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kind. But to his other style of "the Father of
Landscape" he can make good a strong claim.
His ' St. George ' at Munich astounds the eye
which has noted its age (nearly four hundred
years) by its overwhelming landscape interest.
Five-sixths of the superficial inches of the canvas
are covered by the innumerable leaves and twigs
of trees crowding up to the edges of the picture on
every side, and allowing only a peep through the
trunks at the sky low over a rocky horizon. Nearly
half of the great ' Battle of Arbela ' is a confusion
of clouds and morning light, which Turner might
have painted; and the 'Nativity' at Bremen is
hardly less wonderful. The etchings of mountains
and of fir-trees are as picturesque as these paintings,
and only a leisured and curious townsman could
have seen and rendered their content of natural

In expressing the human figure, and especially
the forms of children, Alldorfer was often highly
successful, though here also impatience with


uncouth and sluggish German types has led
admirers of the more gracious southern models
to reject his achievements as unbeautiful in con-
ception, and unskilful in execution. From this
sluggisbness of his types arises also the frequent
denial, which is equally ill-grounded, of Altdorfer's
dramatic power. In the woodcuts the German
and burgher feeling is naturally stronger than in
the paintings and drawings, and a want of sym-
pathy with that feeling no doubt accounts for
the comparative indifference to his fine sequence
of forty small cuts devoted to ' The Fall and
Redemption of Man.'

Altdorfer died on the 12th or 14th of February in
1538. His wife had predeceased him in 1532, and
both their bodies were laid in the church of the
Augustines, the painter having been bursar of the
Augustine priory during the last four years of
his life. Part of his tombstone was preserved when
the Augustines' church was secularized and dis-
mantled in 1840. He, who had painted hundreds
of their happy faces more engagingly than any
other painter, left no children ; but his was not the
childless man's hard heart, and it is worth noting
that he bequeathed to the poor a silver tankard
which had been his wedding gift to his bride.

Altogether about thirty pictures by Altdorfer
are extant. Among them may be named :

Augsburg. Gallery. Triptych Crucifixion and Annun-
ciation. 1517.

Birth of the Virgin.

Berlin. Museum. Diptych St. Francis and St.
Dominic (signed and dated 1507).
Landscape with Figures (signed and

dated 1507).
Best on the Flight into Egypt

(signed and dated 1510).
The Nativity.

., Landscape with Figures, 'Dtr

BetteU sitzt auf der Schleppe
der Hoffart* (signed and dated
St. Hubert.

The Battle of Arbela (dated 1529).
Susannah at the Bath (signed and

dated 1526).

Coronation of the Virgin.
St. George and the Dragon (signed

and dated 1510).
Landscape with figures.
Nuremberg. St Mau- A man and two women rescuing ttie
rice, body of St. Quirinus from the

water. (Three pictures.)
German Mus. Crucifixion (dated 1506).
Ratisbon. Bathsheba.

Siena. St. Quirinus. (Two pictures.)

Vienna. Nativity.

Virgin and Child, St. Joseph and

St. John.

The entire catalogue of his engraved designs,
including Passavant's additions to Bartsch, is given

His monogram occurs in the -
accompanying forms : ^5p


(From Meyer's l A'unstlfr-Lexikon.')


Religious Subjects.

1. Judith with the head of Holoferncs.

2. Samson with the gates of Gaza.

3. Delilah cutting off Samson's hair.

Brem ;n.
Munich. Pinakothek,

4. Solomon's idolatry.

5. The Repose of Joseph and Mary.

6. Virgin, seated, holding the Infant Saviour.

7. Virgin, seated on a throne, holding the Infant
Saviour, with Angel.

8. Virginia profile, standing; with the Infant Saviour.
Anna introduced.

9. Virgin and Child, seated. The Infant stretches his
arms towards two children, one of whom offers a
vessel (signed and dated 1507).

