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1842. Afternoon.

1843. "Welsh Glen.

1344. A Scene on the Tummel, Perthshire (in the South

Kensington Museum).
1544. A Summer's Afternoon (in the South Kensington

1845. A Recollection of the Alps.

1845. Rain on the Hills.

1846. The pleasant way home.



1847. Kngland.

1847. The London Road a hundred years ago.

1849. Passing Showers.

1850. The Wind on shore.
1850. First glimpse of the Sea.
1850. Old Trees.

1850. South Downs (the sheep are by Ansdell).

1851. The Valley Mill.

1851. Over the Sands.

1852. A Mountain Lake Moonrise.
1854. The Blithe Brook.

1859. The Village Bridge.
1861. In the North Countrie.

1864. Across the Beck.

1865. Changeable Weather.

A Dream of the Future (the girl it by Frith, and

the doy by Ansdell).

Upwards of a hundred of Creswick'8 works were
exhibited at the International Exhibition in London
in 1873.

CRBTI, DONATO, was born at Cremona in 1671,
and was educated at Bologna, under Lorenzo
Pasinelli, whose style he blended with an imitation
of the works of Simone Cantarini, and so formed
a manner which has little claim to originality. His
colouring is distinguished by a hardness and
crudity, occasioned by his never properly blending
his tints. He resided chiefly in Bologna, where he
painted several pictures for the churches for San
Pietro an altar-piece of ' St. Charles Borromeo ask-
ing Charity for the Poor; ' for San Domenico, 'St.
Vincent of Ferrara resuscitating a Child ; ' for San
Luca, the ' Coronation of the Virgin,' one of his
best works ; and for the Mendicanti, the ' Ador-
ation of the Magi.' In the Palazzo Pubblico, he
painted four pictures of the 'Life of Achilles'
and other works. He was also employed in the
churches at Rimini, Bergamo, Lucca, and Palermo.
The Bologna Gallery possesses a ' Coronation of
Charles V. at Bologna' by him. He died at
Bologna in 1749.

CREUSE, ADGUSTE DE, a French portrait painter,
who was born at Montrond (Doubs) in 1806, and
died in Paris in 1839. He was a pupil of Gros,
and painted many of the historical portraits which
are at Versailles.

CREOTZFELDER, JOHANN, a portrait painter,
was born at Nuremberg in 1570. He was a scholar
of N. Juvenel, and painted also historical subjects.
His paintings representing Martyrdoms are beauti-
fully executed. He died at Nuremberg in 1636.
There are by him :

Nuremberg. 8. Sebaldus. Adam and Eve. 1603.
Vienna. Gallery. The Martyrdom of St. Ignatius.

Ho signed his portraits with this monogram ff<


brother of Giovanni Filippo Criscuolo. Although
he showed an early inclination for art, his father
would not permit him to make it his profession,
but obliged him to follow the business of a notary.
On the death of his father, the reputation his
brother had acquired induced him to abandon his
occupation, and place himself under the tuition
of Marco di Pino da Siena, by whose instruction he
became a reputable artist. Dominici describes
many of his works in the churches at Naples,
among which is an altar-piece in the church of
San Stefano, representing the ' Martyrdom of St.
Stephen'; in Monte Calvario, a picture of the
'Virgin and Infant, with St. Jerome,' dated 1572;
in San Severino, an ' Annunciation ; ' and in San
Giacomo degli Spagnuoli, an ' Assumption of the


Virgin.' He wrote a ' History of the Neapolitan
Artists to 1569.' The exact date of his death is
not known ; some say about 1580.

Gaeta in 1495. He was instructed in painting by
A. Sabbatini, but afterwards devoted his attention
rather to the works of Perino del Vaga. He died
at Naples in 1584. His best works are as under :

Naples. S. Patrizia. The Adoration of the Magi.

-X M. Donna ) The Death, Ascension, and Ooro-
Regina. ) nation of the Virgin.

vanni d'Amato the younger, is apparently known
only by some finely-executed 'Madonnas' in two
of the churches of Naples.

CRISPI, SCIPIONE, was a Piedmontese painter,
born at Tortona, who flourished, according to
Lanzi, from the year 1592 till 1599. It is uncer-
tain by whom he was instructed; but he was an
artist of considerable merit, as is evident from his
picture of the ' Visitation of the Virgin to St. Eliza-
beth,' in the church of San Lorenzo, at Voghera,
and an altar-piece at Tortona of ' SS. Francis and
Dominic," which is dated 1592.


