whose death he went to
Granada, and subsequently to Bujalance, where he
resided until his death, which took place in 1654.
He painted many pictures for the Franciscan con-
vent and other churches of Bujalance, and also
distinguished himself by his portraits.

COOK, RICHARD, was born in London in 1784,
and entered the schools of the Royal Academy
in 1800. He was a constant contributor to the

T 2



exhibitions from 1808 to 1822, during which time
he painted several landscapes not destitute of poetic
beauty, scenes from ' The Lady of the Lake,' dis-
playing taste and talent, and in 1817 (having been
elected an Associate in the preceding year) a more
ambitious work, entitled ' Ceres, disconsolate for
the loss of Proserpine, rejects the solicitations of
Iris, sent to her by Jupiter.' In 1822 he attained
the rank of Royal Academician, and almost from
that time forward, and certainly for many years
preceding his death, he seems to have relinquished
his profession, and ceased to contribute to the
annual exhibitions of the Academy, his private
fortune enabling him to live independently of
his art. He died in London in 1857. He illus-
trated editions of 'The Lady of the Lake' and
' Gertrude of Wyoming.'

COOK, ROBERT, an artist who lived at the end
of the 15th and the beginning of the 16th century,
is said to have painted the portraits of Henry VII.,
Henry VIII., Queen Katharine, the Duke of Suffolk,
and the family of Sir Robert Wingfield.

COOK, SAMUEL, a water-colour painter, was born
in 1806 at Camelford in Cornwall. At the early
age of nine he was apprenticed to a firm of woollen
manufacturers in that place, but during the inter-
vals of his duties he would amuse himself with
making drawings in chalk on the floor of the fac-
tory, to the annoyance of his employers, one of
whom declared that "he would never be fit for
anything but a limner ; " and a limner he ulti-
mately became. On the expiration of his appren-
ticeship he went to Plymouth, where he set up as a
painter and glazier. Every hour he could snatch
from business, however, was devoted to sketching
from nature, and though these early products of
his pencil displayed timidity in respect of colour,
they nevertheless exhibited great truth ; and with
increasing knowledge and experience came in-
creased confidence and power. In 1830 he sent
some drawings to the New Society (now the Insti-
tute) of Painters in Water-Colours, which obtained
him admission into that body ; to whose annual
exhibition he became a regular contributor, chiefly
of coast scenes, though sometimes of inland views,
till the day of his death, which occurred in 1859.
A view of ' Stonehouse, Plymouth," by him is in
the South Kensington Museum.

COOK, THOMAS, who was born about the year
1744, was a pupil of Ravenet. He engraved many
portraits, as well as some of the plates for Bell's
' Shakespeare ' and ' British Poets.' He was also
employed by Alderman Boydell, and engraved some
of the works of Hogarth. He died in 1818, aged 74.

COOKE, EDWARD WILLIAM, the son of George
Cooke, the engraver, was born in London in 1811,
and was brought up with a view of following his
father's profession. He early published a set of
sixty-five etched plates of ' Shipping and Craft,
views on the Thames. But in 1832 he determined
to adopt oil-painting in place of engraving ; and,
three years later, his first works, ' Honfleur Fish-
ing Boats ' and a ' Hay-Barge, off Greenwich,'
appeared at the Royal Academy. Since then, with
three exceptions, 1839, 1846, and 1874, there was
not a single exhibition up to that of 1879, which
did not contain one or more of his works. To
forty-one exhibitions he contributed one hundred
and thirty works, all well thought out and carefully
executed. In 1851 he was elected an Associate of
the Royal Academy, and in 1864 he was made an
Academician. He also contributed many works

323



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



to the British Institution, and frequently painr.ec
in water-colour : the South Kensington Museum
has a collection of hie works in this medium. He
was a fellow of the Royal, the Geographical, the
Geological, and the Linnaean Societies. He died al
Groombridge, near Tunbridge Wells, in 1880.

His paintings generally represent views on the
Thames, the Medway, and the English coast ; bul
they also include scenes from Holland and France,
and even so far afield as Morocco and the lagoons
of Venice. We need mention but few :



! At South
[Kensington*



1860.
to anchor off Yarmouth.



Dutch Boats in a calm. 1844. In the National Gallery
The Boat-House. In the National Gallery.
Lobster Pots. 1836. ^

Brighton Sands. 1838.
Wending the Bait Nets, Shanklin. 1836.
Portsmouth Harbour The Hulks.
Portsmouth Harbour The Victory.
Dutch Boats on the Y. 1837.
Dutch Boats on the Dollart Zee.
A Calm Day in the Scheldt.
A Bit of English Coast.
Catalan Bay, Gibraltar. 1863.
The Goodwin Light-Ship.
A Dutch Galliot aground.
H. M. S. Terror abandoned.
Schevening Pinks running
1864.

COOKE, GEORGE, a line-engraver, who was born



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