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for the profession of art was evinced at a very
early age by his drawings in outline of single
figures, groups, battles, and hunting parties, which
were pronounced by those who had opportunities
of seeing his untutored essays to be by no means
devoid of an intuitive skill in their execution and
arrangement. Yet the character of his talent was
questioned, and it was against the advice of friends
that he was allowed to proceed in his studies at the
Academy, where he continued drawing industri-
ously after the antique. Whilst yet a boy he lost
his father, an event which immediately incited his
naturally energetic temperament to extraordinary
exertion, commensurate with the bereavement and
its threatened consequences. In a letter to Count
Raczynski, he states:

" I was in my sixteenth year when I lost my
father, and it fell to the lot of an elder brother and
myself to watch over the interest of a numerous
family. It was at this time that it was attempted
to persuade my mother that it would be better for
me to devote myself to the trade of a goldsmith
than continue to pursue painting in the first place,
in consequence of the time necessary to qualify me
for the art ; and in the next, because there were
already so many painters. My dear mother, how-
ever, rejected all this advice, and I felt myself
impelled onward by an uncommon enthusiasm,
to which the confidence of my mother gave new
strength, which was supported by the continual
fear that I should be removed from the study of
the art I loved so much."

In the works of this distinguished artist it is
observed that the study of nature and the technique
of his art occupy him less than the care of express-
ing his thoughts in a powerful and characteristic
manner ; and it would often seem that those of his
figures which are most forcible and elevated in
style are deficient of vitality, insomuch that we
might almost say that their life-blood had been
arrested in its circulation. Force and grandeur are
abundant elements in the character of his works,
but we do not, perhaps, perceive in an equal degree
truth and refined taste. In explanation of this it
should be observed that a new era had about this
time commenced in German literature. The prin-
ciples of Winckelmann, which presented as the soli-
tary rule the study of the antique, were no longer
admitted as those alone which could develop skilful
artists. It was perceived that an overweening love
of the antique had in a great measure contributed
to the unintelligible affectations of the French
school ; yet certain schools, and especially that of
Dusseldorf, pursued the ancient method ; and Cor-

331



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



nelius distinguished himself by his faithful adher-
ence to it for a length of time. And yet all who
would essay to reconcile his particular principles
with those of Winckelmann who would endeavour
to place him in opposition to Gothe, who would
pronounce him too exclusively under the influence
of the revival of mediaeval religious art, and op-
posed to the study of models and an imitation of
nature ; in short, all who would seek to discover
in Cornelius a constant system, are altogether
ignorant of the force of the original genius by
which he was continually swayed. He was, how-
ever, the fellow-labourer with Overbeck in the
artistic movement which too much repudiated the
charms of colour, and made fresco once more
adopted. The first important works of his youth
were the decorations of the church of Neuss, an
attentive examination of which declares a study of
the works of Raffaelle. At the age of twenty-six
he produced his compositions from Faust, after
which, in 1811, he went to Rome, where he became
one of the brotherhood of painters, amongst whom
was Overbeck, whose particular friend he was, in-
somuch that the King of Bavaria associated them
in a comparison to St. John and St. Paul. They
dwelt together in an old convent, labouring from
morning to night, with a mutual understanding that
each should pronounce in sincerity on the produc-
tions of the other. Cornelius was one of those
artists engaged in the decoration of the Villa
Bartoldi, and at the same time was busied in his
illustrations of the Nibelungenlied. From Rome he
was called to Dilsseldorf to remodel the Academy,
and to Munich to take the direction of the frescoes
which the then Prince Royal of Bavaria had pro-
jected for the Glyptothek. Thus divided between
Diisseldorf where he held the appointment of
Director of the Academy and Munich, where he
was charged with the execution of many works, he
resigned his appointment in the former city, to
devote himself exclusively, with those of his pupils
who thought fit to accompany him, to his commis-
sions at Munich, of the Academy at which place
he was appointed Director on the death of Sanger.
It is from this period may be dated the immense
activity in the arts in Munich under the reign of
King Ludwig. Of this movement Cornelius was
the prime mover as the head of the school ; and
from Munich his reputation extended throughout
Kurope. It would be vain to attempt a Catalogue
Raisonnee of his great works in that city ; it must
suffice to indicate the leading features of the prin-
cipal. In the Glyptothek he decorated two large
halls, one called the ' Hall of Heroes,' the other the
' Hall of the Gods,' with frescoes based upon the
heathen mythology, and painted according to the
genius of the antique. In the Pinakothek he
painted a great work illustrative of the ' History
of Painting,' and even whilst occupied with these
he found time to decorate the Ludwigs-Kirche with
four large frescoes ' God the Father,' ' The Na-
tivity,' 'The Crucifixion,' and 'The Last Judgment,'
the last of which measures 62 feet high, by 38
wide. About 1847 Frederick William IV. of
Prussia invited Cornelius to Berlin, where he gave
him a commission to decorate the Campo Santo, or
Royal Mausoleum, destined to form one of the
wings of the new cathedral, the building of which
was commenced some years ago. His designs for
this purpose possessed grandeur and originality,
surpassing in daring all that the master had here-
tofore produced, ' The Four Knights of the Apoca-
332



