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fine. 1693.
The Triumph of Galatea ; finished by Simoneau ; fine.

346



The Head of Democntus. 1692.

The Portrait of La Voisin, who was broken on the
wheel for poisoning ; two plates, large and small.

COYPEL, CHARLES ANTOINE, a painter and
3tcher, who was the son of Antoine Coypel, was
5orn in Paris in 1694. He was instructed by his
: ather, whose style be followed, although in a very
nferior manner. He quitted historical subjects to
jaint bambochades, but was not successful even
,vith these, his taste for the theatre frequently
Betraying itself in his pictures in the artificial com-
position and in the forced position of his figures.
There are two specimens of his work to be seen
_n the Louvre. He executed a portrait of himself
it about the age of fifty, in which he is represented
eaning against a table, and holding a porte-crayon.
[n fact, his best works as a painter are his por-
;raits ; that of Adrienne Le Couvreur has been
idmirably engraved by Pierre Imbert Drevet. C. A.
Coypel etched a series of the Muses, a caricature
Histoire d'une Devote,' and some other subjects
a la mode, which are of but little interest. He
died in Paris in 1752.

COYPEL, NOEL, a French painter, was born in
Paris in 1628. He was first placed under the
:uition of an artist named Poncet, at Orleans ; but
it the age of fourteen he became a scholar of Quil-
erier, under whom he acquired sufficient ability to
De employed by Charles Errard, who was charged
with the superintendence of the wjorks at the
Louvre. It was not long before he distinguished
liimself, and he was received into the Academy in
1663. The picture he painted for his reception
was 'Cain and Abel.' It was about the same
time that he painted his celebrated picture of the
' Martyrdom of St. James,' for the cathedral of
Notre-Dame. He was now regarded as one of the
ablest artists of France, and was appointed by the
king director of the French Academy at Rome.
Thither he went in 1672, and presided over the
Academy with great reputation for three years.
It was during his residence there that he painted
his four easel pictures for the king's cabinet, repre-
senting ' Solon explaining his laws to the Athenians,'
'Trajan giving public audience to the Romans,'
' Ptolemy Philadelphus giving liberty to the Jews,'
and ' Alexander Severus distributing corn to the
Roman People.' These pictures were publicly
exposed at Rome in the Rotonda, and gained him
great reputation. They are now placed in the
gallery of the Louvre, where is also preserved his
picture of ' Cain and Abel,' as well as several other
paintings representing classical subjects. He
appears to have imitated in these works the style
of Poussin and Le Sueur. His colouring is tender,
warm, and clear, and his execution careful. After
his return to Paris, Coypel was employed on several
fresco paintings in the Tuileries. His last work,
the fresco of the ' Assumption of the Virgin,' over
the high-altar of the church of the Invalides, was
executed at the advanced age of 78, and may be
considered as one of his best productions. A
picture by him of 'Susannah accused of Adultery'
is in the Madrid Gallery ; and the Bordeaux Museum
has an ' Allegory ' by him. Many of his paintings
have been engraved by Poilly, Duchange, Cochin,
and others. Noel Coypel married in 1659 MADE-
LEINE HEBATJLT, the sister of Charles Herault,
the landscape painter, and herself an artist of
ability. She was born in 1635, and died in Paris
in 1682. In 1685 Coypel married, as his second
wife, ANNE FEANQOISE PERIN, a young artist whose



PAINTEES AND ENGRAVERS.



works have long since been forgotten. He died
in Paris in 1707. His widow married Francois
Bonart, a painter and engraver, and died in Paris
in 1728. Noel Coypel has etched the following
plates :

The Virgin caressing the Infant Jesus.

The same subject ; larger.

The Holy Family.