10. The Virgin standing, offering an apple to the Infant
(sign'.d and dated 1509).

11. The Virgin sitting, the Infant on her knees, giving
the blessing.

12. The Virgin holding the Infant, standing on a

13. The Virgin with the Infant seated on clouds, a
Saint to the right.

14. The Infant Saviour ; the right band blessing, the
left holds a world.

15. Our Lord driving the merchants from the temple

16. Our Lord crowned with thorns, meeting Mary.

17. The Little Crucifixion.

18. The Great Crucifixion.

19. St. Christopher.

20. St. George and the Dragon.

21. St. Jerome reading.

22. St. Jerome writing.

23. St. Sebastian fastened to a tree.

24. St. Sebastian fastened to a pillar.

25. St. Catherine, sword and wheel.

26. The Nunnery.

27. Two Hermits.

28. Mercury, springing from a tree into the sea.

29. Neptune, on a sea-monster.

30. Rape of a Nymph.

31. Venus, standing. Two Cupids ; one holds a tablet.

32. Venus seated in a bath ; Cupid on a pedestal, after

33. Venus emerging from the bath ; Cupid on the left,
after Marcantonio.

34." Venus on a lawn, with two Cupids.

35. Judgment of Paris.

36. Tritou, Nereid, and Dolphins.

37. Man and Satyr struggling for a Nymph, after

38. Thisbe and Pyramus.

39. Infant Hercules and the Snakes.

40. Hercules subduing the Nemean Lion.

41. Hercules with the two pillars.

42. Hercules with a cornucopia ; a Nymph with a lyre
on the left.

43. Centaur, bearing a vessel with fire.

44. Winged Genius, holding a bubble.

45. Winged Genius, riding on a stick.

46. Winged Genius, blowing a bagpipe (dated 1521).

47. Fortune, standing on a globe (signed and dated 1511).

48. Pride, regarding herself in a mirror.

49. Pride, seated on a winged serpent, holding a mirror
(signed and dated 1506).

50. Nude female figure on a star ; the right hand hold-
ing a torch, the left a sceptre (on some examples the
legend LASCIVIA occurs).

51. Dido on the funeral pile.

52. Lucretia seated, holding the dagger (copied vrith
variations from Marcantonio, doubtful).

53. Mutius Scsvola.

54. The Roman lady, on a pedestal, from the mtdiaval
story of Vi r gil : male .figures fetching fire from her.

55. Soldiers Standing, one drawing his sword. Prof/*,
looking to the left.

56. The' Warrior, a pole on his shoulder. Profile, looking
to the right.

57. The Warrior. Front men, holds stcord and h alter I .

58. The Knight. One hand holds a i-essel, the other a

59. The Drummer. Marching to the right (signed anJ
dated 1510).

60. The Little Standard-bearer. Hilly landscape in oac!.-

61. The Great Standard-bearer. Background clear
(signed and dated 1508 or 1510).

62. the Fiddler. Left hand holds the Imic.



63. The Contemplative Man, sitting on a stone. Has
been supposed to be the Artist's portrait.

64. The Standard-bearer on the right, the Woman on
the left.

65. A Man on the right, grasping a curtain, a woman
on the left.

65. (n) The Piper. A warrior, with a hat and feather,
is Mowing on ajlute (signed and dated 1510).

65. (b) Winged child, leaning forward, holding a shield.

66. A Woman, with hat and feather, half-length.

67. A Woman bathing her feet.

68. A Woman seated on some armour, and holding a
vessel ; after Beham.

69. A nude female figure, with a candlestick.

70. Interior of the old Synagogue at Katisbon, with an

71. Vestibule of the above, with two figures, and an

72. Martin Luther. Profile, to the right, bearing in-
scription I). L. M. Probably after Cranach or Ilopfer.

73. Head of a young man, with long hair, and no bear.l
(signed and dated 1507).

Beyond these, Meyer mentions 28 various plates
of Ornaments, Cups, and Vases, and ten Landscapes.