lypse ' being especially noticed in this respect t
these have been engraved byThater,and published
at Leipsic, in 1848. During his sojourn at Berlin
the King of Prussia took the opportunity to get
Cornelius to make the design for the silver shield
intended as a present for his godchild, the Prince
of Wales, and which will be remembered as an
attractive object at the great Exhibition of 1851.
Reviewing the varied works of this great master,
we find that the Old Testament, Homer, Gothe,
Dante, the Nibelungen, the German Troubadours,
and the New Testament, have all in turn supplied
him subject matter. The heroic is most in accord-
ance with his natural disposition ; he is, however,
not insensible to grace, and has expressed the tender
sentiments with the utmost felicity. Most of his
paintings at Munich have been engraved by Amsler,
Eberle, Schoeffer, &c. When the employment of
historical painters was determined upon for the
decoration of our New Houses of Parliament, Cor-
nelius was invited to this country and advised the
adoption of fresco painting, an unfortunate advice,
our climate being considered. He died in Berlin
on the 6th March, 1867.

Herr Forster has published ' Peter von Cornelius.
Ein Gedenkbuch aus seinem Leben und Wirken,'
Berlin, 1874, 8vo, 2 vols. W.B.8.

CORNER, JOHN, a line-engraver, published in
1825 an interesting series of twenty-five 'Portraits
of Celebrated Painters,' beneath each of which is a
small medallion containing the artist's most cele-
brated work.

CORNISH, . This name is affixed to a
slightly etched portrait of Dr. Charles Rose, a
Scotch clergyman. It was probably the work of
an amateur, who was a member of the University
of Oxford, as it is inscribed Cornish, Oxon.

CORNU, SEBASTIEN MELCHIOB, a French historical
painter, was born at Lyons in 1804. He first
studied under Richard and Bonnefond, and then
went to Paris and entered the studio of Ingres.
There are by him at Versailles the 'Surrender of
Ascalon to Baldwin III.," and the ' Battle of Oued-
Halleg. He continued the decorative works at St.
Germain-des-Pres after the death of Flandrin, and
died at Longpont (Seine-et-Oise) in 1870.

CORONA, JACOB Lucius, called JACOB Lucius
VON CRONSTADT, and also the MASTER OF THE KEY,
a wood-engraver who lived in the 16th century,
was a native of Cronstadt in Transylvania. He
executed many wood-cuts after the designs of
Lucas Cranach, and in 1564 removed from Witten-
berg to Rostock, where he engraved on wood in
1578, after the court painter Cornelius Cromeny,
the ' Genealogical Tree of the Dukes of Mecklen-
burg.' His wood-cuts are also to be found in the
Wittenberg Bib'e of 1572, although dated 1558.
His prints are signed J. L. C. T. (Jacobus Lucius
Corona Trarisylvanus), sometimes Jacob Sieben-
biirgen, or with one or other of the following
monograms : /s^o/^. J^>

