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in London in 1781, was apprenticed to James Basire,
and early in life attained celebrity. He died at
Barnes in 1834. He was brother to William Ber-
nard Cooke, and father of Edward W. Cooke, R.A.
The following are his principal works :
Illustrations to the ' Beauties of England and Wales.'
Pinkerton's ' Collection of Voyages and


' The Thames.' 1811.
' The Southern Coast of England.' 1814-


Surtees's ' History of Durham."
Clutterbuck's ' Hertfordshire.'
Hakewell's ' Italy.'
D'Oyly and Mant's ' Bible.'
'The Botanical Cabinet.' 1817-1833.
London and its Vicinity.' 1826-1828.
Gledhouse, Yorkshire ; after Turner.
Rotterdam ; after Sir A. W. Callcott. 1825.
Old London Bridge ; after E. W. Cooke.
New London Bridge ; after the same.

COOKE, HENRY, a portrait painter and copj'ist,
flourished in 1640, as appears by several portraits
painted by him in that year for the Company of
Ironmongers, and now in their Hall. They are
probably copies of older pictures, as with the
exception of Sir James Campbell, who sat to the
artist, all the persons represented were dead long
before the time when these were executed.

COOKE, HENRY, son of Henry Cooke, who was
employed by the Ironmongers' Company, was born
in 1642. He went to Italy and studied under Sal-
vator Rosa. He painted the choir of New College
Chapel, Oxford, the staircase at Ranelagh House,
and Lord Carlisle's House in Soho Square. He died
in 1700. It is said that he committed a murder and
fled from England ; and that after his return, he
was employed by King William to "repair" the
Cartoons of Raphael. He finished the portrait of
Charles II. at Chelsea Hospital ; and also tried
portrait painting, but gave it up.

COOKE, WILLIAM BERNARD, a line-engraver,
and a pupil of Angus, was born in 1778. He
was the elder brother of George Cooke. He suc-
ceeded best in marine subjects, but never attained
any great eminence. He published conjointly
with his brother ' The Thames ' and ' The Southern


Coast of England.' His death occurred in

COOKE, WILLIAM JOHN, was born in Dublin in
1797, but his parents left Ireland when he was a
year old. He was a pupil of his uncle, George
Cooke, and in 1826 received from the Society of
Arts a gold medal for improvements in engraving
upon steel. About 1840 he left England and went
to reside at Darmstadt, where he died in 1865.
His best plates are those after Turner of ' Notting-
ham ' and ' Plymouth ' in the ' Views in England
and Wales,' and ' Newark Castle ' in Scott's Poetical

COOL, JAN DAEMEN, of Rotterdam, is a painter
of whom but little is known. In 1614, he was ad-
mitted into the Guild of St. Luke at Delft ; but by
1618 he had returned to Rotterdam, and in 1623 he
married Lysbeth, the widow of the painter Lowys
Percelles. In 1652 the governors of the "Old
Men's Home" at Rotterdam agreed to receive him
into the institution on condition of his paying a
sum of 1225 florins and painting a picture repre-
senting them assembled together. Cool died there
in 1660, and was buried in the church of the insti-
tution. The work, which he executed in accord-
ance with the agreement, is the only one known to
be by him ; and it is only lately that it has been
given to its true author. Lamme ascribed it to Aart
Mytens ; Burger gave it to Jacob Backer ; and it is
attributed to Daniel Mytens, the elder, by the
catalogue, of 1867, of the Rotterdam Museum,
where it has been since its removal from the Old
Men's Home in 1849. It is dated 1653, and repre-
sents ' Five Governors, clothed in black, ranged
round a table.' (See Obreen's ' Archief voor
Nederlandsche Kunstgeschiedenis,' vol. I.)

COOL, PIETER, a Flemish engraver, flourished
about the year 1690. His name is affixed to a
middling-sized upright plate, representing Christ
bearing the Cross, with St. Veronica and other
figures, after Martin De Vos. It is executed entirely
with the graver, in a coarse, stiff style.

COOL, THOMAS SIMON, a Dutch historical and
genre painter, was born at the Hague in 1831. He
studied at the Hague Academy under J. E. J. van
den Berg, and first distinguished himself by his
'Atala,' exhibited in 1853. He resided in Paris
from 1857 to 1860, and in Antwerp from 1861 to
1865. He died at Dordrecht in 1870.