Kos. 1 to 40. A series of cuts representing the Fall and
the .Redemption, all marked with monogram.

41. Abraham's Sacrifice.

42. Joshua and Caleb with the fruit.

43. Jael and Sisera.

44. The Annunciation (dated 1513).

45. The Adoration of the Shepherds (signed).

46. The Murder of the Innocents (signed and dated

47. A magnificent Font in a chapel, with angels and
other figures (sit/ned).

48. The Resurrection (signed and dated 1513).

49. The Virgin, in a church, with the Infant on her arm.

50. The Virgin, seated as on an altar, with the Infant
on her arm, a Deacon praying before them.

51. The Virgin and Child, by an altar, on the left of
which are figures of St. Christopher and St. Barbara,
on the right those of St. George and St. Catherine.

52. Our Lady of Eatisbon: a balustrade in front with a
rase ofjloirers, with the legend

"Gant: schon bistu meinfrundtin rnd
ein mackel ist nit in dir. Aue Maria"

53. The Decollation of St. John Baptist (signed and
dated 1512).

54. A Decollation of St. John Baptist (signed and dated

55. St. Christopher stooping to take up the Infant

56. St. Christopher carrying the Infant Jesus across the
stream (signed and dated 1513).

57. St. George on horseback thrusting his lance into
the Dragon's throat (signed and dated 1511).

58. St. George standing, the Dragon under his feet

59. St. Jerome in a cave, before a crucifix.

60. St. Jerome. A crucifix rests against a rock on the

61. St. Catherine with a wheel. Two Angels with
musical instruments ; others hold a crown above her
head. (Passavant notes this cut, but no copy of it is
now known to exist.)

62. Judgment of Paris (stoned and dated 1511).

63. Thisbe and Pyramus (signed and dated 1513).

64. A Standard-bearer in a landscape.

65. Two lovers seated in a landscape ; a horse tied to
a branch of a tree on the right (signed and dated

66. A title-page. Angels playing music ; a Holy Family
represented below on the left.

67. Three plates representing peasants (attributed to
Altdorfer by JFesselty, who praises them highly}.

68. A richly ornamental gate ; the ornaments filled in
with black.

To this list should be added ten of the eleven
subjects which adorn the round towers of " The

Triumphal Arch of Maximilian " (dated 1515), and
thirty-eight subjects in " The Triumphal Pro-
cession of Maximilian." E. J. 0.

ALTDORFER, ERHABD, a painter and engraver
on wood, was, in all probability, brother of the
well-known artist Albrecht Altdorfer, in whose will,
dated 12th Feb. 1538, he is mentioned as a citi-
zen of Schwerin. He was court-painter to Duke
Henry the Peaceable, and accompanied him, in
1512, to a royal marriage at Wittenberg. There
he appears to have made the acquaintance of Lucas
Cranach, as the influence of this master is seen in
iiis productions. He painted at Sternberg in 1516
an altar-piece (now no longer in existence), for
which Duke Henry engaged to pay him 150
Khenish florins. In 1552 he describes himself
in a letter to the young Duke John Albert of
Mecklenburg as ' Baumeister,' so that he appears
to have followed the profession of an architect as

ll as his brother. We know him only by his
woodcuts, two of which are indicated by a mono-
gram composed of the letters E and S combined.
His work consisted principally of title-pages and
illustrations for various works, among which may
be noticed the Liibeck Bible of 1533, and an
edition of ' Reineke Fuchs,' containing 35 cuts,
published at Rostock in 1539.