COYPEL, Nofir, NICOLAS, a painter and etcher,
born in Paris in 1692, was a younger son of Noel
Coypel. He received his first instruction from his
father, whom he had the misfortune to lose when
he was fifteen years of age. It does not appear
that he had the advantage of seeing Italy ; he
studied from the best works of art in his own
country, and became of sufficient celebrity to be
received into the Academy in 1720, when he was
twenty-eight years of age. His reception picture
was ' Neptune carrying off Amymone.' Amongst
his best works were, the ceiling of the chapel of the
Virgin in the church of St. Saviour, and the altar-
piece in the same chapel, representing the Assump-
tion. His ' Triumph of Amphitrite,' painted in
1727, was considered the best work that entered
the lists for the royal prize then offered. There
are several other works of this artist in the churches
of Paris. He died in Paris in 1734. We have the
four following plates etched by him :

St. Theresa, with several Angels

The Triumph of Amphitrito.

Jupiter and Autiope.

A young "SVoman caressing a Dove ; afterwards finished
by N. Edelinck.

COZENS, ALEXANDER, a natural son of Peter the
Great and an Englishwoman from Deptford, was
born in Russia at the beginning of the 18th cen-
tury, but studied painting in Italy, and then pro-
ceeded, in 1746, to England, where he died, in
London, in 1786. He exhibited at the Royal
Academy from 1772 to 1781. Some tastefully-
designed pen-and-ink sketches by him are in the
British Museum, but he chiefly devoted himself to
giving instruction and writing various books on
art, adorned with numerous illustrations, among
which are ' The Principles of Beauty, relative to the
Human Head' (1778), and 'The Shape, Skeleton,
and Foliage of Trees' (1771). The South Ken-
sington Museum has two Landscapes by him.

COZENS, JOHN ROBERT, the son of Alexander
Cozens, was born in London in 1752. He visited
Italy, and after his return, in 1783, painted in water-
colours with great success. He possessed great
taste in representing scenes of a still, tender,
or melancholy nature. In 1794 he became de-
ranged, and died in 1799. The South Kensington
Museum has five examples of his work.

COZZA, CARLO, was the son of Giovanni Battista
Cozza, and was born at Ferrara about the year
1700. He was instructed by his father, in whose
style he painted several pictures for the churches of
his native city. In the Chiesa Nuova is a picture
by him of the ' Annunciation ; ' in Santa Lucia
of ' St. Anthony the Abbot ; ' and in San Matteo
of 'St. Francis of Paola.' He died at Ferrara in
1769.

COZZA, FRANCESCO, a painter and etcher, was
a Calabrian, born at Istilo in 1605. He went
early in life to Rome, and became a scholar of
Domenichino, to whom he attached himself by the
most marked affection, and, according to the Abbate
Titi, finished some of the works of that master
after his death. He was received into the Aca-



demy at Rome in 1650, and died in that city in
1682. One of his best works is the ' Vergine del
Riscatto,' in the church of Santa Francesca Romana
at Rome. The Copenhagen Museum possesses a
' Landscape, with Hagar and the Angel,' by him.
He etched several excellent plates in the style of
Pietro del Po, as :

St. Peter. 1C30.

Cimon and Pera.

Christ sleeping and adored by Angels.

St. Mary Magdalene. 1650.

COZZA, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, was born at Milan
in 1676. While he was yet young he settled at
Ferrara, where he was much employed for the
churches. Without great correctness of design,
he possessed a copious invention, and an unusual
facility of handling. Of his numerous works at
Ferrara, the following are the principal. In the
cathedral, the ' Immaculate Conception ; ' at the
Ognissanti, the ' Holy Family ; ' in Santa Lucia,
the ' Annunciation ; ' and in San Guglielmo, the
' Assumption of the Virgin.' He died at Ferrara in
1742.

COZZALE, GRAZIO, (or COSSALE,) was a native
of Brescia, who flourished about the year 1605.
He is said by Cozzando, in his ' Ristretto della
Storia Bresciana,' to have possessed an uncommon
readiness of invention, and in his larger works
appears to have imitated the style of Palma
without having sunk into his mannerism. His
principal works are, the ' Adoration of the Magi,' in
S. Maria delle Grazie, at Brescia ; and the ' Pre-
sentation in the Temple,' in S. Maria de' Miracoli.
This artist was assassinated by one of his sons.

CRAASBECKE. See CRAESBEECK.

