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bis father as drawing-master at King's College,
London. He died in 1858.

COTTA, JACOPO, an Italian engraver, flourished
about the year 1600. His name is affixed to an
etching representing the ' Meeting of Isaac and
Rebekah,' after Storer. It is executed in a poor,
tasteless style, and incorrectly drawn.

COTTARD, PIERRE, according to Florent Le
Comte, was an architect, who flourished in the 17th
century, and etched some plates of vases and
ornaments, which are executed in a bold, coarse
style. We have from his hand a set of four views
of Bordeaux, and a series of designs published in
1686. His prints are usually marked with the


COTTRAU, FELIX, a French painter, was born
in Paris in 1799, and died in the same city in 1852.
He painted landscapes, portraits, and Scriptural
and fancy subjects.

COUASKI, ALEXANDER, a Polish portrait painter,
was born in Poland in 1736. He was a page in the
court of the last King of Poland, but was after-
wards sent to France to study under Vien. On the
outbreak of the French Revolution he was painter
to the Prince de Conde. He executed portraits
chiefly in pastel, and among them those of the
Empress Catharine II. of Russia, the Count d' Artois,
the Prince de Conde, the Princess de Lamballe, and
Madame Elizabeth. Marie Antoinette, however, he
portrayed in distemper, and the repetitions he made
of this picture are stated to have procured him a
subsistence for a lengthened period. He also
sketched Louis XVII. Many of his paintings are
wrongly ascribed to other masters. He died at
Sainte-Perine in 1829.

COUCHED JACQUES, a French line-engraver, was
born at Abbeville in 1759. He became a pupil of
Le Vasseur and of Aliamet, and was subsequently
appointed engraver to the Duke of Orleans. The
date of his death is not known. He owed much of
his reputation to his having been the moving spirit
in the publication of the work known as the
' Galerie du Palais Royal.' This was issued in part
in 1786 under Couche's direction, but the Revolu-
tion having stopped the work, Couch6 some years
afterwards associated himself with Laporte and
Bouquet, and brought his task to a successful
termination in 1808. He engraved the following
eighteen plates in that collection :

The Young Martyr ; after Cagnacci.

The Death of Actseon ; after Titian.

The Holy Family ; after Annibale Carracci.

The Return from the Chase ; after JVouwerman.

Hawking ; after the same.

The Judgment of Paris ; after Rubens.

Bal Champ^tre ; after Watteau.

The Lady in the Balcony ; after Gerard Dou.

The Concert of Cats ; after C. Brueghel.

The Revel ; after Cerquozzi.

Hercules and Wisdom ; after Paolo Veronese.

Mars and Venus ; after the same.

Honour ; after the same.

Dislike ; after the same.

A Circumcision ; after Bassano.

The Martyr ; after Guido Canlassi.

St. John preaching in the Wilderness ; after Albano.

COUCHE, FRANgois Louis, an engraver, the
son and pupil of Jacques Couche, was born in
Paris in 1782. He produced in an indifferent
manner a number of plates representing the battles
of the first Napoleon on one of which is the
date 1812. They were in some cases finished by
z 2

Bovinet . At one period of his life he was keeping
a shop as a publisher in the Rue Hautefeuille
in Paris. His engravings are generally marked
Couche fils sometimes simply Couche, and in one
case Francois Couche. He engraved some of the
plates for the 'Galerie du Palais Royal,' and for
Denon's great work on Egypt. He died in Paris
in 1849.

in Paris in 1808, and studied under Picot, became
famous for his pictures of still-life, fruit, and
flowers, and also genre subjects. He died at
Baran (Oise) in 1879.