CRISTALL, JOSHUA, was born in 1767 at Cam-
bourne in Cornwall. His father was Scotch, and
was bitterly opposed to his son's artistic tastes, but
his mother secretly aided him in his struggles to
study art. He was first apprenticed to a china
dealer at Rotherhithe, but, finding that business too
irksome, he left both his master and his home, and
went to the Potteries, where he found some em-
ployment as a china painter. Finding this too
monotonous, he came to London, and commenced
a life of great privations and hard efforts to study
the fine arts. It is said that at this period of his
life he seriously injured his health by trying to live
for a year on nothing else but potatoes and water.
Aided in secret by his mother, who shared in and
had herself directed his taste for classic art, he
persevered in his endeavours, and finally gained
admission to the school of the Royal Academy,
where he made rapid progress. He became per-
sonally known to Dr. Monro, and visited at nis
house, where he met the rising water-colour artists
of that day. At the foundation of the Society
of Painters in Water-Colours in 1805, he first pub-
licly exhibited his works, and continued to do so
for many years. He was one of the foundation
members of this society, and afterwards became its
President, and was always its warm and active
supporter. In 1822, finding his health much im-
paired, Cristall went to Goodrich on the Wye,
where he had already bought a house, and where
he spent many happy years until the loss of
his wife, who died in 1840, drove him again to
London, where he died in 1847. His body was
carried to Goodrich, and buried by the side of his
wife, at his own earnest request. Cristall's usual
subjects in his early years were classical figures with
landscapes, such as his ' Lycidas,' ' Judgment of
Paris,' ' Hylas and the Nymphs,' and ' Diana and
Endymion,' but he afterwards produced genre sub-
jects and rustic groups. About 1813 he tried portrait
painting, generally small full-lengths with landscape
backgrounds, in which he used no body-colour. As
a water-colour painter Cristall will always hold an
honourable position from the freedom and sim-
plicity of his style and manner of execution. Fiv>
of his drawings, viz. ' The Young Fisher-Boy,' ' The
Fish Market on Hastings Beach,' and three others,


*l photo\

National Gallery, London




are in the South Kensington Museum. Cristall was
one of the early members of the Sketching Society .;
he also furnished some of the classical figures in
Barret's landscapes, as well as some of the groups
in Robson's ' Scotch Scenery.'

lived at Pistoja in the 14th century, is thought
by Ciampi to have been employed at the Campo
Santo of Pisa in 1382. He is known to have
painted a ' Virgin and Child between SS. Nicholas
and John the Baptist' in the Oratorio dei Nerli at
Montemurlo. His last work, which is now lost,
was the decoration of a church in Pistoja, which
was begun in 1396 and finished in 1398. Very
little remains of this artist's productions, and no
exact date is known of his death. In the Sacristy
of San Giovanni Evangelista at Pistoja there is a
painting by him of ' St. John the Baptist enthroned
with Angels' (1370).

CR1STOFANO, a painter of Bologna, aided
Jacopo and Simone in the production of a series
of frescoes, completed in 1404, in the church of
the Madonna della Mezzaratta in that city.

artists, father and son, who were the founders of the
mosaic school in the Vatican during the pontificate
of Clement XL (1700 1721), are deserving of
notice for the perfection to which they carried that
art. They executed in the Basilica of St. Peter,
from the originals, the ' Communion of St. Je-
rome,' after Domenichino ; ' St. Petronilla,' after
Guercino ; the ' Baptism of Christ,' after Carlo
Maratti ; and other works. Pietro Paolo Cristoforo
died in 1740.

CR1STUS, PETER. Born at the beginning of the
fifteenth century at Baerle, a village between
Hoogstraaten and Tilborg in N. Brabant. It is
not known where he learned his art. He settled
in Bruges in 1444, became a burgher by purchase,
and was admitted as master into the Guild of Saint
Luke. In 1461 he and his wife became members
of the confraternity of Our Lady of the Dry
Tree. He died at Bruges in 1473. His earliest
known painting is a portrait of Edward Grimston
dated 1446, in the possession of Lord Verulam.

The B. Virgin and Child enthroned, Saints Jerome and

Francis. 1447. (Staedel Institute, Frankfort.)
A. scene from the legend of Saint Godeberta. 1449.