CRABBE, FRANS, (or VAN ESPLEGHEM,) was a
Flemish painter, who became a master of the Guild
of St. Luke at Mechlin in 1501, and is supposed to
be the same as FRANS MINNEEROER. He was the son
of Jan Crabbe, a painter, but it is not known under
whom he studied. He painted in tempera, and
possessed the faculty of giving his works so much
vigour that they seem to be oil paintings. His
heads are in the style of Quintin Massys, but in all
other respects his portraits resemble those of Lucas
van Leyden. His principal work was a triptych
painted over the high altar of the church of the
Franciscan convent at Mechlin, the principal subject
of which was the ' Saviour on the Cross,' but this
perished when the church was sacked by the Gueux
in the 16th century. Crabbe died at Mechlin in
1553, leaving a son, Jan Crabbe, who was also a
painter, and who died at Mechlin in 1576.

Crabbe is probably identical with the engraver
who is known as the 'Master of the Crab,' by
whom we have 50 plates, mostly in the style of
Lucas van Leyden, but in some cases in that of
Jan van Mabuse. They are described in Bartsch's
' Peintre-Graveur,' vii. 527, and Passavant's
1 Peintre-Graveur,' iii. 15, and among them the
following are the best :

The Annunciation.

The Nativity.

Christ taking leave of His Mother.

The Passion ; fourteen plates.

Christ on the Cross.

Ecce Homo.

The Four Evangelists ; four plates.

Jephthah's Daughter.

Esther before Ahasuerus.

Lucretia.

CRABETH, ADRIAEN, of Gouda. Three por-

347



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



traits, in one picture, bearing the date 1560, attri-
buted to him, are in the Darmstadt Gallery.

CRABETH, DIRK and WOOTEK, two brothers,
were natives of Gouda. They flourished about
the years 1560-1620, and surpassed all their pre-
decessors in the art. Their principal works were
fourteen of the seventy-five windows of the great
church of St. John at Gouda. The best are the
1 Baptism of Christ,' ' Our Saviour driving the
Buyers and Sellers from the Temple,' and the
'Last Supper,' all by Dirk Crabeth ; and 'The
Offering of Elijah before the Priests of Baal,' the
'Nativity,' and the 'Sacrilege of Heliodorus,' all
by Wouter Crabeth, the last-named being his
master-piece, and the finest of all the windows.
Although fine compositions, they are not in the
best style of the art, and are rather poor in colour.
Wouter visited France and Italy, and left in
every town where he resided one of his glass-
paintings. He distinguished himself by the light
and brilliancy of his colouring, whilst Dirk ex-
celled more in his vigorous touch.

CRABETH, WOUTER PIETERSZOON, the younger,
a grandson of the artist of the same names, was a
scholar of Cornelis Ketel. After visiting France
and Italy, and studying the works of the best
masters in Rome, he settled down in Gouda in
1628 as a portrait and historical painter. In 1628
he painted for the church of Purmerende an
' Assumption of the Virgin,' and in 1644 a ' Feast of
a Shooting Club,' which is still preserved at Gouda.

CRABETJE. See ASSELIJN.

CRACO, JAN, a Dutch portrait painter, who
flourished in the latter half of the 18th century,
was a native of Utrecht. He afterwards resided
at Amsterdam, in which city lie died.

CRADOCK, LUKE, an English painter of birds,
dead game, and animals, in which he particularly
excelled. He was born at Somerton, near Ilchester,
about the year 1660, and served an apprenticeship
to a house-painter in London. Without the help
of an instructor, he became a faithful delineator
of birds and animals, which he painted with a free-
dom and a fire that entitled him to more dis-
tinction and a more liberal remuneration than he
received during his life. After his death, as has
but too frequently been the lot of artists, his
works were sold at three or four times the price
he received for them when living. He died in
London in 1717.

CRADOCK, MART. See BEALE.

