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Church, whilst the heroes of the Reformation are
employed in cultivating the other," and is dated
1569. By this it is clear that he must have had the
same warm Protestant sympathies as his father.
Other paintings by him are :

Berlin. Gallery. The Fountain of Youth. 1546.

Brunswick. Gallery. Preaching of John the Baptist.

1 Dresden. Gallery. Crucifixion.

Portraits of the Electors Maurice

and Augustus.

Leipsic. Museum. Crucifixion. 1557.
Munich. Gallei-y. Virgin and Child with Grapes.
Nordhausen. Kaising of Lazarus.

TVittenberg. Stadtkirchc. Nativity.

He, like his father, appears to have been a man
of importance in Wittenberg, for he also filled
the office of Burgomaster. He died at Wittenberg
in 1586. No engravings by him are known, but
it is believed that he furnished the designs for the
woodcuts in Luther's translation of the Bible,
printed at Leipsic in 1542, as well as for some por-
traits, among which is a series of the Princes of
Saxony. (See Passavant's ' Peintre-Graveur,' iv.
24.) M. M. H.

CRANCH, JOHN, who was born at Kingsbridge,
Devon, in 1751, practised historical and portrait
painting as an amateur, with no great success, in
London and Bath, where he died in 1821. His
best work was the ' Death of Chatterton.' He
excelled in so-called 'poker pictures.' The South
Kensington Museum possesses a work by him,
entitled 'Playing with Baby' (1795).

CRANE, THOMAS, was born at Chester in 1808.
Showing early a taste for art, in 1824 he came up
to London, where he joined the schools of the
Academy, and remained two years, obtaining, in
1825, the medal for his drawings from the antique.
Returning to Chester, he commenced his profession
as a miniature painter, and not very long after, he
published, in conjunction with a brother, some
sketches of celebrated characters in North Wales,


among whom were Lady Eleanor Butler and Miss
Ponsonby, the eccentric " Ladies of Llangollen."
In 1832 he made his first appearance as an exhibitor
at the Liverpool Academy, and continued to con-
tribute to that Institution for many years. In
1835 he was elected an Associate, and in 1838 a
full member of that Academy. But the delicate
state of his health would not permit of his re-
maining in that town, and he removed to Torquay,
where he resided twelve years, occasionally visit-
ing the scene of his earlier connections in the
North, where he procured lucrative commissions.
He died in London in 1859. Crane was most success-
ful in portraits of females and children, both in oil
and water-colours ; his treatment of such subjects
being so elegant and so full of fancy as almost to
make them ideal works, yet without compromising
their likeness. He also painted figure subjects,
as: 'The First Whisper of Love,' 'The Deserted
Village,' ' The Cobbler,' ' The Old Romance,' ' The
Bay Window,' and ' Masquerading,' most of which
were exhibited at the Royal Academy.

scape painter, was born at Amsterdam in 1754.
He was a pupil of Barbiers, but at the age of thirty
he abandoned painting for the counting-house.
He, however, continued to make many excellent
copies of the works of the old masters, and died at
Amsterdam in 1832.

CRANSSE. JAN, a Flemish painter, was born at
Antwerp in 1480. He painted historical subjects,
and was received into the Guild of St. Luke at
Antwerp in 1523, and became dean thereof in
1535. Van Mander speaks highly of a picture by
this master which was formerly in the cathedral of
Antwerp, representing ' Christ washing the Feet of
His Disciples.' Two panels of coats of arms, one
of the Chamber of Rhetoric of Diest, and the other
of that of Turnhout, by him, are in the Antwerp

CRAPELET, Louis AMABLE, a French water-
colour painter, born at Auxerre in 1822, studied
under Corot, Durand-Brager, and Sechan. He went
to Egypt in 1852, and ascended the Nile as far as
the third cataract, returning to France in 1854.
Many of his drawings were the result of this expe-
dition. He died at Marseilles in 1867.

CRASTONA, GIOSEKFO, was born at Pavia in
1664, and was a scholar of Bernardino Ciceri. He
excelled in painting landseapes and views of the
vicinity of Rome, from designs he had made during
a long residence in that city ; and these pictures,
according to Orlandi, were greatly in vogue in his
time. He died in 1718.

landscape painter, was born at Cowden, near
Dalkeith, in 1806. His father was a land surveyor,
and Crawford was apprenticed when a boy to a
house-painter in Edinburgh. Shortly afterwards,
however, his indentures were cancelled, and he
entered the Trustees' Academy, then under Andrew
Wilson. In 1833 he paid the first of several visits
to Holland. In 1839 he was elected an associate,
and in 1848 a full member of the Scottish Academy.
He died at Lasswade on September 29, 1885.
His art was closely akin to that of Thomson of
Duddingston. Works :

Edinburgh. & Nat. Gall. Group of Trees.