(Baron A. Oppenheim, Cologne.)
The Annunciation, Nativity and Last Judgment. 1452.

(Museum, Berlin.)
Our Lady of Grace, one of three copies of a painting

in the cathedral of Cambrai, executed by Cristus.

1454. (Hospital, Cambrai.)

In 1463 Cristus designed and painted a large
representation of the Tree of Jesse which for more
than a century was carried in the annual procession
of the Holy Blood. Cristus is generally said to
have been a pupil of Hubert or John van Eyck,
but of this there is no proof. A carpet, cloth of
honour and purse which figure in his pictures are,
it is true, identical with those in paintings by the
Van Eycks, but this only shows that Cristus mny
have purchased these properties or coloured
sketches of them after John van Eyck's death.
(See ' Le Beffroi,' 1863, and Crowe and Cavalcaselle's
' Early Flemish Painters,' 1872.)

engraver, born in 1725. He was a pupil of Joseph
Wagner, for whom he executed several plates,
A A 2

after Gherardini, Tiarini, and Tiepolo. We have
by him the following :

The Portrait of Christian, Electoral Prince of Saxony.
The Portrait of the Archduchess of Austria.
Three Portraits from the Life of St. Pietro Petronio.
Four Plates of musical and gallant Assemblies; after

ATiccolo dell* Ablate.
The Canonization of St. Alexander Saul ; after M.


LONE, was a native of Milan, who, acsording to
Orlandi, painted animals and hunting-scenes with
surprising truth and spirit, and was considered one
of the ablest painters of those subjects whom his
country had produced. He died in 1730. Two
pictures of ruins by him, with figures by Alessan-
drino, are in the Dresden Gallery ; and the Brera,
Milan, has a ' Portrait of a Huntsman ' by him.

CRIVELLI, CARLO, who was probably born at
Venice between 1430 and 1440, is likely to have
been the pupil of Antonio and Bartolommeo da
Murano. Ridolfi says that he derived his instruction
from Jacobello dei Fiori, but this statement cannot
be correct, as Jacobello flourished too long before.
There is a ' Virgin and Child,' formerly in the con-
vent of San Lorenzo, and now in the Museum of
Verona, which is one of his earliest productions, and
which much recalls the two above-named artists.
For over twenty-two years he seems to have almost
exclusively worked in those cities which lie in the
Marches of Ancona, between Potenza and Tronto.
In the sacristy of San Silvestro, Massa, is an altar-
piece of his in tempera, now hanging in detached
pieces, signed and dated 1468. The cathedral of
Ascoli has a ' Virgin and Child between SS. Peter,
John the Baptist, Emidius, and Paul,' dated 1473.
In 1476 he completed the great altar-piece, in tem-
pera, for San Domenico, at Ascoli, now in the Na-
tional Gallery, London. In 1490 he was knighted
by Prince Ferdinand of Capua, and immediately
afterwards in a picture which he painted for the
Odoni Chapel, in San Francesco of Matelica, he
signed himself Crivellus, Venetus Miles, and never
afterwards omitted the title on his pictures. His
latest painting is the ' Coronation of the Virgin,
with Saints,' dated 1493, now in the Oggioni Col-
lection at Milan. The exact date of his death is
unknown. There are many paintings by this artist
in English and Continental galleries. They are
all in tempera. Amongst them are :



Berlin. Gallery.
Brussels. Museum.

Frankfort. Stddel Inst
London. AaJ. Gall.

Lord Northbrook.
Milan, Brera.


The Twelve Apostles. 1473.


Madonna and Saints. 1491.


St. Francis of Assisi.

The Annunciation.

The Dead Christ.

The Beato Ferretti.

Madonna and Child enthroned,
with SS. Jerome and Sebastian.

The Annunciation. 1486.

Madonna and Child enthroned,
surrounded by Saints (an altar~
piece in three stayes and thirteen
compartment!,). 1476.

Madonna and Child enthroned.

Madonna in ecstasy. 1492.

SS. Catharine and Mary Mag-

A Pieta.

Virgin and four Saints. 1482.

Virgin and Child

Various Saints.



Paris. Louvre. St. Bernardino of Siena. 1477.


Pesth. Esterhazy Gall. Madonna and Child.
Borne. I'atican. Pieta.

Lateran Mus. Virgin and Saints.