CRAESBEECK, JOOST VAN, (CRAASBECKE, or
GRAASBECK,) the pot companion and scholar of
Adriaan Brouwer, was born at Neerlinter, in South
Brabant, in 1608. He was bred a baker, and had
settled at Antwerp in that capacity at the time
when Brouwer visited that city. Alike in their
habits of debauchery, an acquaintance sprang up
between them, and Brouwer became Craesbeeck's
inmate on quitting the protection of Rubens.
Craesbeeck forsook his oven, and became the dis-
ciple of his friend, and it is surprising that a
person who had never practised painting until he
had reached the age of thirty should have arrived
at a proficiency which is sufficient to rank him
among the meritorious artists of his country, par-
ticularly as a colourist. He was inscribed as a
citizen of Antwerp in 1631. In 1633-34 he entered
the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp, and in 1651 that
at Brussels, where he was still living in 1654. The
date of his death is not known, but it was cer-
tainly before 1662. His paintings represent scenes

348



in taverns, guard-room subjects, low fights, and
drunken brawls. Those of his works that are of
a nobler character are executed in the style of
Rembrandt, and painted with a fine chiaroscuro, a
delicate brush, and an excellent colouring.

Among his paintings, many of which are signed
J. V. G.B.I there are the following:

Amsterdam. Museum. Portrait of Hugo de Groot.
Kerlin. Gallery. Peasant with felt hat.

Madrid. Gallery. The Marriage Contract.

Paris. Louvre. The Artist himself painting a por-

trait.

Petersburg. Hermitage. Le Lever.
Schleissheim. Aren- \ The Artist's Studio, with Brou-

berg Gallery. J wer's portrait.
Vienna. Gallery. Soldiers and Women talking.

CRAEYER, GASPAR DE. See DE GRAYER.

CRAFT, WILLIAM H., an enamel painter, ex-
hibited fancy and allegorical subjects and portraits
at the Royal Academy from 1774 to 1781. He
died after 1787. He was most probably a brother
of Thomas Craft, who was an artist at the Bow
Porcelain Works.

CRAIG, WILLIAM MAESHALL, exhibited at times
at the Royal Academy, from 1788 till 1827. He
first lived at Manchester, but settled in London
about 1791. He was painter in water-colours to
the Queen, and miniature painter to the Duke and
Duchess of York. He also excelled as a draughts-
man on wood, and as a book illustrator, and he
published in 1821 ' Lectures on Drawing, Paint-
ing, and Engraving.' He is said to have been a
nephew of Thomson, the poet. ' The Wounded
Soldier ' by him is in the Water-Colour Gallery at
the South Kensington Museum.

CRAMER, NICOLAAS, a Dutch painter, was born
at Leyden in 1670. According to Van Gool, he
was for some time a scholar of Willem Mieris,
but afterwards studied under Karel De Moor, whose
manner he followed. He painted subjects taken
from private life, and portraits in small. His
pictures of that description are seen in the best
collections in Holland, and are deservedly admired.
He died in 1710.

CRAMER, PETER, who was born at Copenhagen
in 1726, was a self-taught artist who prepared the
drawings for the illustration of Norden's ' Travels
in Egypt,' and then became a decorative and the-
atrical painter. Together with this occupation he
executed popular Danish scenes in the style of
Teniers, and several of his pictures were engraved
by Haas, Kleve, and Clemens. He died at Copen-
hagen in 1782.

CRANACH, HANS, appears to have been a third
son of Lucas Cranach the elder. Schuchardt, who
discovered his existence, credits him with an altar-
piece at Weimar, signed with the monogram H. C.,
and dated 1537. He was still living in 1553.

CRANACH, JOHANN LUCAS, the eldest son of
Lucas Cranach the elder, was born about 1503.
He died at Bologna in 1536. Luther mentions his
death in his 'Table Talk,' and Johann Stigel, a
contemporary poet, celebrates him as a painter.