Coast scene, North Berwick.

Close hauled, crossing the Bar.

CRAWFORD, WILLIAM, a Scotch portrait and


Brogi photJ\

\Uffisi Gallery, l-'loience



genre painter, was a native of Ayr. His father
placed him at the Trustees' Academy, under Sir
William Allan, where he gained a travelling bursary,
which enabled him to study in Rome for about two
years. On his return he conducted the drawing
classes of the Trustees' Academy for several years,
and also occasionally contributed art criticisms to
Edinburgh newspapers. His crayon portraits, of
which a good many were exhibited at the Royal
Academy in London, were much sought after. He
was elected an Associate of the Royal Scottish
Academy in 1862. Among his genre paintings we
may mention his ' Highland Keeper's Daughter '
(1865), ' Waiting for the Ferry,' ' Return from May-
ing,' and ' Too Late,' a striking picture exhibited
at the Royal Scottish Academy in 1869, in which
year he died.


CREDI, LORENZO DI, whose surname appears to
have been BARDUCCI, and not Sciarpelloni, as stated
by Vasari, was born at Florence in 1459. He was a
disciple of Andrea del Verrocchio at the time that
Perugino and Leonardo da Vinci were studying
under that master. Lorenzo displayed a preference
for the style of Leonardo over that of his instructor,
and copied the paintings of the former with great
success ; whilst the graceful and expressive manner
in which he painted Madonnas and Holy Families
remind one somewhat of the style of Perugino. He
died at Florence in 1537. He also practised the
art of sculpture, and Verrocchio in his will ex-
pressed a desire that the completion of his famous
equestrian statue of Bartolommeo Colleoni should
be intrusted to Lorenzo. It was, however, given
by the Venetians to Alessandro Leopardo to finish.
Giovanni Antonio Sogliani and Tommaso di Stef ano
were his pupils. The following paintings by him
may be noted :

Berlin. Gallery.

Dresden. Gallery.

Florence. Academy.

London. Nat. Gall.

Naples. Museum.



Paris. Louvre.

" "


Rome. Borghese Gall.
Turin. Jlfuseum.

Madonna and Child.

St. Mary of Egypt.

Madonna and St. John.

Madonna and Child, with SS.
Sebastian and John the

The Nativity.

Portrait of a man.

Christ appearing to the Magda-

Portrait of Andrea del Verroc-

The Annunciation.

The Virgin and Child.

The Virgin adoring the Infant

The Nativity.


Madonna dell' Olivella.

Virgin and Child.

Christ and the Magdalen.

Madonna and Saints.

Virgin and Child, with St. John
the Baptist.

Virgin and Child.

CREED, CARET, was an English engraver, who
published, in 1731, a set of plates of the statues and
busts at Wilton House, which possess considerable

CREED, ELIZABETH, a daughter of Sir Gilbert
Pickering, Bart., and cousin to the poet Dryden,
was born in 1642. She married a gentleman
named Creed, of Oundle, in Northamptonshire, and,
as an amateur, painted altar-pieces for several
churches in the neighbourhood, and also portraits
.of her friends. She died in 1728.

CREGAN, MARTIN, a portrait painter, practised
both in Dublin and London. He was born in
1788, and was a member of the Royal Hibernian
Academy from its foundation in 1823, and for
many years its President. From 1812 to 1821,
whilst he resided in London, he exhibited yearly
at the Royal Academy. His last contribution was
a portrait of Miss Dance as 'Mrs. Haller.' He
returned to Dublin in 1822, and was patronized by
the elite of that city. He died in 1870. The
Dublin National Gallery has a copy by him of Sir
Joshua Reynolds's portrait of Master Crewe.

CREMONA, ANTONIO DA, an Italian engraver
on wood, who flourished about the year 1560.
Among other prints, he engraved a cut representing
' Mutius Scasvola burning his hand in the presence
of Porsena.' It is executed on a single block,
without any cross-hatching. He is supposed to
be identical with Antonio Campi.
' CREMONA, NiccOL6 DA, was a native of Cre-
mona, who flourished about the year 1518. Accord-
ing to Masini ('Bologna perlustrata ') he was a
good painter of history. For Santa Maria Mad-
dalena, at Bologna, he painted a picture of the
' Descent from the Cross ; ' dated in 1518. In the
Bologna Gallery is the ' Marriage of the Virgin '
from the church of San Giuseppe.



