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1 Metamorphoses ' and ' Epistres ' of Ovid of 1566
and 1571. In 1560 he published his ' Livre de Per-
spective,' and in 1571 his ' Livre de Pourtraicture,'
which treats of the proportions of the human figure,
and displays considerable knowledge.

,M. Ambroise Firmin-Didot published in 1872 an
'Etude sur Jean Cousin,' which is very complete
and full of interest, and in 1873 a folio ' Recueil
des CEuvres choisies de Jean Cousin.'


COUSINS, HENRY, the brother of Samuel Cousins,
was also an engraver, and practised in London. He
engraved many portraits in mezzotint, and some
other plates ; among them ' Refreshment,' after
Landseer; 'Prayer,' after Sant; ' The Infant Shake-
speare,' after Romney ; and ' Home of the Home-
less,' after T. Faed. He died at Dorking in 1864.

COUSINS, SAMUEL, mezzotint engraver, was
born at Exeter, May 9, 1801, and received his
early education in his native city. He is said to
have astonished his friends while still a child by
the truth and spirit of the portraits he was con-
stantly drawing in pencil. At the age of eleven
he gained a silver palette from the Society of Arts
for a pencil copy of James Heath's plate of the
'Good Shepherd,' after Murillo, and in the follow- (
ing year won the Society's silver medal. His
vocation was determined by a chance meeting
with the late Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, who saw the
boy sketching outside a printseller's window in
Exeter. Recognizing the precocious talent of the
copyist, he helped him to London, where he was
apprenticed to S. W. Reynolds. After working as
an apprentice for seven years, Cousins remained
with Reynolds four years as assistant, and a
few plates of this date bear the joint signature
of master and pupil. Cousins' first independent
work was a commission from Sir T. Dyke Acland
for a plate after Lawrence's group of Lady Acland
and her children. Lawrence was so pleased with,
the result that he wished to engage the young
engraver to work exclusively for him. This, how-
ever, Cousins would not agree to. He, however,
undertook a second plate after Lawrence, the?


famous ' Master Lambton,' which at once secured
his reputation. In 1835 he was elected associate
engraver of the Royal Academy, and in 1855 a
Royal Academician. About 1872, being then over
seventy years old, Cousins determined to retire
from his profession. After a short term of idleness,
however, he again took up the graver, and to this
late period of his life belong such masterpieces as
the 'Age of Innocence,' 'Penelope Booth by,' 'Sim-
plicity,' and other plates after Sir Joshua, ' Miss
Rich,' after Hogarth, and 'Cherry Ripe,' after
Millais. During his long career he had amassed a
fortune much in excess of his modest needs, and
about ten years before his death he made a generous
donation of 15,000 to the Royal Academy, to be
used as a fund for pensioning destitute artists.
In 1880 he retired from the Academy. He died
in London, May 7, 1887. Some years before he had
presented to the British Museum a (then) complete
set of impressions from his plates, containing some
Tory rare states. His ceuvre consists in all of about
two hundred plates, of which the following are
famous examples :

Prince Metternich ; after Lawrence. 1827.

Pius VII. ; after the same.

Duke of Wellington ; after the same. 1828.

Sir Astley Cooper ; after the same.

Lady Grey and Children ; after the same.

Miss Peel ; after the same.

Lady Grosvenor ; after the same.

William Wilberforce ; after the same.

Bolton Abbey ; after Landseer.

The Abercorn Family ; after the same.

The Queen ; after the same.

Return from Hawking ; after the same.

The Queen receiving the Sacrament ; after the same.

Christ weeping over Jerusalem ; after Sir C. East lake.

Shakespeare; after the Chandos portrait.

The Order of Release ; after Millais.

The Minuet ; after the same.

Yes or No ? after the same.

Yes ! after the same.

No ! after the same.

Pomona ; after the same.

Marie Antoinette in the Temple ; after E. M. Ward.

Miss Bowles ; after Reynolds. 1874.