COOPER, ABRAHAM, was born in London in
1787. His father was a tobacconist, who afterwards
kept an inn at Holloway, but being unfortunate in
business, his son was early left to his own resources.
For some time he was employed in the mimic
battles and pageants at Astley's theatre, then under
the management of his uncle Davis. He employed
much of his leisure time in making sketches of
dogs and horses, and in 1809, without any instruc-
tion, succeeded in painting a favourite horse be-
longing to Sir Henry Meux so successfully that
that gentleman purchased it, and was ever after-
wards a liberal patron of the artist. He soon met
with further encouragement as a painter of horses,
: rom the Dukes of Grafton, Bedford, and Marl-
sorough, and others of the sporting nobility and
entry, and many of his works were engraved in
;he ' Sporting Magazine.' In 1816 he was awarded
a premium of 150 guineas by the British Institution
(where he first exhibited in 1812) for a picture of
he 'Battle of Waterloo.' In 1817 he was elected
in Associate of the Royal Academy; in 1819 he
exhibited a fine picture of ' Marston Moor' ; and in


1820 became an Academician. From that time he
was a constant exhibitor of pictures, generally of
small dimensions, representing groups of horses and
animals, field-sports, battle-scenes in the olden time,
&c. ; a grey horse being a very favourite feature in
them. Latterly his works began to betray too
manifestly an amount of mannerism and weakness
which could not but detract from the reputation
acquired by him in his earlier days. In 1862,
following the example of Sir Robert Smirke, the
architect, he resigned the rank of Royal Academi-
cian. He died at Greenwich on Christmas Eve in
1868. As might have been expected, there was but
little variation in the types of his subjects and the
character of their treatment. The following are
some of his best works :

A Donkey and a Spaniel. 1818. > At South

A Grey Horse at a Stable Door. 1818. J Kensington.

The Pride of the Desert.

The Arab Sheik.

The Dead Trooper.

Hawking in the Olden Times.

Battle of Bosworth Field.

Battle of Naseby.

Richard I. and Saladin at the Battle of Ascalon.

Bothwell's seizure of Mary, Queen of Scots.

COOPER, ALEXANDER, who flourished about the
middle of the 17th century, was the elder brother
of Samuel Cooper, and was a scholar of his uncle
Hoskins. Although greatly inferior to his brother,
he painted portraits, both in oil and in miniature,
with some reputation. He also succeeded in paint-
ing landscapes in water-colours. Not meeting with
the encouragement he expected, he went to Flan-
ders, where he passed some time, and afterwards
visited Sweden, where he was made painter to
Queen Christina.

COOPER, EDWARD, a portrait painter, likewise
engraved after Albani and Kneller. A portrait
painted and engraved by him bears date 1779, but
the date of his death is not known.

COOPER, RICHARD, an engraver of portraits, is
known chiefly as the master of Sir Robert Strange,
who was apprenticed to him for six years. He
was born in Yorkshire about 1705, but went early
in life to Edinburgh, where he died in 1764.

COOPER, RICHARD, an English line-engraver, was
Dorn in London about 1730, and died therein 1820.
He studied the art of engraving in Paris under Le
Bas. His plates are chiefly portraits, of which the
following are the principal:

The Children of Charles I., with a Dog: after Van

Dyck. 1762.

Henrietta Maria, Queen of Charles I.
William III. and Queen Mary.
Frederick, Prince of Wales, and his sisters.
Francis Bacon, Viscount St. Alban's.
William Shakespeare ; from the Chandos picture in the

National Portrait Gallery.
Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford.
George, Lord Jeffreys, Chief Justice of the King's

Bench and Lord High Chancellor.
Sir John Napier, inventor of Logarithms.
Allan Ramsay, Scotch poet.
Andrew Allen, painter.
The ' Chapeau de Faille ; ' after Rubens.
Rembrandt's Mistress. 1777.
The Virgin and Infant ; after Correyyio. 1763.
The Maries and the Dead Christ ; after A. Carracci.

COOPER, RICHARD, said to have been a native
of London, the son of the engraver of the same
name, was a landscape painter of some merit. At
the end of the 18th century he went to Italy, where
he studied the works of the old masters. On his

return he lived for some time in Edinburgh, but
subsequently settled in London. In 1800, and the
following year, he exhibited at the Academy ' The
Ruins of Vespasian's Amphitheatre, in Rome,'
' Landscape with Banditti,' and other views. He
was at this time drawing-master at Eton College,
and tutor to the Princess Charlotte. He died about
1810. Two water-colour drawings by him are in
the South Kensington Museum.

COOPER, ROBERT, of whom little is known,
engraved several of the heads in Lodge's Portraits
and some of the portrait illustrations to Scott's
Novels. He exhibited in 1821, and was living
in 1836.