(See Crivplli, by G. M. Rushforth : Lond., 1900.)

CRIVELLI, JACOPO, the son of Angiolo Maria
Crivelli, painted birds and fish. He worked much
at the court of Parma, and died in 1760.

CRIVELLI, TADDEO, a miniature painter of
Ferrara in the 15th century, was engaged from
1455 to 1461, in company with Franco de' Russi,
in painting the pictures in the costly Bible of
Duke Borso of Ferrara; he also illustrated a num-
ber of other works. He died about 1484.

CRIVELLI, VITTOKIO, was a relation, some say
a brother, of Carlo Crivelli, and learned his art
from him. He lived in the 15th century, and
closely imitated his namesake. At Fermo, in the
possession of Cavaliere Vinci, is an altar-piece
signed and dated by him in 1481. In the church
of Santa Maria del Pozzo, Monte San Martino, the
altar-piece representing the 'Virgin enthroned, the
Child giving the keys to St. Peter,' is dated 1489 ;
and at Alia Matrice in the same town, the altar-
piece by him is dated 1490. The South Kensing-
ton Museum possesses a ' Virgin and Child,' with
other subjects, painted by Vittorio Crivelli. A
1 Birth of Christ,' and various Saints, by him, are
in the Brera, Milan. No dates are known as to his
birth or death.


CROCE, BALDASSARE, was born at Bologna in
1563. He was instructed by Bartolommeo Passa-
rotti, and visited Rome during the pontificate of
Gregory XIII., by whom he was employed in the
Vatican. He painted witli great power and free-
dom, both in oil and fresco. His principal works
at Rome are the cupola of the chapel of San
Francesco in the church of the Gesii ; the vault
of the choir in St. John Lateran ; and the ' His-
tory of Susannah,' in the church of her name. He
executed also some paintings in the town-hall at
Viterbo. He died at Rome in 1638.






CROISEY, P., a French line-engraver and pub-
lisher, who worked at Versailles, and died at the
commencement of the present century, executed a
large number of maps. He also engraved an oval
medallion of Queen Marie Antoinette, when Dau-
phiness of France, which is one of the best portraits
extant of the youthful princess.

CROISIER, MARIE ANNE, a French engraver,
born in 1765, was a pupil of Augustin de Saint-
Aubin. She at first engraved some subjects after
the old masters, but these she abandoned for poli-
tical pieces in the days of the Revolution. There
is by her a beautifully executed plate representing,
in three small medallions, the Duke of Orleans, the
Duke of Chartres (Philippe Egalite), and the
Duchess of Chartres.

CROLA, GEORQ HEINRIOH, a Geiman landscape
painter, was born at Dresden in 1804. He went to
Munich in 1830, and was until 1840 a prominent
member of the group of landscape painters estab-
lished in that city. In the latter year he married


and settled in the Harz, where he died at Ilsenburg
in 1879.

CROLL, FBANCIS, was born at Edinburgh in 1827,
and was first articled to an engraver, naturalist,
and excellent draughtsman of that city, named
Dobbie. He was subsequently placed with R. C.
Bell, with whom he remained two years. Besides
his labours for Bell, Croll had found time to attend
the drawing lessons given by Sir William Allan, the
then director of the schools of the Scottish Academy,
by which he greatly profited. Besides the por-
traits with which he was entrusted by the publishers
of Edinburgh for their various works, Croll en-
graved 'The Tired Soldier,' after Goodall, for the
Vernon Gallery. The Scottish Society for the
Encouragement of Art commissioned him to
engrave one of the series of plates from the designs
of John Faed for ' The Cottar's Saturday Night,'
but this unhappily he was not able to complete
before his death, which took place in 1854.

CROME, JOHN or ' Old Crome,' as he is usually
styled to distinguish him from his eldest son, John
Bernay Crome, who was also a painter was born
in a small public-house in Norwich, in 1769. His
father was a journeyman weaver by trade, and his
early surroundings were of the poorest description,
and it is not likely that he received more than the
mere rudiments of education. At twelve years of
age he started in life for himself in the capacity of
errand-boy to Dr. Rigby, a physician in Norwich ;
but finding the distribution of medicine an unsatis-
factory employment for his youthful energies, he
soon gave it up, and of his own accord apprenticed
himself for seven years to a certain Frank Whisler,
a house and sign painter in Norwich. Here he
learnt the use of the brush, and quickly became
ambitious of applying it to other subjects than
the painting of cornices and coaches. After his
apprenticeship was over he worked for a time as
journeyman to Whisler, and is said to have been
the first painter who practised graining in imitation
of the natural marks in wood. During this period
he formed an intimate friendship with Kobert Lad-
brooke, who was then an apprentice to a printer.
The two youths spent all their spare time in draw-
ing and studying together, sometimes from old
prints, but more often from nature.