Lady C. Montagu ; after the same.

Sylvia ; after the same.

Hon. Anna Bingham ; after the same.

Lavinia ; after the same.

Princess Sophia of Gloucester ; after the same.

Duchess of Rutland ; after the same.

COUSSIN, HARDOUIN, was a French engraver,
born at Aix in 1709, who, according to Basan, was
resident at that place in 1760. He engraved at
Lyons several plates after Puget, Rembrandt, and
others. Nagler states that the name H. Coussm
is found on some mezzotints which appear to be
the. work of an earlier artist.

COUSTAIN, PIERRE, was a painter and sculptor
at the Court of Philip the Good. His name occurs
in the records of the brotherhood of St. Luke at
Bruges in the year 1450 as Painter Royal.

COUTAN, AJIABLE PAUL, was a French historical
painter, born in Paris in 1792. He studied under
Gros, and obtaining the Academy pension was thus
enabled later on to improve himself at Rome. Re-
turning to his native country he produced works,
representing chiefly classical and mythological sub-
jects, which realized considerable prices. He took
a part also in the labour of decorating with religious
subjects the church of Notre-Dame-de-Lorette. He
died in Paris in 1837.

CODTANT, JEAN Louis DENIS, a French en-
graver, born at Argenteuil in 1776, was a scholar

of Mechel of Basle. Among his principal works
are the plates for the great work on Egypt, for the
travels of Baron von Humboldt in the Cordilleiras,
for the fossil bones of Cuvier, for the 'Anatomy of
the Brain' by Langenbeck, and for Freycinet'a
'Voyage round the World.' The date of his death
has not been ascertained.

COUTELLIER, , a French engraver of the

latter part of the 18th century, is known by his
theatrical portraits, the best of which are those of
Mdlle. Olivier as Cherubino, and Mdlle. Contat as
Suzanne in the ' Mariage de Figaro.'

COUTURE, THOMAS, a French historical and
genre painter, was born at Senlis (Oise) in 1815. He
studied under Gros and Paul Delaroche, and in 1837
obtained the second 'Grand Prix de Rome.' His
lirst appearance at the Salon was in 1840, when he
exhibited 'A young Venetian after an Orgy.' In
1847 appeared the picture (now in the Luxembourg)
on which his fame chiefly rests, ' The Romans in
the Decadence of the Empire.' He obtained medals
in 1844, 1847, and 1855, and the Legion of Honour
in 1848. He decorated the Chapel of the Virgin in
the church of St. Eustache, Paris. Couture did not
live on terms of amity with the art world, as he be-
came involved in disputes, carried on with consider-
able warmth, as to the relation of his art with that
of the French classical school. He died at Villiers-
le-Bel in 1879. Besides the works already named,
the following are among his chief productions :

Joconde. 1844.

The Love of Money. 1844. (Toulouse Museum.)

The Falconer. 1855.

Voluntary Enlisting.

Baptism of the Prince Imperial.

Damocles. 1872.

COUVAY, JEAN, a French engraver, was born at
Aries in 1622. He worked almost entirely with
the graver, with an easy but delicate touch, his
style in some points resembling that of Villamena.
He sometimes marked his plates c-sj,

We have by him the following out of numerous
cuts :

Louis XIV. on Horseback, preceded by Fame ; after 8.

The Virgin and Child ; after Raphael.

St. John in the Desert ; after the same.

St. Benedict, tempted by the Devil, presenting a
Crucifix ; after Cruercino.

The Virgin ; after Blanchard.

A Magdalen ; half-length ; after Lebrun.

The Ascension ; after J. Stella.

The Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew ; after Poussin.

Mary, Queen of Scots ; her execution seen through the

A set of small prints, called ' Les Tableaux de la Peni-
tence ' ; after J. Chauveau.

Portrait of Nicolas Sevin ; after Van Mol.