CRANACH, LUCAS, (or KRANACH). The proper
name of this master is a matter of some uncer-
tainty. Of late years it has been thought to be
SUNDER, and he is to be found in most histories
under that name, but Herr Warnecke (' Lucas
Cranach der Aeltere,' 1879,) has recently brought
forward evidence to show that it was MULLER, as
formerly supposed. This evidence, however, chiefly
consists in a phrase in a narrative of Valentin



LUCAS CRANACH




Bruckmann photo] \Dresdm Gallery

THE AGONY IN THE GARDEN



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Sternenboke, written in 1609, which runs aa
follows "And the Emperor asked him how he
was called, and he replied that he was called by his
parents Lucas Muller, out of the town of Cranach
in Franconia, but on account of his art he was styled
Lucas the Painter, and the Elector of Saxony had
named him, from his native land, Lucas Cranach."
The evidence for the name of Sunder likewise
rests on very slight foundation.

But whatever be his name, he was certainly
born at Kronach in the bishopric of Bamberg
on the 4th of October, 1472. He is said to have
learnt his art from his father, who is supposed
also to have been a painter, though none of his
works remain. It is not known where his early
years were spent, but it is surmised that he lived
some time in Gotha, where he married a cer-
tain Barbara Brengbier, who, although affirmed by
tradition to have been extremely ugly, is never-
theless celebrated as having been a most excellent
wife and mother. He is stated to have accom-
panied the Elector Frederick the Wise to the
Holy Land in 1493, but this is not certain. In
1504 we find him established at Wittenberg as
court painter to Frederick the Wise, who in 1508
bestowed on him a coat of arms and patent of
nobility. He was evidently a man of importance
in Wittenberg, for he was twice (in 1537 and 1540)
elected Burgomaster of the town, where he carried
on, besides his large art workshops, a book-printing
business and an apothecary's shop. His house in
Wittenberg, called the " Adler," was standing till
1871, when it was unfortunately destroyed by fire.

In 1509 Cranach was sent by the Elector on an
embassy to the art-loving Emperor Maximilian,
but nothing is known as to their intercourse, ex-
cept that he took the portrait of the young Prince,
afterwards Charles V. Cranach, however, after-
wards executed some of the drawings in what is
called 'Maximilian's Prayer-book,' so one may
imagine that some relations continued to exist
between them. Cranach held the office of court
painter to the House of Saxony under three suc-
cessive Electors, the last being the noble but
ill-fated Frederick the Magnanimous, to whom he
was so much attached, that after the battle of
Muhlberg in 1547, he shared and enlivened his
captivity at Augsburg, being also, it is said, instru-
mental in procuring his release from Charles V.
In 1552, when the Elector was at last set free,
Cranach, then a very old man, followed his lord
to Weimar, where our master died at the age of
80, on the 16th of October, 1553.

Lucas Cranach may be regarded as pre-eminently
the painter of the German Reformation. Although
not approaching Diirer and Holbein in intellectual
power and aesthetic perfection, he was moved even
more deeply than they by the religious influences of
the times. The influences of the Renaissance were
also at work in his art, as seen by the numerous
classical subjects he has depicted so naively ; and
moreover, there may be traced in it a sort of homely
humour, which no doubt caused Kugler to compare
him to Hans Sachs. He was the intimate friend
of Luther, whom he has several times represented
in his pictures, and embracing his doctrine warmly,
he endeavoured to set it forth in his art.

His reputed paintings are somewhat unequal in
merit, but this is chiefly because many of those
ascribed to him are merely atelier-works, done under
his direction by his sons and pupils. Among the
most important of his paintings may be mentioned -



Augsburg. Rathhaus. Samson and Delilah.
Jerlin. Gallery. Venus and Cupid stung by a Bee.
Karlsruhe. The Judgment of Paris.

?lorenoe. Uffizi. Adam and Eve.

Jotha. Gallery. The Fall and Redemption of Man.
jeipsic. The Repose in Egypt. 1504.

(Formerly in the Sciarra Palace,
Some.)

Museum. A Dying Man.

Vlunich. Gallery. Woman taken in Adultery.
Petersbrg. Hermitage. Madonna under the Apple-tree.
Schneeberg. Stadtkirche. The Crucifixion, Last Supper,

&c. (an altar-piece}.