ALTHAM, , a German painter, who flourished
about 1660, painted landscapes and marine subjects
with considerable ability. He is reported to have
studied with Salvator Rosa. Works by him are
in the Colonna Collection at Rome.

who was born at Zevio, a village near Verona,
painted, with Avanzi, the decoration of the
chapels of SS. Felice and Giorgio, at Padua.
While the principal part of the frescoes in the
chapel of San Giorgio is attributed to the latter
artist, for the former are claimed the first seven
pictures in the chapel of San Felice formerly San
Jacopo illustrating the life of St. James the
Greater; and from documents it appears that the
payment for the frescoes in San Felice was made
to Altichiero. But authorities differ much as to
the authors of the various works in both chapels.
Liibke says that Altichiero displayed in his works
a lively conception find a rich finished colouring,
and, indeed, with the exception of Orcagna's, his
paintings, together with those of Avanzi, were,
up to that period, the best productions since the
time of Giotto. It is not known when this artist
died. He painted as late as 1382.


ALTMANN, ANTON, who was born in Vienna in
1808, studied from nature, and under the instruction
of Mossmer at the Academy. After being instructor
in drawing to Count Apponyi in Hungary, he settled
in Vienna, and became famous as a landscape
painter. He died there in 1871. Among his most
important works are the following:

Cloister of the Convent 'Maria Schein," in Bchemia


Forest Scene. 1840.
Marshy Landscape. 1846.
Evening Landscape. 18-17.
Spring in a Forest. 1851.
The Mill. 1851.

Altmann executed landscapes in water-colour ;
and also etched from his own designs.

ALTMANN, KARL, who was born at Feucht-
wangen in 1800, studied from 1819 to 1822 in the


Academy at Dresden. He then went to Munich,
where he resided until his death in 1861. He
represented scenes from Bavarian peasant life,
with much humour and originality.

litan painter of the 17th century, was a scholar of
Carlo di Rosa, who had studied under Massimo
Stanzioni. Altobello used ultramarine excessively
in his pictures, contrary (o Stanzioni's practice.


ALTOMONTE, ANDREA, perhaps a son of Mar-
tino Altomonte, flourished at Vienna from about
1728 to 1763, at which date he was draughtsman
to the Hoftheater. He engraved Teniers's pic-
ture of 'Abraham and Isaac kneeling to sacrifice
the ram,' in Prenner's 'Vienna Gallery.'


ALTZENBACH, WILHELM, an engraver, who,
according to Heineken, flourished about the middle
of the 17th century. He worked at Strasburg,
Cologne, and Paris, and, in conjunction with his
eon, executed twenty plates of Bible subjects.

ALUNNO, Niccoi.6. " See LIBERATORS, NiccoL6


ALVAREZ, LORRN-ZO, studied at Valladolid and
Madrid under Bartolome Carducho ; he established
himself at Murcia, about 1638, and executed several
works of merit in the convents there.

ALVAREZ, Luis, was born at Oviedo in 1841,
and studied at the Higher School of Painting,
Madrid, and under Ruimundo Madrazo. In 1857
he went to Rome, and later on became a Director
of the Museum of the Prado, Madrid. He obtained
medals at Madrid in 1862, 1864 and 1890, and
at Munich, Berlin, and Paris in 1890. Two of his
works are in the Museum of Modern Art, Madrid,
and many in private collections in America. He
died in 1901.

AMALTEO, GIROLAMO, the brother of Pomponio,
was instructed by him, and gave proofs of a noble
genius, which is manifested in his works of design
in small pictures, which appeared like miniatures,
in several fables executed in fresco, and in altar-
pieces which he painted in the church of San Vito.
He is highly commended by Ridolfi and Renaldis.
He flourished in the 16th century, and died when
still young. Graziano, in his poem of 'Orlando,'
styles him "Giruluno Amalteo de vita santa."