COUDER, Louis CHARLES AUGUSTE, an historical
painter, was born in Paris in 1790. He studied
under David and Regnault, and brought himself
prominently into notice with his prize painting in
1817, representing the 'Levite of Mount Ephraim.'
But the promise then given was not redeemed by
the works that immediately followed ; and even
his ceiling decoration in the Gallery of Apollo in
the Louvre shows that he was still restrained by-
classical fetters. He repaired to Munich in 1833
to study the progress of fresco painting there;
and on his return to Paris painted in the churches
of St. Gervais, Notre-Dame-de-Lorette, St. Ger-
main-1'Auxerrois, and in the Madeleine. These
works show care and skill, but are lacking in the
most necessary element, religious feeling. His
historical works, executed at Versailles, are much
more successful. There he had a better field for
showing his skill in drawing and as a colourist, aa
well as for proving that he possessed dramatic
force, and the power of rendering individual
characteristics. It is on the merit of these pro-
ductions that his real claim to fame is based. His
Francis I. is now at Fontainebleau. Amongst
other paintings may be mentioned also ' The Taking
of Lerida,' and ' The Opening of the States-General
in 1789.' He died in Paris in 1873.


COULET, ANNE PHILIBERTE, a French engraver,
was born in Paris in 1736, and was a pupil of
Aliamet and of Lempereur. She engraved several
landscapes and sea pieces, especially those of
Joseph Vernet, which are charmingly etched and
finished with the graver. She was received into
the Academy in 1770, and became a member of
the Academy of Vienna in 1771. The date of her
death is not known.

We have by her the following engravings :

" Rendez-vous a la Colonne ; " after Berchem.

The Departure of the Boat ; after Joseph Vernet.

The Fortunate Passage ; after the same.

The Fine Afternoon ; after the same.

The Fishermen throwing their Nets ; after the same.

The Neapolitan Fishermen ; after the same.

Rural Pleasures ; after Loutherbourg.

The Pleasure Party in the Country ; after the same.

Going to Market ; after Van Goyen.

engraver, was born in Paris in 1784. He was a
pupil of Roger. He engraved ' Prayer to the
Madonna,' after Mme. Haudebourt-Lescot, and
many vignettes for the works of Voltaire, Rous-
seau, &c. It is not known when he died.

French engraver but little known, who lived at
the close of the 18th century. He appears to have
devoted himself chiefly to religious subjects, and
was the principal engraver of the collection of
portraits of the members of the National Assembly
of 1789, known as the " Collection Dejabin."



COUKBES, JEAN DK, was a French engraver,
born about the year 1592. He was principally
employed for the booksellers, but worked both in
England and in Spain. We have by him the por-
traits of Sir Philip Sidney and Mary, Countess of

COURBET, GCSTAVE, a distinguished French
painter, was born at Ornans (Doubs), on the 10th
of June, 1819. He began the study of jurispru-
dence, but at the age of twenty abandoned it for
painting, and repaired to Paris, where he eventu-
ally selected the school of David d'Angers. The
ill-success that befell his early pictures only acted
as a stimulus, and led him to a constant and
close study of nature ; and he selected intention-
ally, with a view to bring the feeling of the
public more into harmony with his own concep-
tions, the details of every-day life as the field in
which to exhibit his talents. Being really gifted
he could not fail in the result to command atten-
tion. In fact it was not long before one of his
works, entitled ' The Conflagration,' aroused the
notice of the authorities, who condemned it as
dangerous to the public welfare. His figure sub-
jects were brilliant in colcur and rich in tone, but
were ill drawn and badly grouped. Other works of
his again, though powerfully painted, were marred
by the selection of subjects with a vicious tend-
ency. His landscapes, however, being from the
nature of their subject free from any such defects,
could not fail, distinguished as they were by truth,
simplicity, and very careful finish, to add consider-
ably to his reputation. Nor were his animal pieces
less pleasing, while his portraits gave proof in a
still further direction of his being possessed of very
remarkable talent. The unfavourable art criticisms
which his early works had encountered appear to
have embittered his mind to some extent against
his brother artists, and at the Exhibitions of 1855
and 1867 he had a separate building constructed
to display his own pictures. ' A Stormy Sea,' ('La
Vague,') exhibited in the Salon of 1870, was bought
for the Luxembourg, and was exhibited at the Paris
Exhibition in 1878. In 1871 his democratic tend-
encies led him to join the Communists, who en-
trusted him with the charge of the Museums. He
took a leading part in the destruction of the
Column in the Place Vendome. On the fall of the
Commune he was condemned to six months' im-
prisonment, as well as to the payment of an in-
demnity for his share in the affair of the Place
Vendome. He eventually retired into Switzerland,
where after a painful illness he died at La Tour-de-
Peilz, near Vevay, on the 31st December, 1877. An
exhibition of the works of the Painter of Ornans,
as Courbet delighted to be called, was held in Paris
in 1882. The Louvre has now the ' Interment at
Ornans ' (painted in 1850), the Combat de Cerfs '
(1861), the ' Hallali du Cerf ' (1867), the ' Homme
a la ceinture de cuir,' .the ' Homme blesse,' and
' La Vague ' (1870). His other principal paintings
were :