COUVERCHEL, ALFRED, was born at Marseille-
le-Petit in 1834. He studied under Picot and
Horace Vernet. He made some advances in his
master's footsteps, and gained a certain ease and
freedom, but was unable to liberate himself from
a tendency to rawness in his colouring, a fault
which is apparent in his 'Battle of Magenta,'
painted in 1861. He died at Croissy in 1867.

landscape painter, was born at Delft in 1806, and
died at Arnhem in 1844.



line-engraver and draughtsman, the brother of



Abraham Johannes Couwenberg, was born at the
Hague in 1814, and died at Amsterdam in 1845.
He was a pupil of F. L. Huygens and of Taurel.
Besides engraving some portraits, he began a plate
of ' Mignon and her Father,' after Ary Scheffer,
which waa finished by Alphonse Francois, and
another after G. Dou's ' Menagere Hollandaise,'
which was completed by J. W. Kaiser.

COVYN, REINIEE and ISEEL, were two brothers,
who were natives of Brabant, and flourished at
Dordrecht about the middle of the seventeenth
century. The elder, Reinier, painted market women,
with dead game, vegetables, flowers, fruit, &c. A
landscape, by him, is in the Brunswick Gallery.
Isrel, the younger, attempted history, but was more
successful in portraits. Neither of them went
beyond mediocrity.

COWEN, WILLIAM, was a landscape painter, who
exhibited views in Ireland at the British Institution
in 1823, and sent landscape scenes in Switzerland,
Italy, and France to the Academy until 1839. In
1824 he published a series of six Italian and Swiss
views, and in 1848 ' Six Weeks in Corsica,' with
etchings by himself.

COWPER, DOUGLAS, was born at Gibraltar
in 1817. When seventeen years of age he won
from his parents who were unwilling to allow
him to become a painter a reluctant consent
to his leaving home, and making his way to
London, he obtained admission to the Royal
Academy schools, and soon carried off the silver
medal for the best copy in painting. His first
exhibited works, produced when only twenty
years of age, were a portrait and the ' Last Inter-
view,' followed in 1838 by ' Shylock, Antonio
and Bassanio,' and in 1839 by his master-piece,
' Othello relating his Adventures.' He exhibited
no more at the Academy, and he painted but five
more pictures, four of which he sent to the Suffolk
Street Gallery. He died in Guernsey in 1839, at
the early age of twenty-two, having lived only
just long enough to justify his own determination
to be an artist, and to show the world what great
things he might have done.

COX, DAVID, an eminent landscape painter both
in water-colours and in oil, was born at Deritend.
Birmingham, ou the 29th of April, 1783. As a
boy, he was taught to wield the large hammer used
in his father's trade, that of a whitesmith ; but, as
his mother feared he was too delicate for this work,
he was apprenticed in 1798 to a maker of lockets
and brooches, which he adorned with miniature
designs. He studied drawing at a night school
kept by Mr. Joseph Barker (q. .). He was, how-
ever, not very long engaged in this field of industry,
for his master died soon after he was apprenticed.
He next obtained employment as a colour-grinder
to the scene-painters of the Birmingham Theatre,
then under the management of the elder Macready.
From this subordinate post he very soon rose
to assist in the painting of scenes, and on one
occasion designed and executed the entire scenery
for a new play about to be produced. On the public
announcement of the piece, however, he was disap-
pointed at seeing the whole credit of his share in
its production given to an imaginary artist of
London fame, and remonstrated against being
thus robbed of his well-earned honours. Cox
did not remain much longer connected with the
management of the Birmingham and Leicester
theatres. In 1804 he came to London, and for a
time obtained employment in the scenic depart-

ment at Astley's Theatre, but only as a temporary
resource till other arrangements more suited to his
habits, which were of a homely turn, could be
made. In London he received a few lessons in
water-colour painting from John Varley. Shortly
after, he retired into private life, and made a
scanty income by teaching drawing, principally at
schools, and by making sketches, which he sold
for a few shillings each, but which are now worth
more than as many pounds. At length a wealthy
patron appeared who sought him out in his humble
retreat at Dulwich, and from this point his fortunes
began to move in advance. His pupils increased
in number, and in remunerativeness, and his
sketches began to command higher prices. In
1805 he took his first trip into North Wales, and
visited some of the most romantic spots of the
Principality, which was ever afterwards his
favourite haunt.