"AMALTEO, POMPOXID, who was born at San
Vito, a town in Friuli, in the year 1505, was the
scholar and subsequently son-in-law of Porde-
none. He painted several historical works in
fresco in the churches and public places in the
vicinity of Friuli. At Belluno, there are some
pictures painted by this master, it is said in 1529,
representing subjects of Roman history. In 1532
he was employed at Udine, and in 1533 he painted
for the duomo of San Vito, a votive St. Rock
witli SS. Apollonia, Sebastian, and two other
Saints. In the choir of the church of Santa Maria
de Buttisti, at Sun Yit<>, are frescoes by him, dated
1535, representing scenes from the ' Life of the
Virgin,' &c., which are now much injured by time
and decay. In 1555 he painted the organ shutters
at Udine, with scenes from the 'Life of Christ;'
and in 1576 he executed 'The Entombment,' in
the Monte di Pieta at Udine. Many of the churches
and public buildings in and around Friuli and
Treviso possess frescoes and paintings by him.
The frescoes of ' Daniel and Susanna,' and the
' Judgments ' of Solomon and Trajan, in the town-
hall at Ceneda, supposed by Ridolfi to have been

painted by Pordenone, were really the work of
Amalteo, and finished by him in 1536. He died
at San Vito, in 1584.

AMAND, JACQUES FRANCOIS, who was born at
Gault, near Blois, in 1730, studied under Pierre,
and became a good historical painter. In 1756
he gained the Prix de Rome for his ' Samson and
Uelilah ; ' he afterwards exhibited at the Salon
numerous subjects from ancient history and
mythology. He also engraved several of his own
compositions. He died at Paris, in 1769.

AMATO, FRANCESCO, an Italian engraver of the
17th century. Of his paintings little is known ;
but he has left some slight etchings, which are
executed with spirit, in the style of Biscaino,
among which are the following:
St. Joseph seated, reading a book, with the Infant Jesus
near him an upright plate; inscribed Franciscua
sLmadts, ittr.
The Prodigal Son.

elder,' was born at Naples about the year 1475.
He was the disciple of Silvestro Bruno, or Buono,
an old Neapolitan painter then in repute, but did
not study long under him, as the latter died when
Amato was young ; he afterwards applied himself
to the study of the works of Pietro Perugino,
whose manner he followed. There are several of
his works in the churches at Naples. In San Do-
menico Maggiore, in the chapel of the family of
Carraffa, is a picture by this master of 'The Holy
Family.' He worked both in oil and in fresco,
and, being an artist of considerable eminence,
had a great number of scholars, amongst whom
were Giovanni B. Azzolini, Pietro Negroni, Simone
Papa the younger, Cesare Turco, and others.
Though professionally a painter, his favourite
study was theology ; and he was celebrated for
his expositions of many obscure passages of Scrip-
ture. He died in 1555.

AMATO, GIOVANNI ANTONIO D', 'the younger,'
nephew of the elder Amato, was born at Naples,
in 1535. He excelled chiefly in colouring, and
some of his pictures are as richly coloured as those
of Titian. His best work is the large altar-piece
of the Infant Christ in the church of the Banco de'
Poveri at Naples, in which city he died in 1598.


AMAYA, , an historical painter, scholar of
Vincenzo Curducho, and rival of Lorenzo Alvarez,
painted at Segovia, in 1682, several pictures illus-
trating the Life of St. Martin, remarkable for their
correct design and colour. He died about 1690
or 1692.,

AMBERES, FRANCISCO DE, a painter and sculp-
tor of Toledo, the cathedral of which he orna-
mented with his pictures in 1502. From 1508 to
1510 he painted, in conjunction with Juan de Bor-
gona and Juan de Villoldo, the arabesque chapel,
whicli instill an interesting object.

EL FLAHENGO is also the same person as MIGUEL
MANKIQDE. He was born in Flanders, and learned
his art there under Rubens, and afterwards, at
Genoa, from Giovanni Andrea de' Ferrari, and
Cornells Wael. He subsequently obtained a com-
mission as captain of a troop in the Spanish service,
and went to Spain and settled in Malaga, where
are several works by him in the churches and else-
where. His portraits are executed in a style
similar to that of Van Dijck. Miguel de Amberes