The "Woman with the Parrot. 1866.

Afternoon at Ornans. (In the Lille Hfusetan.) 1849.

Landscape, near Honfleur. (In the Lille Museum.)

The Stone-breakers. 1850.

Stags in Spring-time. (In the Marseilles Museum.)

La Fileuse. 1853.

Les Baigneuses. 1853.

The Painter's Studio. 1855.

La Remise aux Chevreuils. 1866.

La Sieste peudant la saison des foin8. 1869.

COURT, JEAN, called VIGIER, was one of the

most skilful of the enamel painters who flourished
at Limoges in the 16th century. His works are
very rare and bear the dates 1556 and 1557 only.
Almost all are painted in grisaille on a black
ground, and heightened with gold, the flesh being
tinted. Some of his enamels are in the Louvre.
He died about 1583, being then not less than 72
years of age. Much confusion has existed on
account of the similarity of the names and mono-
grams, and often of the works, between this artist,
Jean de Court, and Jean Courteys.

COURT, JEAN DE, an enamel painter of Limoges,
succeeded Francois Clouet as painter to the king
in 1572, and was in turn succeeded by his son,
CHARLES DE COURT, in 1584 or 1589. Jean de Court
painted in 1574 a portrait of Henry III., then Duke
of Anjou.

COURT, JOSEPH DESIRE, a painter of historical
subjects and portraits, was born at Rouen in
1797. He became a pupil at the Ecole des Beaux-
Arts under Gros, and after carrying off the princi-
pal honours there pursued his studies still further
at Rome. High expectations were formed of him
when he exhibited in 1827 'The Death of Csesar,"

work manifesting earnest thought, and a con-
scientious handling of the facts of history. This
is now preserved in the Louvre. Having shown
himself in this and other works a vigorous painter,
capable of seizing a subject with a masterly grasp,
and having also in the region of portrait painting
proved himself an artist of no common merit, he
eventually dissipated his talents in the production
of a series of empty official pictures painted by
order of Louis Philippe. He died in Paris in 1865.
The Bordeaux Museum has a portrait of Henri
Fonfrede by him ; that of Lyons, a ' Scene in the
Deluge ' ; that of Rouen, ' Boissy-d'Anglas saluting
the head of Feraud.'

COURTEYS, JEAN, an enamel painter of Limoges,
who died in 1586, was possibly a younger brother
of Pierre Courteys. To him are ascribed the
numerous works signed /. C., but M. Darcel is
inclined to believe that these are by Jean de

COURTEYS, MARTIAL, a painter in enamel, who
was working at Limoges in 1579-80, was distin-
guished by his vivid colouring. Until lately he
was known only by a round dish with ' Moses
striking the Rock,' formerly in the Debruge Col-
lection, and now in that of Mr. Addington. He
belonged to the school of Jean Courteys, and was
perhaps his son.