David Cox was elected a member of the Society
of Painters in Water-Colours in 1813, and in the
year following he was appointed a teacher at the
Military College at Farnham. This occupation,
however, did not suit him, and, probably for the
sake of the surrounding scenery, he removed to
Hereford in 1814, where he was drawing-master
in a ladies' school, and in the same year published
a 'Treatise on Landscape Painting and Effect in
Water-Colours.' He returned again to London in
1827, but finally retired to Harborne, near Birming-
ham, in 1841, where he resided until his death,
which occurred on the 7th of June, 1859.

Although best known by his water-colour draw-
ings, David Cox painted also in oil. He first
began to use this medium in 1839, in which year
he received some lessons from William Miiller.
The total number of his oil pictures has been
estimated by competent judges at a little over one
hundred, of which fifty-seven were exhibited at
Liverpool in 1875. Several of them were sold in
the Gillot sale in 1872 for very large amounts.
His best works in oil, and the dates at which they
were executed, are as follow:

Outskirts of a Wood. 1843.

Washing Day. 1843.

Caer Cennen Castle. 1844.

Vale of Clwyd. 1846 and 1848.

Peace and War. 1846.

Lancaster Castle. 1846.

Old Mill at Bettws. 1847. (Bury Art Gallery.)

Counting the Flock. 1847.

Changing Pasture. 1847. (Birmingham Art Gallery.)

Collecting thu Flocks. 1848.

Going to the Hayfield. 1849.

The Skylark. 1849.

The Welsh Funeral. 1850.

Rhyl Sands. 1854-5. (Birmingham Art Gallery.)

Skirts of the Forest. 1855-6. (Birmingham Art Gallery.)

The finest among the innumerable drawings
which David Cox produced in the course of his
fifty years' practice of art may also here be
mentioned :

Cader Idris. 1828.

Lancaster Sands. 1835.

Ulverstone Sands. 1835.

Hardwick Hall (three interior weirs). 1839.

The Stubble-field with Gleaners. 1843.

Bolsover Castle. 1843.

The Flood at Corwen. 1846.

The Outskirts of a Forest. 1846.

Caer Cennen Castle (the ' Eain Cloud'). 1847.

"Windsor Park. 1846.

Bolton Abbey. 1847.

The Skylark. 1848.


The Welsh Funeral. 1850.
Broom Gatherers on Chat Moss. 1S54.
Peat Gatherers returning from the Moors.
The Falls of the Llugwy. 1859.


Besides several ' Hayfield ' and ' Harvest ' subjects,
full of atmosphere and summer sunshine.

David Cox was the true child of nature. There
was a native simplicity in his character, and a
masculine vigour about his touch, which have
never been surpassed ; and his effects, whether
of mountain or dell or fruitful plain, of foam-
ing torrent or meandering stream, such as so
grandly diversify the scenery of this favoured
isle, were always striking, and often imposing,
though they never overstepped the modesty of

Wales was the country above all others which
Cox loved, and in the neighbourhood of Bettws-y-
coed he worked for years. " The little inn there,
' The Oak,' (writes the author of ' Our Living
Painters,' in 1859,) is indeed a classic spot, and
troops of painters now flock thither in the season,
sit in the parlour whose wall David Cox has him-
self decorated in fresco, and with pipe, and jug,
and talk while the long summer twilights pleasantly
away." There he painted for the ' Royal Oak ' the
sign-board which in 1 880 became the subject of a
law-suit, which happily ended in the picture re-
maining in the inn for which it was intended.