CORONA, LEONARDO, the son of a miniature
painter, was born at Murano in 1561, and, accord-
ing to Ridolfi, was first instructed by Rocca da
San Silvestro, a painter of little note, who employed
him in copying ; but he afterwards improved him-
self by studying the works of Titian and Tinto-
retto. He also derived the greatest benefit from
his acquaintance with Alessandro Vittoria, an
eminent sculptor, who, Lanzi says, gave him chalk



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PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



models for the better management of the chiaro-
scuro, and assisted him in his much -esteemed
picture of the 'Annunciation' in SS. Giovanni o
Paolo, and his more admired work of the ' Assump-
tion ' in San Stefano, painted with a greatness of
style that approaches to Titian. In San Fantino ia
his picture, so much applauded by Ridolfi, of the
' Crucifixion,' in which he treads BO closely on the
heels of Tintoretto as to be little short of the excel-
lence of that master. He died at Venice in 1605.
It is said that he copied the works of Titian so
exactly, that connoisseurs mistook his imitations for
the originals. The Brunswick Gallery contains
two paintings by him 'Joseph and Potiphar'a
Wife,' and 'The Death of Lucretia.'

CORONATO, IL. See CALVI, GIDLIO.

CORONELLI, VINCENZO MARIA, an Italian geo-
grapher and draughtsman, was born at Venice
about 1650. He entered the order of the Minorites,
and went to France, where he constructed the
celebrated globes which are now in the National
Library at Paris. On his return to Venice he was
made coemographer of the Republic, and founded
the Academy of the Argonauts. In 1 702 he became
general of his order. He died at Venice in 1718.
Among other works he published ' Ritratti de'
celebri Personaggi,' 1697 ; ' Lo Specchio del Mare,'
1698; 'Atlante Veneto,' 1691-96; 'Roma antico-
moderna ' 1716 ; and ' Singolarita di Venezia,' some
of the plates in which he probably engraved.

COROT, JEAN BAPTISTS CAMILLE, was born in
Paris, of humble parentage, in 1796. After receiv-
ing his education in the Lycee of Rouen, he was
placed in a draper's shop. He did not follow his
inclination till he was twenty-two, when he became
a pupil of Michallon, then of Victor Berlin, and
finally completed his studies in Italy. In 1827 he
sent two of his works to his first exhibition, and
amongst those which succeeded them may be
named : ' A View in Italy,' ' A Souvenir of the
Environs of Florence,' ' The Burning of Sodom,'
' Evening,' ' The Lake,' ' An Idyll,' ' The Italian
Tyrol,' 'A Souvenir of Marcoussy,' &c. Besides
these landscapes, he painted several figure sub-
jects, such as : ' A Dance of Nymphs,' ' Ariadne,'
' Macbeth,' ' St. Sebastian,' ' Christ in the Garden
of Olives,' ' Dante and Virgil,' and ' Hagar in the
Desert ; ' the two last named being bequeathed by
him to the Louvre. Corot's method was to work
in the country in the summer, early and late, in
the open air, to catch those effects only to be seen
at dawn, at sunset, and by moonlight, in which he
delighted. During the winter he worked in his
studio on the ideas thus afforded him. His origin-
ality was great: he saw and portrayed nature with
his own eyes in a manner replete with poetry and
fancy, in which style he has found followers in
Troyon, Diaz, and others. In his early years he
nad to contend with poverty, but in after life
wealth flowed freely in on him, and he was never
unmindful of the poor and struggling artist. It is
computed that his benevolences during the siege
of Paris in 1870 amounted to 25,000 francs. He
received medals for his works in 1833, 1848, 1855,
and 1867, and was decorated with the Cross of the
Legion of Honour in 1846, becoming an officer of
the order in 1867. As a mark of their esteem for
' le pere Corot,' his brother artists presented him
with a gold medal shortly before his death, which
occurred in Paris on the 22nd of February, 1875.
He bequeathed to the Luxembourg two views one
of the Forum, the other of the Colosseum at Rome.