COURTEYS, PIERRE, one of the best enamel
painters of Limoges, and an excellent designer and
colourist, was probably a disciple of Pierre Rey-
mond. The dates affixed to his works range from
1550 to 1568. In 1559 he executed for the facade
of the chateau of Madrid, built by Francis I. and
Henry II. in the Bois de Boulogne, near Paris,
twelve oval medallions cf the Virtues and the gods
of Olympus, with figures the size of life. Nine
of these are now in the Hotel de Cluny, and three
are in England. They are the largest enamels
which have ever been made at Limoges. Courteys
is supposed to have died in 1602. Many of hia
works are in the Louvre.

COURTIN, JACQUES FRANgols, a French his-
torical painter, was born at Sens in 1672. He was
a pupil of Louis de Boullongne, and painted the
' mai ' offered to the cathedral of Notre-Dame by
the goldsmiths of Paris in 1707, the subject being

1 St. Paul preaching at Troas.' He died in Paris in


1752. There is a 'Dead Christ' by him in the
Brussels Gallery.

COURTQIS, GUILLAUME, commonly known as
(or IL BOBGOGNONE,) was the brother of Jacques
Courtois, and was born at St. Hippolyte in 1628.
He went to Rome whilst he was young, and became
a scholar of Pietro da Cortona. He did not how-
ever follow the style of that master, but appears to
have preferred that of Carlo Maratti, in his com-
positions and the expression of his heads. He
sometimes seems to have wished to resemble
Guercino in the strength of his relief, and his
azure backgrounds. His works most deserving of
notice are a ' Madonna, and several Saints,' in ^the
Trinita di Pellegrini ; ' Joshua's great Battle,' in
the palace of the Quirinal, in which he was assisted
by his brother ; and the ' Crucifixion of St. Andrew,'
in Sant' Andrea a Monte Cavallo, Rome. The
'Offering of Isaac' by him is in the Dresden
Gallery, and a picture of 'The Burial of the Dead
during the Plague in Rome' in the Brussels
Gallery. He died at Rome in 1679. His engrav-
ings are now become excessively rare. They are
not so highly finished as those of his brother Jacquea
We have by him the following plates :

A Burial during the Plague.
The Presentation in the Temple.
The Resurrection of Lazarus.

COURTOIS, JACQUES, commonly called by the
known as BOURGUIGNON, was born at St. Hippolyte,
in Franche-Comte, in 1621. He was the son of an
obscure painter, Jean Courtois, who taught him the
rudiments of design. At the age of fifteen he went
to Milan, where he formed an intimacy with a
French officer, who prevailed on him to enter the
army, which he followed for some time ; designing
on every occasion the marches, the attacks, and
skirmishes of which he was a witness. After three
years' service he quitted the military profession
and returned to painting. At Bologna he became
acquainted with Guido and Albani, and his inti-
macy with those distinguished artists was of great
adyantage to his progress. He at length visited
Rome, where his first attempts were some historical
works, amongst which were ' The Magdalen at the
feet of Christ,' in the church of Santa Maria ; and
in the Gesu, the ' Murder of the Innocents ' and the
'Adoration of the Magi.' The natural bent of his
genius discovered itself on his seeing the admirable
' Battle of Constantine ' by Giulio Romano, in the
Vatican ; and from that time he devoted himself
to a branch of the art which he carried to a per-
fection unknown before or after him. Michelangelo
delle Battaglie, having seen some of his works, with
a liberality not always found in a rival, was one of
the most zealous publishers of his fame. Whilst
he was in full possession of popular esteem, a cir-
cumstance occurred which occasioned his retirement
from the world. His wife, with whom he had not
lived on the best terms, died suddenly ; and male-
volence suspected and accused him of having
poisoned her. This cruel accusation determined
him to abandon society, and he took refuge with
the Jesuits, of which body he soon afterwards
became a member. But neither the gloom of a
monastery, nor the affliction of his mind, could
subdue his ardour or impoverish his talent, which
he continued to exercise till his death, which
occurred at Rome in 1676.