Forty-two drawings by David Cox were be-
queathed to the British Museum by Mr. John
Henderson in 1878, and there are twenty-two in the
South Kensington Museum, but most of them are
comparatively unimportant. Eighteen examples
were exhibited at the Manchester Art Treasures
Exhibition in 1857, upwards of twenty in the
International Exhibition of 186'2, and thirty-two
in the Leeds Exhibition of 1868. Special exhi-
bitions of his works were held at Hampstead in
1858, at the German Gallery in London in 1859,
at Manchester in 1870, and at the Liverpool Art
Club in 1875. Out of this last gathering arose the
project of a Cox ' Liber Studiorum,' in which the
plates were to have been engraved by the painter's
friend Edward Radclyffie, but the death of the
engraver caused the work to be abandoned when
only three plates ' Dudley Castle,' the 'Outskirts
of a Forest,' and 'Bala Lake,' had been completed.

An exhibition of nearly five hundred pictures
and drawings by Cox was held in the Birmingham
Corporation Art Gallery in 1890. This Gallery
has a collection of thirty-five landscapes in oil by
Cox which were bequeathed by Mr. J. H. Nettlefold.
There are also some good examples in the Bury
Art Gallery.

A ' Memoir of David Cox ' by Mr. Neal Solly was
published in 1875, and a ' Biography of David Cox '
by William Hall in 1881.

COX, DAVID, the younger, the only child of
David Cox the elder, was born at Dulwich in 1808.
He was a pupil and imitator of his father. Though
a good master, and socially a well-known figure,
he never attained to much reputation as an artist.
He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1827.
There is one water-colour drawing by him in the
Victoria and Albert Museum. From 1841 to 1846
he was a member of the Nw Society of Water-
Colour Painters. In 1848 he was elected an
Associate Exhibitor of the Society of Painters in
Water-Colours. He resided for the greater part
of his life in London. He died at Streatham Hill,
December 6, 1885.


COXCIEN or COXCYEN,) a Flemish painter, was born at
Mechlin in 1499. He was first instructed by his
father, Michiel van Coxie the elder, and afterwards
at Brussels by Barend van Orley, with whom he
visited Rome, and studied especially the works of
Raphael. Indeed, his almost servile imitation of
that master procured for him later the appellation
of the Flemish Raphael. His talents brought him
soon into notice, so that he was engaged for the
execution of several important works in that city,
and when he became acquainted with Vasari, he
had already painted two chapels in Santa Maria
dell' Anima. On his return to Flanders he was, in
1539, received a member of the Guild of St. Luke
at Mechlin, and came to be much employed. There
are many of his works in the churches of Brussels
and Antwerp that establish the real worth of his
talents. He also painted several large works for
the Emperor Charles V. and for Philip II., King of
Spain, by whom he was chosen court painter. He
died at Mechlin in 1592. The following are his
most important works :

Antwerp. Jlustum. Martyrdom of St. Sebastian. 1575.
Martyrdom of St. George.

Martyrdom of St. Margaret.

The Triumph of Christ.

Berlin. Gallery. The Adoration of the L amb.

The Almighty.

(farts of the altar-piece by the Van
Eycks at Ghent, which was copied
by him for Philip II. of Spain.
The rest of the copy is in the
Munich Gallery, and in St.Bavo
at Ghent.)
Bruges. Ch. of the St. Francis Xavier preaching to

Jesuits. the Heathen.
Brussels. Museum. The Last Supper.
Death of the Virgin.

., Christ derided by the Jews.

iS. Gudule. The Resurrection of Lazarus.

Christ washing the feet of the


Christ on the Mount of Olives.

Ghent. S. James. The Nativity.

Christ on the Cross between the

two Thieves.

Resurrection of Christ.

Madrid. Gallery. St. Cecilia.

Scenes from the Life of the Virgin.

Petersburg. Hermitage. The Annunciation.
Vienna. Gnllery. Virgin and Child.