The pictures, sketches, etchings, &c., remaining in
his studio were sold for 400,000 francs. Two Land-
scapes by him are in the Lille Museum, and one
each in the Museums of Bordeaux, Douai, Metz,
and Langres.

CORR, ERIN, a Belgian line-engraver, was born
of Irish parentage at Brussels in 1803. After
studying under De Meulemeester, he went to Paris
and completed his training under Wedgwood and
Forster. On returning home he soon acquired a
name by his engravings, and became in 1832 pro-
fessor of engraving at the Antwerp Academy. He
died in Paris in 1862. Among his best plates are :

Hagar in the Wilderness ; after Namz. 1832.

The Saviour of the World ; after Leonardo da Vinci.

Christ on the Cross; after Van Dyck. (His chef-
d'ceuvre.)

The Elevation of the Cross ; after Rubens. (Unfinished ;
the etching only.)

The Descent from the Cross ; after Buhens. (Unfiiiished.)

The King of the Belgians ; after Wappers. 1834.

The Queen of the Belgians ; after Ary Scheffer. 1838.

Cardinal Stercki, Archbishop of Mechlin ; after Cels.

CORRADI, KONRAD, a Swiss landscape painter
in water-colours, was born in the early part of the
19th century. He died at Uhwiesen in 1878.

CORRADINI, BARTOLOMMEO, who is known as
Fra CARNEVALE, was a Dominican monk living in
the 15th century, who painted somewhat in the
manner of Piero della Francesca. He was painting
in Urbino in 1456, since records remain which prove
him to have been then absolved from finishing a
picture for the Confraternity of Corpus Christi in
that city. In 1461 he was curate at San Cassiano di
Cavallino, near Urbino, and seems to have lived
there up to 1468. According to Padre Pungileone
he painted the altar-piece of San Bernardino in the
convent of that name in Urbino, in 1472. He died
in 1484. Vasari asserts that he taught Bramante
the art of perspective. A ' St. Michael and the
Dragon ' in the National Gallery, and a ' Virgin
and Child with Saints ' in the Brera, Milan, are
ascribed to him.

CORRADO, GIAQUINTO, a Neapolitan painter, was
born at Molfetta, in 1693. He studied in his native
town, and afterwards at Rome. In 1753 he was
invited to Madrid by Ferdinand VI., and succeeded
Amigoni as first painter to the king. He remained
in Spain until 1761, and died at Naples in 1765.
The Madrid Gallery has fourteen of his works 3
allegorical, 2 landscape, 2 classical, and the rest
sacred historical.

CORRALES. See MARTINEZ DE LOS CORRALES.

CORREA, DIEGO, a Spanish painter, whose works
are in the style of the Florentine school, flourished,
according to the date on some of his pictures, in
1550. The following works, his chief productions,
now in the Madrid Museum, were formerly in the
convent of the Bernardines of St. Martin at Val de
Iglesias :

Pilate washing his Hands.

Christ crowned with Thorns.

Ecce Homo.

The Death of St. Bernard.

The Last Judgment.

Madonna and Child and St. Anne.

St. Benedict blessing St. Maurus.

The Martyrdom of St. Andrew

The Resurrection.

St. Peter curing the Paralytic.

Descent of the Holy Spirit.

Descent from the Cross.

The ' Assumption of the Virgin,' in the same
gallery, was formerly in the church of the As-

333



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Bumption at Toledo. The Dresden Gallery has a
' Christ on the Cross ' said to be by him.

CORREA, MARCOS, a Spanish painter, was a
scholar of Bobadilla, and a member of the Academy
of Seville from 1667 to 1673. His subjects were
unambitious ; he painted with great care and finish
email details of still life, such as papers, books, &c.

CORREGGIO, ANTONIO DA. See BEENIERI.

CORREGGIO, ANTONIO ALLEGRI DA. See AL-
LEORI.