The battle-pieces of Borgognone are composed

with a fire and painted with a vigour peculiar to
himself. His touch is admirable and of extra-
ordinary facility, his figures and horses are drawn
with all the spirit requisite in the attacks of the
fiercest combatants fighting for honour and for
life ; and (as Lanzi expresses it) " in beholding his
pictures we seem to hear the shouts of war, the
neighing of the horses, and the cries of the
wounded." It is to be lamented that many of his
works have blackened since they were painted.
The following are some of the best of his works
which are frequently met with in public galleries :






Gallery. Battle-pieces.
Museum. Rocky Landscape (formerly assign-
ed to Salvator Rosa).
Gallery. Battle-pieces.
Gallery. Battle-pieces (four).
Gallery. Battle-pieces (three).
Uffizi. Portrait of himself.
Battle-pieces (four).

Pitti Pal. Battle-piece.
Gallery. Cavalry Combat.
Pinakothek. A Battle-field after the fight.

A Battle-piece.

Gallery. Battle-pieces (tico).
Louvre. Cavalry Combat near a Bridge.

Troops marching.

M Cavalry combat.

Cavalry encounter.

Cuirassiers and Turkish Cavalry.

Hermitage. Studies for Battle-pieces.
Gallery. Battle-pieces (three).

We have by this artist some etchings of battles,
executed with uncommon spirit, and with a masterly
effect of light and shadow. They are described
in Robert-Dumesnil's ' Peintre-Graveur,' vol. i.,
and among them are the following :

A set of Eight Battles ; Giac. Cortesefec.
A set of Four Battles ; J. C.


COURTOIS, MARIE, a French miniature painter
of considerable ability, was a pupil of Le Brun.
She was born about the year 1655, married in 1675
Marc Nattier, the portrait painter, and died in Paris
in 1703.

engraver, who was born in Paris in 1736. He
engraved two plates from the designs of Saint-
Aubin, but died at Rochefort in 1763.

COUSE, J., was an artist who, if not a native of
England, at least resided here about the year
1750. He engraved a view of Berkeley Castle, from
a drawing by the Countess of Berkeley, and some
other prints, which are neatly executed, and possess
considerable merit.

COUSEN, CHARLES, a younger brother of John
Cousen, and also a line engraver, worked chiefly
for the 'Art Journal,' for which he executed up-
wards of fifty plates. In early life he painted a
few pictures, and exhibited once, in 1848, at the
Society of British Artists. He, however, devoted
his attention to engraving, and produced his first
important plates for the Vernon and Turner Gal-
leries. He continued his work to an advanced
age, his last engraving, ' Catching a Mermaid,'
after J. C. Hook, appearing a year before his death,
which took place in November 1889. The follow-
ing are his principal plates:

The Opening of the Walhalla. \

Bacchus and Ariadne. {After Turner : for the

The Loretto Necklace. I Turner Gallery.

Abingdon. J

A FeteChampetre ; after T. Stothard. \ For the Vernon

The Bathers ; after the same. J Gallery.



A Persian Warrior ; after W. Etty. \FortheVernon

The Ruined Temple ; after R. Wilson, j Gallery.

The Hooka Badar. ~> After Wilkie: for the Witkie

A Group of Camels. ) Gallery.

The Pasture Osborne ; after T. Sidney Cooper.

The Queen's Horses ; after J. F. Herring.

The Home Expected ; after W. Mulready.

Rustic Civility ; after W. Collins.

Hulks; after Front.

The Cornfield ; after Constable.

Primrose Gatherers; after Sifket Foster.

Touchstone and Audrey ; after J. Pettie.

The Mountain Shepherd; after J. Linndl.

Showery Weather; after Vicat Cole,

Oxen at the Tank Geneva; after Sir E. Landseer.

The Shepherd ; after Rosa Eonheur.

Their only Harvest ; after Colin Hunter.

Home again; after E. A. Waterlow.