Cento in 1550. At Bologna he executed several
frescoes and friezes in chiaroscuro for palaces and
houses, and painted several pictures for the
churches of San Girolamo, San Domenico, and
Madonna del Monte. He excelled, however, more
especially as a painter of decorations for theatres,
festivities, and tournaments ; many of his pro-
ductions of that class are in the possession of the
Duke of Mirandola. He had great talent, but was
most superficial in the execution of his works.
He died at Bologna in 1610.

CREPIN, Louis PHILIPPE, a French marine
painter, born in Paris in 1772, was a scholar of
Regnault and Hubert Robert ; he also had lessons
from Joseph Vernet, and followed very success-
fully the styles of those masters. He was-fond of
representing engagements between French and
English vessels of war, particularly where the
former fought under great disadvantage. He
painted many other subjects of more general
interest, which will be esteemed when the battles
are forgotten. He painted in water and body
colour, and etched and aquatinted in the English
manner. Crepindiedin Paris in 1851.

CREPU, JAN BAPTIST, (often called in error
Nicolaas,) was born at Brussels in 1680. He was
an officer in the Spanish service, which he quitted
at about the age of forty, and devoted himself to
flower-painting, in which he showed considerable
talent. He composed well, and painted with a
light and free pencil : his works were highly
esteemed by his contemporaries. He died at Ant-
werp in 1742.

CREPY, JEAN and Louis, (or CRESPY,) were two
indifferent French engravers and printsellers. Jean,
the father, was born in Paris about 1650, and
engraved some portraits, among which is a series
of very small ovals of the princes of the royal
family of France, remarkable for their extremely
minute execution. Louis, the son, was born in
Paris about 1680. Many prints, especially por-



traits, which bear the name of Crepy, were not
engraved, but simply published by them. We
have, however, the following plates by them :

Mary Magdalene ; Cripy, inv. et fecit.

The Nativity ; after Albani ; their best print.

The Descent from the Cross ; after Carlo Cignani.

The Holy Family ; after Lebrun.

The Presentation in the Temple ; after the same.


LA TOEEE, an Italian painter and architect, was born
ut Rome in 1595. He was a pupil of Pomerancio,
and was brought to Spain by Cardinal Zapata
shortly before 1617, in which year he was invited
amongst others to send in his plans for the building
of the Panteon in the Escorial. A well-executed
flower-piece by him is said to have attracted the
attention of Philip III. His plans approved, in
1619 he was sent to Italy, with an allowance of
2000 ducats, and letters were forwarded to the
Spanish ambassadors at foreign courts to collect
models and artisans in their respective countries.
Returning in 1620 with eight Italian and Flemish
assistants, he began the building of the Panteon,
which occupied him 33 years, being interrupted in
1621 by the death of Philip III. By Philip IV.
Crescenzi was loaded with favours, created Marquis
de la Torre, and appointed head of the Board of
Woods and Works, with a monthly pension of 140
ducats. He died at Madrid in 1660.

NELLO DA PALERMO, who, according to De Marzo,
was the son of Antonio Crescenzio, was born
early in the 16th century, and practised both as
a sculptor and a painter. He was an assistant
to the sculptor Gagnino in 1527. In 1537 he com-
pleted two copies of Raphael's ' Spasimo ; ' one of
them is in the Carmelite Church at Palermo, and
the other in the Monastery of Fazello, near Sciacca.
The date of his death is uncertain.
Palermo. La Gan:ia. Madonna and Child, dated 1528.

CRESCENZIO, ANTONIO, a native of Parma, the
dates of whose birth and death are not known,
flourished from about 1417 to 1440. He painted a
fresco in the hospital of Palermo, representing
' Death on the Pale Horse smiting and threatening
the rich ones of this world, whilst the poor and
wretched in vain beg for their release.' The chapel
of the Vanni family, close to the church of Santa
Maria e Gesu, near Palermo, contains the remains
of wall-paintings in monochrome representing
different saints assigned to this artist. In the
University Gallery of the same city there is a
painting by him of the ' Enthroned Madonna and
Saints,' and two panels.

CRESPI, ANTONIO, the son and pupil of Giuseppe
Maria Crespi, painted much for the churches of
Bologna. He died in 1781. A picture of St.
Francis of Paola by him is in the Bologna Gallery.

CRESPI, BENEDETTO, called BUSTING, a native of
Busto Arsizio, near Milan, worked in Como about
the middle of the 17th century. In the Pinacoteca
at Milan is a ' Circumcision of Christ ' by him ;
and the -Madrid Gallery has a ' Roman Charity.'
He had a son, ANTONIO MARIA, who was his pupil.