CORREGGIO, FRANCESCO, was a native of Bo-
logna, and flourished about the year 1652. He
was a scholar of Francesco Gessi, and painted
history with some reputation. His works are
chiefly confined to the churches at Bologna. In
San Procolo is a ' Magdalene in the Desert ; ' in
the Nunziata, the ' Madonna di Loreto ; ' and in
Santa Maria de' Servi, the ' Virgin and Infant, with
St. Luke and other Saints.'

CORRENS, ERICH, was born at Cologne in
1821, and after studying jurisprudence at Bonn,
went to the Academy at Munich, and became an
accomplished portrait painter and lithographer.
He died at the latter city in 1877. He was well
known for the elegance of his portraits, among
which those of King Maximilian of Bavaria and
Queen Maria, his consort, are mentioned as note-
worthy.

CORSO, GIOVANNI VINCENZO, was born at Naples
about the year 1490, and was instructed by Amato
and Pietro Perugino. He also studied the works
of Andrea Sabbatini and Polidoro da Caravaggio,
and subsequently went to Rome, and assisted Pierino
del Vaga. Most of the works of this artist in the
churches at Naples have been damaged and re-
touched. The best preserved are his admired
picture of ' Christ bearing his Cross,' with many
figures, in the church of San Domenico Maggiore,
and the ' Adoration of the Magi,' in San Lorenzo
Maggiore. He died at Rome in 1545.

CORSO, NICCOL&, was a native of Genoa, and
flourished about the year 1503, the date inscribed
on some of his works. His pictures are chiefly in
the cloister and refectory of the monastery of the
Olivetan Fathers at Quarto, near Genoa ; the most
esteemed is a subject from the life of St. Benedict.
Soprani extols this painter for the fecundity of his
ideas, the fine expression of his heads, and, above
all, for the vivacity and firmness of his colouring,
which, if it could be divested of a little hardness,
would cause this artist to rank among the ablest of
the Genoese painters of his time.

CORT, COBNELIS, called in Italy COBNELIO FIAM-
MINQO, an excellent engraver, was born at Hoorn
in Holland, in 1533 or 1536. He was first in-
structed by Hieronymus Cock, for whom, in the
early part of hia life, he executed several plates
fcfter Rogier van der Weyden, Michiel Coxie,
Frans Floris, and H. Mostaert, which were pub-
lished with the name of his master. After having
earned a very considerable reputation by these
plates, he went to Italy, and first settled at Venice,
where he resided in the house of Titian, and en-
graved some of the finest works of that great painter.
He afterwards removed to Rome, where he estab-
lished a school of line engraving, in which he
Bought to graft on the simple manner of Marcantonio
a more brilliant and broader style. This gave to
the art a direction which it long retained, and
which was adopted and extended in Italy by
Agostino Carracci, and followed by Nicolaus De
Bruyn of Antwerp. The art of engraving had

334



hitherto been nearly confined to small plates; and
it was Cornelis Cort that opened the way to a more
important sphere of the art. Cort died at Rome
in 1578. His drawing is correct and tasteful; and
his backgrounds, particularly his landscapes, are
managed with great skill and finesse. His plates
are signed with C. C-f., Corn., or Co./. Heinecken
has given a complete catalogue of the works of
this esteemed artist, the merit of which will justify
our giving the following ample list of the most
interesting : ,

PORTRAITS.

Cornelis Cort ; engraved by himself.
Henry II., King of France ; oval.
Catharine de' Medici ; Queen of France.
Don Juan of Austria ; oval, with ornaments. 1578.
Marcus Autonius Moretus ; oval.
Andrea Alciati ; oval, with ornaments.
Rogier van der AYeyden ; painter.
Theodoor van Haarlem ; painter.
Joachim Dionatensis ; painter.

SUBJECTS AFTER HIS OWN DESIGNS.
The Birth of the Virgin. 1568.
The Conception of the Virgin. 1567.
The Presentation in the Temple.
The Repose in Egypt. 1568.
The Holy Family: St. Joseph presenting a Pear to the

Infant.
The Last Supper. 1568. (He engraved this subject

twice.)

A Crucifix over a Globe, held by two Angels.
The Resurrection. 1569.