COOPER, SAMUEL, the eminent miniature painter,
was born in London in 1609, and, with his brother
Alexander Cooper, was instructed in the art by his
uncle Hoskins, whom he soon surpassed. He was
the first artist of his country who gave a strength
and freedom to miniature, which approached to
the vigour of oil-painting. The purity of his tints,
the beauty of his carnations, and his loose and
flowing manner of painting the hair, render the
heads of his portrait models worthy of imitation ;
but to the head his merit is almost entirely confined.
When he ventured to express more of the figure,
his drawing is defective, and his execution unde-
termined. According to Lord Orford, Cooper
visited the court of France, where he painted
several pictures, for which his widow received a
pension during her life. The works of Cooper
were deservedly admired in his lifetime, and they
are still placed with distinction in the cabinets of col-
lectors. He died in London in 1672, and was buried
in Old St. Pancras Church. Cooper painted some
of the most illustrious men of his time ; particu-
larly Oliver Cromwell and John Milton, portraits of
whom are now in the possession of the Duke of
Buccleuch. He also painted Charles II., his Queen,
and many of the celebrities of their court. It was
for the court of England that Cooper painted the
pictures for which his widow was promised a pen-
sion, which was never paid. This widow was sister
to the mother of Alexander Pope.

COOPER, THOMAS SIDNEY, R.A., was born at
Canterbury on September 26, 1803. When a
mere child he displayed a marked interest in art,
but his father's means being insufficient to provide
him with the necessary training, he became
assistant, at the age of twelve, to a coach-painter,
an occupation which he later combined with scene-
ainting, pursuing both for some eight years, while
e devoted all his scanty leisure to drawing and
painting from nature. In 1823 he went to London,
where, after he had worked for a time at the British
Museum, he became a student at the Royal
Academy, returning later to Canterbury and
supporting himself there by giving lessons and by
the sale of his works. In 1827 he removed to
Brussels, where he married, and remained till 1831,
when he came to settle in London. His first
appearance as an exhibitor at the Royal Academy
was in 1833, and he continued to contribute
annually, being represented for the last time by
four canvases in 1902 after his death, which
occurred at Canterbury on February 7th of that
year. He was elected an Associate of the Academy
in 1845, and an Academician twenty-two years
later. He made his chief successes in cattle-
pieces, and so popular were these that he paid the
penalty of becoming an especial prey of the
picture-forgers, and had in later years to repudiate



a large number of examples of their handiwork
submitted to his judgment. Inhisdays ofprosperity
he settled near his native town, to which he became
a constant benefactor, presenting it in 1882 with
the 'Sidney Cooper Art Gallery,' erected on the
site of the house in which he was born. 'A
Summer's Noon ' (1836), ' A Group in the Meadows'
(1845), 'The Shepherd's Sabbath' (1866), 'The
Monarch of the Meadows' (1873), and 'Separated,
but not Divorced' (1874), are a few of his most
important pictures. M B.

COOPSE, PIETER, (or COOPS,) a Dutch painter of
marine subjects and landscapes, in the manner of
Bakhuisen and Van de Velde, flourished about the
year 1672. His pictures are generally of a small
size, well composed, full of subject, and vigorously
painted. There is a picture by him in the Gallery
at Munich, which is attributed to Bakhuisen in the
catalogue, though the name may be discovered on
it : in England the dealers are more cautious ; they
remove it. Ploos van Amstel and others have
given facsimiles of some of his drawings ; but it
is only recently that his own countrymen have
discovered his merit as a painter in oil.
COORTE, A. S., who flourished in Holland about
1700, excelled as a painter of fruit and flowers.
His works are rarely to be met with.

COOSEMANS, ALART, a painter of flowers, fruit,
and inanimate subjects, flourished in the Nether-
lands about 1630. Fruit subjects by him are in
the Augsburg Gallery and the Belvedere at Vienna.
In the Madrid Gallery there is a fruit-piece attri-
buted to a J. D. COOSEMAN, who is said to have
flourished in the Netherlands in the 17th century:
and in the Bordeaux Museum, a fruit-piece ascribed
to a N. COOSMAN.