COUSEN, JOHN, a landscape engraver, was born
at Bradford in Yorkshire in 1804, and was articled
to John Scott, the animal engraver. His largsr
works after Turner, Stanfield, and others are of
great excellence, but his exquisite taste is best
displayed in his smaller plates after Turner, especi-
ally those in the ' Rivers of France,' which are full
of poetic feeling. He died at South Norwood in
1880, but had retired from the practice of his art
some sixteen years before, in consequence of ill-

His more important works are :

Mercury and Herse ; after Turner.

Towing the Victory into Gibraltar ; after Stanfield

The Morning after the Wreck ; after the same.

Calais Pier: Fishing-Boats off Calais.

Snow-Storm : Hannibal and his Army
crossing the Alps.

Peace : Burial at Sea of the Body of
Sir David Wilkie.

St. Michael's Mount, Cornwall.

The Battle of Trafalgar ; after Stanfield.

The Canal of the Giudecca and Church
of the Jesuits, Venice ; after the same.

The Old Pier at Littlehampton ; after
Sir A. W. Callcott.

Returning from Market ; after the same.

Cattle : Early Morning on the Cumber-
land Hills ; after T. Sidney Cooper.

The Mountain Torrent; after Sir E.

The Cover Side ; after F. R. Lee.

Rest in the Desert ; after W. J. Muller.

A Woodland View ; after Sir D. Wilkie.

COUSIN, JEAN, may be regarded as the founder
of the French school, as previous to his time the
painters of his country confined themselves to
portrait painting. He was born at Soucy, near
Sens, in 1500 or 1501, and died about 1589, at all
events before 1593. Little is known of his life,
with certainty, except that his first occupation was
glass-painting at Sens, and that he afterwards
established himself as a goldsmith at Paris. His
principal work, as a painter, is the ' Last Judgment,'
which was formerly in the convent of the Minimes
at Vincennes, but is now in the Louvre. It is a
grand composition, and the design is more in the
taste of Parmegiano than the French style. He
was a sculptor as well as a painter, but he excelled
especially as a painter upon glass. He was in
every respect superior to his rival, Jean Duvet.
As a painter on glass, the windows of the Sainte-
Chapelle at Vincennes are his best works. They
represent the ' Annunciation,' the ' Approach of the
Last Judgment,' and full-length portraits of Francis
I. and Henry II. Lenoir regards these magnificent
windows as the finest monuments of painting upon
glass which exist in France. He also painted


After Turner:

for the Turner


For the

windows in the Cathedral at Sens with the Legend
of St. Eutropius, dated 1530, and others in the
Chateau of Anet and elsewhere. The windows
which Cousin painted for the church of St. Gervaia
at Paris were destroyed about 1 775. A picture of
the ' Descent from the Cross,' bearing date 1523,
in the Museum at Mentz, and other subject pic-
tures, are attributed to him ; and there also exist
records of several family portraits by him : but
the painting in the Louvre is the only known
authentic work by his hand. It has been engraved
by Pieter De Jode the elder. Various miniatures
in books, in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, and
elsewhere, are said to be by Cousin, who was also
an engraver on metal, and has left etchings of the
1 Annunciation,' the ' Holy Family,' the ' Descent
from the Cross,' the ' Conversion of St. Paul,'
' Bacchus and the Vintage,' and ' A Man holding a
tablet.' But it is by his designs for woodcuts,
some of which he himself engraved, that Cousin ia
now best known. The most important of these are
the designs which he made for the Bible published
by Jean Le Clerc in 1596 ; the ' Entree de Henri II.
a Paris,' 1549 ; the ' Entree de Henri II. et Catherine
de M6dicis a Rouen,' 1551 ; the'Eloge et Tombeau
de Henri II., 1 1560 ; the ' Livre de Coutumes de Sens,'
1551 ; the ' Vsaige et description de 1'Holometre,'
1555 ; the ' Songe de Poliphile,' 1561 ; and the

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