CRESPI, DANIELE, was born at Busto Arsizio,
near Milan, in 1590, and was first a scholar of Gio-
vanni Battista Crespi, called Cerano, but afterwards
studied under Giulio Cesare Procaccini. Although
he did not survive his fortieth year, he undoubt-
edly surpassed his first instructor ; and, according


to Lanzi, in the opinion of many, ho was equal to
the second. He was an able artist of the Milan-
ese school, though little known except in his own
country. To an acute and penetrating genius, and
an uncommon readiness of hand, he added a judg-
ment that enabled him to take advantage of the
excellences of those who had preceded him, and to
avoid their defects. Although he never frequented
the school of the Carracci, he appears to have
approved and adopted their principles and their
practice. In the expression of his heads he is
varied, yet select ; and is particularly admired for
the fervid devotion expressed in the character of
his saints. His colouring is excellent, both in oil
and in fresco, and partakes of the strength, as well
as of the amenity, that we admire in Titian. The
most esteemed works of this artist are the ' Taking
down from the Cross,' and several portraits in
fresco, in the Chiesa della Passione at Milan ; and
his celebrated series of pictures of the Life of St.
Bruno, at the Certosa. Nine paintings by him are
in the Brera, and others are to be met with in the
palaces and churches of Milan and the neighbour-
ing towns, as well as in the following galleries :
Florence. Uffizi. An Old Beggar.

His own Portrait.

Madrid. Gallery. Pieta.

Vienna. Gallery. The Angel appearing to Joseph in
a Dream.

His works have been engraved by Weggers, Fer-
roni, Longhi, and Felsing. This able painter was
unfortunately carried off, in the prime of life, with
all his family, by the plague which visited Milan
in 1630.

rano, a small town near Novara, in the Milanese,
in 1557, and is frequently called IL CERANO. He
was descended from a family distinguished in the
art, who educated him for the learned professions ;
and he was a student of great promise in litera-
ture and science. A strong attachment to paint-
ing, however, induced him to follow the art in
which his family had acquired its celebrity. He
attended the school of Procaccini, visited Rome
and Venice, and established himself at Milan, where
he was patronized by the duke and by Cardinal
Federigo, made director of the Academy, and
employed as an architect, sculptor, and painter.
In his works as a painter are found many beauties,
accompanied by unaccountable defects. His style
is free and spirited, and his colouring harmonious ;
but his design is occasionally conceited and absurd,
from an affectation of the grand and the graceful.
Of these 'deficiencies we have evidence in his
pictures in the Chiesa della Pace, where his drawing
of the nude is heavy and tasteless, and the move-
ment of his figures distorted by the violence of
their attitudes. His merits, however, must be
allowed to outweigh his defects, and some of his
works may be compared with the best productions
of the Milanese school at his time. Such is his
picture of the ' Baptism of St. Augustine,' in San
Marco, which disputes the palm with Giulio Cesare
Procaccini, and in the judgment of some is superior.
Soprani, in the 'Life of Sinibaldo Scorza,' says that
this artist excelled in painting animals and birds,
of a cabinet size. He died at Milan in 1633.
Other paintings by him are as follow :

Berlin. Gallery. An Assembly of Franciscans.
Milan. Brera. Madonna del Eosario.

Vienna. Gallery. Christ appearing to the Apostles
SS. Peter and Paul.


Hanfstangl photo]

\_Tiifc Gallery, London



a name given to him by his fellow-students on
account of the finery of his dress, was a painter
and etcher, born at Bologna in 1665. He studied
first under A. M. Toni, and then entered the school
of D. M. Canuti, but afterwards passed some time
under C. Cignani, and still later under G. A. Bur-
rim. He visited Venice, Parma, and Modena,
where he painted after the style of Barocci, Guer-
cino, and Pietro da Cortona. Desirous of discover-
ing and establishing a new mode of working, he
adopted a flimsy method of colouring, without
solidity, and consisting chiefly of glazing, which
has occasioned many of his works to become almost
obliterated. He had a particular talent for cari-
cature ; and some of his compositions of that kind
are full of humour and eccentricity. He was for
some time in the employment of the Grand-Duke
Ferdinand, for whom he executed several works in
the Pitti Palace. He died blind at Bologna in
1747. There are many of his pictures in the
churches and palaces of Bologna, besides those
in the under-mentioned galleries :
Bologna. & Niccolo. St. Anthony the Abbot.

Pinacoteca. Madonna with Saints and Angels.

Gallery. The Virgin and Child, and St.

Also eleven others,

Gesii. Swooning of St. Stanislaus.

1'itti Pal. Holy Family.