He also designed 32 subjects from the Fable of
Cupid and Psyche, which are amongst his beet
works. They have been engraved by Agostino
Veneziano and the Master of the Die. In con-
junction with Barend van Orley, he undertook the
direction of the execution of some tapestry made
after Raphael's cartoons. His son, RAPHAEL VAN
COXIE, who was received as a Master in the Guild
of St. Luke at Antwerp in 1585, was much inferior
to his father. He was born at Mechlin in 1540,
and died at Brussels in 1616.


Noel (1C2S1707).

1st. Madeleine Horault (lOOi 1GS2)-

Antoine (16611722).
Charles Antoine (1694-1762).

2nd, Anne Francoise Perin
(died 1728).

Noel Nicolas (16921734).

COYPEL, ANTOINE, the son of Noel Coypel,
was born in Paris in 1661. His father instructed
him in the art of painting, and took him when but
eleven years of age to Rome, where he had been



appointed director of the French Academy. But
neither the masterpieces of Rome, nor the example
of his father, could inspire him with a feeling for
the truly grand and beautiful. He preferred the
style and counsel of Berniui to the study of Raphael
and the Carracci ; and the depravity of his taste was
confirmed by his returning to Paris at the age of
eighteen ; that is to say, he left Rome precisely at
the time that he should have gone there. He was
only nineteen when he painted his picture of the
1 Assumption ' for the cathedral of Notre-Dame, and
but twenty when he was received into the Academy.
He was taken into the employment of the court,
and became one of the most popular painters of
his time. It is curious to compare the criticism of
two of the most esteemed of the French biogra-
phers respecting the works of this painter. " No
artist," says D'Argenville, " possessed the poetry of
the art in a higher degree than Antoine Coypel.
Formed by nature for the grandest compositions,
the fertility of his genius displays itself through
all his works. He was graceful in the airs of his
heads, painted children in the greatest perfection,
and was, above all, attentive in expressing with
propriety the passions of the soul." A less favour-
able judgment is pronounced by Watelet : " Be-
cause," says that writer, "he was equal to the
production of a great machine in the theatrical
sty^, he was conceived to possess the poetry of the
art ; because he gave to his heads a physiognomy
purely French, they are thought to be beautiful.
His coquetry is called grace, a grace to be learned
of the dancing-master. He consulted the comedian
Baron for the attitudes of his most exalted charac-
ters, and travestied a hero of antiquity into a
puppet of the theatre."

It cannot, however, be denied that Antoine
Coypel possessed those qualities which are found
in the artists most admired in his country, quali-
ties which perhaps were necessary to the gratifica-
tion of national feeling, and the acquisition of
popularity. His principal works in Paris were,
' Christ among the Doctors,' and the ' Assump-
tion,' in the cathedral of Notre-Dame ; and ' Christ
healing the Blind at Jericho,' at the Carthusians.
He was much employed in decorating the royal
palaces, and was made principal painter to the
king in 1716, besides holding other important
posts. The Louvre possesses his ' Athaliah driven
from the Temple,' ' Susannah accused by the
Elders,' ' Esther before Ahasuerus,' and ' Rebecca
and Eliezer,' as well as between two and three
hundred drawings and sketches by him. His
own portrait by himself is in the Uffizi, Florence ;
the Lille Gallery possesses a picture of ' Athalide
et Roxane,' taken from the ' Bajazet' of Racine ;
and the Bordeaux Museum, a ' Triumph of Apollo.'
In the Dublin National Gallery is a picture of
' Christ healing one possessed by a Devil,' dated
1717. Antoine Coypel died in Paris in 1722. We
have by him several etchings, executed in a finished
and masterly style, among which are the following :

Melohizedek presenting the Bread to Abraham.

Judith ; half-length ; finished by Simoneau.

The Baptism of Christ.

Ecce Homo ; finished by Simoneau.

The Virgin and Infant, in an oval.

The Virgin suckling the Infant.

St. Cecilia.

Cupid conquering Pan.

Bacchus and Ariadne; finished by G. Audran; very

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