'Weimar. Stadtkirche. Crucifixion, with portraits of
Luther, Melauchthon, and the
painter himself.
Wb'rlitz. Gothic House. St. George and the Dragon.

Several of these subjects were treated frequently
by Cranach, and replicas of them are to be found
in many galleries. It is indeed very difficult to
distinguish his works from those of the master
now known as the ' Pseudo-Griinewald,' and from
those of his son Lucas Cranach the younger.
Lucas Cranach the elder, as he is called to distin-
guish him from his son, always painted in oils on
wooden panels. His colouring is warm and rich,
but his drawing is usually defective. He excelled
in portraiture, and evidently delighted in it, for he
often introduces portraits of his friends into his
pictures. His female portraits have a sort of
naive grace that renders them very pleasing.
There is one by him in the National Gallery of a
young girl in elaborate costume, which is entirely
characteristic.

He was fond also of drawing birds and animals,
and often depicted hunting scenes. His art indeed
may be defined as thoroughly national, homely
and individual, marked by cheerful fancy and
quaint invention, sometimes bordering on carica-
ture. He had three sons, who are believed to
have been painters', but only his second son, Lucas
Cranach, the younger, acquired any reputation.
Cranach usually signed both his paintings and
engravings with the crest granted him by the
Elector Frederick a flying dragon with a crown
upon its head. He is said to have painted so
rapidly that on his tombstone he was described as
'celerrimus pictor.'

But it is as an engraver rather than as a painter
that Cranach is best known. Heller describes
more than 800 prints by him. These are mostly
wood-cuts, but he executed also a few copper-plates.
These are now rare, though some of his wood-
engravings are often met with. Drawings also
by him are to be found in most public collections.

PRINCIPAL COPPER ENGRAVINGS.
The Penitence of St. John Chrysostom. 1509.
Three portraits of Luther, dated 1519, 1520, and 1521.
Portraits of the Elector Frederick III., with an angel

holding a crown of laurel.
Portraits of otKer Electors.

PRINCIPAL WOOD ENGRAVINGS.
Passion of Christ. A series of 15 cuts.

The Martyrdom of the Apostles. 1549. 12
Christ and the Apostles. 14

The Wittenberg Hagiology. 1509. 119

Passional Christi et Antichristi. 1521. 26
Hortulus Animae. 33 ^

Adam and Eve in Paradise surrounded by animals.

(B. 1.)

The Repose in Egypt, with dancing angels. (B. 4.)
Christ and the Samaritan Woman. (B. 22.)
Temptation of St. Anthony. (B. 56.)
St. Christopher. (B. 58.)
St. Jerome in the Desert. (B. 63.)



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Beheading of John the Baptist. (B. 62.)
Venus and Cupid. (B. 113.)
Judgment of Paris. (B. 114.)
Marcus Curtius. (B. 112.)

Bibliography: Heller: 'Lucas Cranach's Leben
undWerke,' 2nd ed., 1854. Schuchardt : 'Lucas
Cranach des Aeltern Leben und Werke,' 3 vole.
1851 1871. Eiseinann: 'Kunst und Kiinstler,'
vol. i. Warnecke : ' Lucas Cranach der Aeltere,'
1879. Bartsch: ' Le Peintre-Graveur,' vii. 273;
Passavant : ' Le Peintre-Graveur,' iv. 1. M jf jj

CRANACH, LUCAS, the younger, was the second
eon of Lucas Cranach the elder. He was born
in 1515, and received his education in art in his
father's workshops. He is weaker in drawing
than his father, and softer in colouring, bnt it is
difficult to distinguish their works, for he signed
with the same mark, the flying dragon, though,
according to Schuchardt, the dragon of the son may
be known by its wings being folded. All pictures
after the date 1553, (that of his father's death,)
may be safely ascribed to him, and many such
exist. J. A. Crowe, in the last edition of Kugler's
' Handbook,' mentions several in the principal
church at Wittenberg. One of these he describes
as a singular work bearing " distinct reference to
the state of the Church in his time." It represents
the vineyard of the Lord, ' one half of which is
being destroyed by the clergy of the Romish



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