,, Portrait of an Old Man.

Uffizi. His own Portrait.

A weeping Nun.
A Schoolmistress.





Petersburg. Hermitage. Holy Family.

,, Death of St. Joseph.

Portrait of Himself.

Vienna. Gallery. The


Centaur Chiron
Achilles to shoot.
,, tineas and the Cuma^n Sibyl on

Charon's Boat.

Giuseppe Maria Crespi has etched several plates,
some of which bear the name of L. Mattioli, a
friend of his, whom he assisted in his distress.
The following are among the number :
The Massacre of the Innocents.

Two plates of the Resurrection ; in the style of Rembrandt.
The Miraculous Crucifix of Pistoja.
St. Anthony ; in the manner of Rembrandt.
St. Pascal.

Five plates of the Trades ; in the style of <S. Rosa.
A Shepherd and Shepherdess.
The Circumcision ; after L. Carracci.
The Nurse ; after Van Dyck.

Besides ANTONIO, he had two sons who were also
artists : LUIGI, who held certain offices in the papal
court, wrote ' Vite dei Pittori Bolognesi,' 1769, and
died in 1779; and FERDINANDO, a Franciscan monk,
who painted miniatures, and died in 1754.

CRESPY, JEAN and Louis. See CRPY.

born at Passignano, near Florence, in 1558. He
was first a scholar of Macchietti and of Battista
Naldini, but afterwards studied under Federigo
Zuccaro, to whose style his own is more conform-
able. He resided some time at Venice, where
he received instruction from Paolo Veronese, and
became so fascinated with the works of the great
masters of the Venetian school, that, according
to Boschini, he used to observe, that whoever
had not seen Venice could not hope to become
a painter. Though neither select in his forms
nor correct in his design, he is ingenious and
abundant in his compositions ; and in the splen-
dour of his costumes and the richness of his


architecture he resembles Paolo Veronese more
than does any other of the Florentine painters.
He sometimes reminds us of Tintoretto, in the
strained attitudes of his figures, and, like that
master, he painted many of his pictures with
colours so thin and oily, that several of his works
have perished. Such has been the fate of his
pictures of the ' Crucifixion of St. Peter,' and the
' Presentation in the Temple,' painted for the
Basilica of St. Peter, in the pontificates of Paul V.
and Urban VIII. There are, however, some of
his pictures remaining, which are painted with an
excellent impasto of colour. Of these may be
mentioned a ' Dead Christ,' in the Cappella di
Mondragone, at Frascati ; a ' Descent from the
Cross,' in the Palazzo Borghese, at Rome ; and
' Christ bearing the Cross,' in the Uffizi, at Florence.
His extraordinary facility and rapidity of execution
won for him the nickname ' Passa ognuno,' a play
upon his surname of 'Passignano.' He died in
1638. The following are also among his paintings :

Florence. | f Ia M ? } The Descent of the Holy Ghost.

The Assumption.
His own Portrait.
Christ bearing the Cross.
Paris. Louvre. A Miracle of the true Cross.

Eome - { lfa n raUe. } The Assumption.
Vienna. Gallery. Feast of Ahasuerus.

CRESWICK, THOMAS, a landscape painter, was
born at Sheffield in 1811. He was sent when very
young to Birmingham, where he became a pupil
of J. V. Barber. He went to London in 1828,
and immediately commenced to exhibit at the
British Institution, and at the Royal Academy,
to both of which he was henceforward a constant
contributor. His early works, which were chiefly
Welsh scenes, had a great success, and in 1840 he
began to exhibit views in the North of England.
In 1842 he was awarded a premium of fifty guineas
by the directors of the British Institution for his
general excellence, and in the same year he was
elected an Associate of the Royal Academy: nine
years later he became an Academician. The quiet
beauties of inland scenery, and more especially
scenes with rippling streams, quiet riverside nooks,
and glens and dells, were his favourite subjects,
although occasionally he painted coast scenes.
His power in the delineation of aerial perspective
and his knowledge of the effects of colour were
almost equal to Turner. Some of Creswick's later
pictures were painted in conjunction with Goodall,
Elmore, John Phillip, Frith, and Ansdell, who
introduced the figures and cattle. He was an
active member of the Etching Club, and furnished
many charming etchings for its publications ;
notably the editions of Gray's 'Elegy,' Milton's
' L'Allegro,' and Goldsmith's ' Deserted Village.'
He also occasionally drew on wood blocks. He
died in London in 1869, and was buried at Kensal
Green Cemetery.

The following are some of his principal works :

1839. The Pathway to the Village Church (in tltt
National Gallery).

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