COPE, CHARLES WEST, R.A., the son of a
painter in water-colours, was born at Leeds in
1811, and educated at the Grammar School of that
town. He went to London in 1826, and after
attending an art school in Bloomsbury under the
superintendence of Mr. Sass, became a student at
the Royal Academy in 1828. Leaving this in 1831
he went to Paris for six months, most of which
was spent in copying pictures in the Louvre. Two
years later, in 1833, his first exhibited picture,
' The Golden Age,' was accepted at the Academy.
Soon afterwards he went to Italy, and, dividing
his time between Rome, Naples, Florence, and
Venice, remained there two years, studying the
works of the old masters, and producing pictures
of his own, one of which, ' Mother and Child,' was
exhibited at the British Institution in 1836, while
others appeared at the Academy the same year.
Taking part in the competition for the decoration
of the Houses of Parliament, he won, in 1843, a
prize of 300 for a cartoon of ' Trial by Jury,' and
in the next year obtained a commission to paint a
fresco of Eclward III. investing the Black Prince
with the Order of the Garter,' which was followed
by a second of ' Prince Henry acknowledging the
authority of Judge Gascoigne ' and ' Griselda's first
trial of Patience.' He was elected an Associate of
the Royal Academy in 1843, and an Academician
in 1848. In 1883 he retired, and died at Bourne-
mouth on August 21, 1890. His work was
essentially academical, and he confined himself to
those sacred, historical, literary or domestic
subjects which were the fashion of his early days.
Of the first are ' Hagar and IshmaeP (1836), and

' The disciples at Emmaus ' (1868) ; of the second,
' Cardinal Wolsey arriving at Leicester Abbey '
(1848), and ' The Pilgrim Fathers ' (1857) ; of the
third, ' King Lear ' (1850), and ' Othello ' (1868) ; of
the fourth and most popular, 'Beneficence' (1840),
and 'Baby's turn' (1854). The former, with
several other of his pictures, is in the Victoria and
Albert Museum. M. B.

COPIA, JACQUES Louis, a French engraver, waa
born at Landau in 1764 He went to Paris, and
among other plates executed a charming little por-
trait of Queen Marie Antoinette, after Piauger,
which is very rare. He also engraved a head of
Marat, terribly startling in its ghastliness, from a
drawing made by David immediately after his
assassination. But Copia is chiefly identified with
Prud'hon, the voluptuous genius of whose works no
one has more fully comprehended. It must, how-
ever, be admitted that, apart from the great painter,
Copia would have remained hidden in the crowd.
His style was neither original nor brilliant, and his
rare qualities of modelling and softness of execu-
tion required works suitable for their display. He
died in Paris in 1799, unfortunately too early to be
able to engrave the greatest works of his friend.
But among other pupils he left one, Roger, who
caught his manner, and is thought by many to
have surpassed his master in the interpretation of
the spirit of Prud'hon.

The following are the works of Prud'hon which
have been engraved by Copia:

The French Constitution.

Equality, and Law ; two small bas-reliefs from the pre-
ceding composition.


The Revenge of Ceres.

Love brought to reason.

Love laughing at the tears which he has caused to
flow ; a companion to the preceding.

En Jouir ; an illustration to Gentil-Bernard's 'Art
d'Aimer,' Didot's edition, 1797.

The First Kiss of Love ; and four other illustrations to
Rousseau's 'Nouvelle Heloise,' Bossange's edition,

R. E. 0.

COPLEY, JOHN SINGLETON, was born of English
and Irish parentage at Boston in Massachusetts, in
1737. He was most probably taught the rudiments
of his art by his step-father, Peter Pelham, a por-
trait painter and mezzotint engraver, whom Mrs.
Copley had married after her first husband's death.
In 1753, when he was only sixteen years of age, he
painted and also engraved a portrait of the Rev.
William Welsteed of Boston. His success soon
became assured, and he received commissions to
execute portraits of many distinguished persons of
the day. About 1774 he painted the ' Boy with a
Squirrel ' (a portrait of his half-brother, Henry
Pelham), which he sent to England, and which was
exhibited anonymously at the Royal Academy. In
consequence of the favour with which it was re-
ceived Copley was advised to come to England,
and he quitted America in the early part of 1774,
never to return. From England he crossed to the
continent and studied assiduously particularly at
Parma and at Rome and soon after his return to
London was elected an Associate of the Royal,
Academy in 1776, and an Academician in 1779.
Whilst still in Boston (in 1767) he had been elected
a Fellow of the Society of Artists in Great Britain.
He painted several very interesting pictures relating
to events in English History, but those which he
exhibited at the Royal Academy were chiefly por-













traits. He was a great painter among the English
artists of his day, and is not to be judged by the
present standard ; being, in a manner, self-taught,
he achieved much more than many who had
received academical instruction. He lived, from
the time he settled in England, at a house in
George Street, Hanover Square, where he died in
1815, and where his son, Lord Lyndhurst, also lived
and died in 1864. Copley was buried in Croydon
church. The following are some of his principal
works : but many important portraits and sketches,
including his last portrait of himself, were destroyed
by the great fire at Boston in 1872.

The Death of Lord Chatham (painted in 1779-80 ; in
the National Gallery, where are also monochrome studies
for the picture).
The Death of Major Peirson (in the National Gallery).