St. Theodore, patron of Venice, overcoming a Dragon.
St. Catharine crowned by Angels. 1575.
St. Veredina kneeling before an Altar.
Two Landscapes, with Shipwrecks.

SUBJECTS AFTER FLEMISH MASTEBS BEFORE HE

WENT TO ITALY.

Adam and Eve, with the Serpent ; after Michiel Coxie.
The Resurrection ; after the same. 1568.
The Descent of the Holy Ghost ; after the same.
Christ triumphant, with St. Peter and St. Paul ; after

the same.
Four Plates of the History of the Rich Man and Lazarus;

after Heemskerk.

The Parable of the Vineyard ; after the same.
Four Plates of the Parable of the Talents ; after tht

same.
Six plates of the History of Noah and the Deluge;

after F. Floris.

Six plates of the History of Abraham ; after the tame.
Six plates of the History of Jacob aud Rachel ; after

the same.

Ten nlates of the Labours of Hercules ; after the same.
Four" plates of the History of Pluto and Proserpine ;

after the same.

Bacchus and Venus; after the same. 1566.
The Immortality of Virtue ; emblematical ; after the

same. 1564.
The Descent from the Cross; after Rogier ran der

Weyden.

St. Roch ; after J. Speckart 1567.
St. Laurence ; after the same.
St. Dominic reading ; after Bart. Spranyer.
The Holy Family, with Angels ; after the same.
The Coronation of the Virgin ; after Grilles Mostaert.

1565.
The Academy of Painting ; after Stradan ; fine. 1578.

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS ENGBAVED IN

ITALY.
After Titian.
The Annunciation.
Another Annunciation.
The Martyrdom of St. Laurence. 1571.
The Trinity ; generally called, AH Saints. 1566.
St. Jerome in the Wilderness, reading.
St. Jerome in the "\Yilderaess, kneeling before a
Crucifix at the entrance of a Cavern; In Venetia.
Corn. Cort. f. ; scarce. Not mentioned by Heinecken.



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



The Magdalene ; half-length.

The Magdalene in the Desert, before a Crucifix.

Tarquin and Lucretia. 1571.

Diaua and Calisto.

Prometheus. 1566.

Kogero liberating Angelica from the Dragon.

After Girolamo Mutia.no.

St. Peter walking on the Water. 1568.

Christ crowned with Thorns.

Christ bearing his Cross.

The Descent from the Cross, with two Ladders.

The Descent from the Cross, with four Ladders.

Christ appearing to the Marys.

St. Jerome in Meditation.

A set of seven Landscapes, with Figures, called the
Seven Penitents ; St. John the Baptist, St. Mary
Magdalene, St. Jerome, St. Onophritis, St. Hubert, St.
Francis with the Stigmata, aud St. Francis in devotion.

After Giulio C'lovio.
The Annunciation.

The Adoration of the Magi, in the form of an Altar.
The Virgin and Infant ; half-length.
Christ preaching in the Temple.
The Baptism of Christ.
The Crucifixion between the two Thieves.
Another Crucifixion ; a grand composition. 1568.
The dead Christ, with the Marys.
The Entombment of Christ.
Christ appearing to Mary Magdalene.
The Conversion of St. Paul.
St. George and the Dragon.

After Taddeo Zucca.ro.
The Creation of Adam and Eve.
The Presentation in the Temple.
The Nativity ; a rich composition.
The Holy Family, with St. John and his Lamb.
The Miracle of the Loaves.
The Entombment of Christ.
The Descent of the Holy Ghost.
The Martyrdom of St. Agatha.

After Federiyo Zuccaro.
Moses and Aaron before Pharaoh. 1567.
The Birth of the Virgin. 1578.
The Conception of the Virgin.
The Annunciation. 1571.
The Nativity. 1568.
The Adoration of the Magi.
The Holy Family, with the Infant.
The Flight into Egypt.
The Adulteress before Christ.
Christ tempted in the Wilderness.
Christ driving the Buyers aud Sellers from the Temple.
The Resurrection of Lazarus.
The Woman of Samaria.
Christ on the Mount of Olives.
Christ taken in the Garden.



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