died in Spain in the latter half of the 17th cen-

AMBERGER, CHRISTOPH, was born about the
year 1490, or later. Nuremberg, Ulra, and Am-
berg are all given by various authors as his birth-
place ; and some writers say he studied under his
father, one Leonhard Amberger. Certain it is,
however, that Augsburg was the scene of his
labours. He was, Doppelmayer says, the disciple
of Hans Holbein the elder. He probably studied
under Hans Burgkmair, and the paintings of Hans
Holbein the younger had an evident effect on his
style, so much so that his works have been some-
times mistaken for those of Holbein. He painted
a set of twelve pictures representing the 'History
of Joseph and his Brethren,' which gained him
great reputation. He succeeded, however, better
in portraits than historical subjects. In 1532 he
painted the portrait of the Emperor Charles V. ;
and Sandrart tells us that this portrait was con-
sidered by that monarch equal to any of the
pictures painted of him by Titian. He certainly
honoured the artist by giving him a gold chain
and medal on the occasion. The original is in the
Institute of Fine Arts at Siena, and is there ascribed
to Holbein. The one at Berlin is a replica, by
Amberger. He died at Augsburg, in 1563. From
amongst Amberger's pictures, which are rarely
signed, the following may be selected as some of
the best :

Augsburg. Cathedral. Virgin and Child.

Berlin. Museum. Portrait of Charles V. (sianed).

Portrait of Sebastian Muuster (dated


Frankfort. StaJel. Portrait of a young man.
Vienna. GaUtry. Portrait oi Martin Weiss (painted in

,, ,, Six other portraits.


BRIZIO, from the master under whom he studied,
Francesco Brizio, was born at Bologna, about
the year 1600, and distinguished himself as a
painter of history, both in oil and in fresco. He
also excelled in representing landscapes, and per-
spective and architectural views, and was much
employed in the churches and palaces at Bologna.
In the Uffizi there are two landscapes containing
sacred subjects by him. In San Giacomo Mng-
giore, is a picture by Ambrogi of the 'Guardian
Angel,' and in the Annun/.iata, ' St. Francesco,'
with a glory of angels. In 1653 he published
some woodcuts, from his own designs, printed in
chiaroscuro, of which one, mentioned by Heineken,
represented a woman in a triumphal car, holding
two flambeaux and a serpent, and conducted by
Neptune. By him are also a drawing for the Thesis
of Julius Calaverius, and 'Painting and Sculpture.'
Amongst the pupils of Ambrogi were Giacinto
and Pier Antonio Cerva, Giovanni Antonio Fumi-
ani, and Giacinto Campana.


at Kuttenberg, in Bohemia, in 1723, received in-
struction in art at Prague from his brother Joseph,
who was a miniature painter. He was court-
painter to Maria Theresa, and the last president of
the Painters' Guild at Prague. He painted por-
traits and altar-pieces in oil ; but was also famous


for his frescoes, which adorn many of the churches
and castles of Prague, and other places in Bohemia.
He died in 1806.


le-Duc in 1760, and died there in 1820. He painted
allegories, history, and portraits ; in the last the
likenesses were remarkable for their truth.

(or AMERIGHI, or MORIGI), was born at Caravaggio,
a village in the Milanese, in 1569. He was the son
of a mason, and was employed when a boy to pre-
pare the plaster for the fresco painters at Milan.
The habit of seeing them work inspired him with the
ambition of becoming an artist ; and without the
instruction of any particular master, he attached
himself to a faithful imitation of nature, and
formed to himself a manner which, from its singu-
larity, and a striking effect of light and shadow,
became extremely popular. For a few years he
confined himself to painting fruit, flowers, and
portraits, which were much admired for the fidelity
of their resemblance. Such was his rigid ad-
herence to the precise imitation of his model, that
he copied nature even in her deformities, and he
afterwards continued the same slavish mechanism
in the higher department of historical painting.
After five years of steady application in Milan,
Caravaggio removed to Venice, where he greatly
improved his colouring by studying the works of
Giorgione ; and the pictures painted in his earlier
manner are infinitely preferable, in point of colour,
to his later works. From Venice he went to Rome,

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