The Siege and Relief of Gibraltar (at Guildhall: a

study for this picture is in the National Gallery; and

various sketches for it are in the South Kensington


The Princesses Mary, Sophia, and Amelia, daughters of

George III. (at Buckingham Palace).
Samuel and Eli. (Destroyed by fire at Mr. Graves's in

Pall Mall, in 1867.)
Charles I. ordering the arrest of Five Members of the

House of Commons.
The Five Impeached Members brought back in triumph

to Westminster.
The Speaker thanking the Sheriffs for protecting the

impeached members.

The Dukes of Suffolk and Northumberland offering to

Lady Jane Grey the Crown of England (exhibited at

the Royal Academy in 1808 ; now in the possession of

Mr. Amory of Boston).

Resurrection of our Lord (exhibited at the Royal Academy

in 1812 : his last exhibited work).
The Battle of the Boyne.

The Assassination of the Duke of Buckingham.
Charles I. signing the death-warrant of the Earl of


The King's Escape from Hampton Court.
The House of Commons visiting the Army at Hounslow.
A Conversation. 1776.
The Copley Family (in the possession of Mr. Amory of


A Boy attacked by a Shark. 1778.
Portrait of Lord Heathfield (at Guildhall: a study i's in

the National Portrait Gallery).

Portrait of the Earl of Mansfield (in the National
Portrait Gallery). 1783.

A ' Sketch of the Life and a List of some of the
Works of John Singleton Copley,' by A. T. Perkins,
was privately printed at Boston in 1873.


COPPA, STEFANO, was a native of Italy, and
flourished at Rome about the year 1776. In con-
junction with Giuseppe Perini, he executed the
plates from the antique statues in the Clementine
Gallery. He also engraved a print of the Ascen-
sion, after Giovanni Lanfranco.

COPPENS, ADGOSTINUS, a Flemish landscape
painter and engraver, was a native of Brussels,
where he was received into the Guild of St. Luke
in 1698. He engraved some plates representing
views of ruins, and architecture, which are executed
in a neat, finished style.

COPPI, GIACOMO, called DEL MEQLIO, a Florentine
historical painter, was born at Peretola in 1523.
He studied under Vasari, and worked with him at
Florence, where he died in 1591. His own portrait
by himself is in the Uffizi.



graver, was born in Paris in 1761, but the date

of his death is not recorded. He studied under
Janinet, and produced a large number of beautiful
works. Besides whole-length portraits of Mar-
shals Massena and Jourdan, and General Pichegru,
after Hilaire Le Dru, as well as several plates for
Desnoyer's ' Recueil d'Estampes,' may be men-
tioned :

Junius Brutus condemning his Sons ; after Lethiert.

The Death of Virginia ; after the same.

The Ninth Thermidor ; a frieze ; after the same.

An Interior ; after Carle t'emet.

A Hunting Scene ; after the same.

A Portrait ; after Boucher.


COQUIN, Louis, called CossiN, was a French
painter and line-engraver, who was born at Troyes
in 1627, and died in Paris after 1686. We have
by him some portraits, and a few subjects after
various masters, executed with the graver in a
style that has not much to recommend it. This
artist has signed his plates Coquin, Cauquin,
Cossinus, and Cossin. He assisted Collet in
producing the ' Book of Goldsmiths' Designs '
published in 1663, his plates being marked L. C.
The following engravings are by him :


Louis XV., King of France ; life-size.
Valentin Conrart, of the French Academy ; after C.

Le Fevre.

Francois Chauveau, engraver ; after Le Feliure.
Carl Johanu, Count von Konigsmark ; after Dahl.


The Virgin Mary : after Lebrun.

St. John the Evangelist suspended over a Cauldron of
boiling Oil ; after the same.

The Stoning of St. Paul at Lystra ; after J. B. de

The School of Athens ; after Raphael.

CORBAUX, FANNY, water-colour painter, was
born in 1812. In 1827, after being self -taught, she
gained the silver medal of the Society of Arts, and
in 1830 the gold medal. She was the same year
elected an honorary member of the Society of
British Artists, and in 1839 a member of the
Institute of Painters in Water-Colours. She was
further known as a student of and writer on
Oriental subjects and biblical exegesis, and was
granted a Civil List pension. She died at Brighton,
February 1, 1883.

CORBET, MATTHEW RIDLEY, was born at South
Willingham, Lincolnshire, in 1850. After studying
at the Slade School he joined the schools of the
Royal Academy and started painting portraits.
Having spent three years in Rome under the
tuition of Signor Giovanni Costa, he devoted hia
attention entirely to the painting of landscape,
particularly of Italian scenery. He exhibited first

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