Among Crome's earliest patrons were Sir
William Beechey, and a Mr. Harvey, who let him
copy from his collection of Flemish and Dutch
paintings. Whenever Crome went to London he
passed a great part of his time in Beechey's
painting-room, gaining all the practical instruc-
tion he could. He was also patronized by Mr.
John Gurney, of Earlham, and Mr. Dawson
Turner ; but in spite of the help afforded by these
and a few other Norfolk gentlemen, it is to be
feared that Crome had a hard struggle before
assuring a position. He found himself obliged
to devote more and more time to teaching, which
brought him for a long period far better remunera-
tion than landscape painting. Insensibly, also,
it brought him into greater local repute, for it
made him known in many families of high stand-
ing around Norwich, who commissioned pictures
and spread his fame at all events in his own
county, and he became the founder of the only
local school of painting in England of any import-
ance. He was not even an exhibitor at the Royal
Academy until 1806, and during the whole of his
career the total number of his works sent for ex-
hibition amounted only to fourteen.


[ Torre di Palme


After a time lie achieved a large local celebrity,
and his paintings were quickly sold to Norfolk pur-
chasers without the trouble of sending them to
London. He never, it is true, got a very high
price for his works, fifty pounds being, it would
seem, about as much as he usually got for a finely
finished work, even to the end of his life ; but he
managed to win a comfortable independence, and
to live in respectable style in his native city.

In 1803, Crome, in conjunction with several
amateurs and a number of young artists whom
ne had by this time gathered around him, founded
what was called "The Norwich Society of Artists,"
for the purpose of encouraging a love of the Fine
Arts and promoting artistic culture.

The first exhibition of the Norwich Society was
held in 1805, two years after its commencement.
It contained 223 works in oil and water-colour, and
several specimens of sculpture and engraving.
Twenty-three of these works were contributed by
Crome, who, it would seem, must have been
travelling about this time, for among the subjects
enumerated are ' A Scene in Cumberland,' ' Interior
of Tintern Abbey,' 'View of Piercefield-on-the-
Wye,' 'Part of Chepstow Castle,' 'Part of the
Chapel in Chepstow Castle,' and ' Waterfall at St.
Michael's-le-Flemings, Westmoreland,' against
which last is noted in the catalogue " coloured
on the spot." By this it would appear that the
painting in question was in water-colours ; for
Crome, strange to say, seldom painted in oils out
of doors. He made careful studies and sketches
from nature, and must have been gifted with
remarkable powers of observation, for he rarely
misses any detail of sky, stream, or leaf ; but his
pictures nevertheless were painted in his studio,
like those of his prototypes, the Dutch landscapists.
Crome travelled a little in England and Wales at
various times, as may be seen by the places repre-
sented ; and once, in 1814, he extended his journey-
ing to Paris, going by way of Belgium, where he
must have found the scenery familiar, though the
only record he appears to have made of it, beyond
slight sketches, is his ' View on the Ostend Canal
at Bruges,' a fine moonlight effect, that was evi-
dently noted on the spot and afterwards reproduced.
About this time he painted the ' Boulevard des
Italiens, Paris,' and the ' Fish-market on the Beach
at Boulogne.'

Crome was now in the receipt of a good income,
for although, as before said, he never, even to the
last, obtained high prices for his pictures, he painted
a great many, contributing generally eighteen to
twenty different works to the Norwich Society's
annual exhibition.

In 1810 he was elected President of the Norwich
Society ; John Sell Cotman, the second best artist
of the school, being associated with him as Vice-
President. Among the members were now to be
reckoned such men as James Stark, George Vincent,
Joseph Stannard, John Thistle, the etchers Edmund
and Richard Girling, and John Bernay Crome, all
of whom accomplished good work as landscapists
under Crome's influence. In 1816, however, there
came a secession from this flourishing little Society,
and a separate exhibition at the Assembly Rooms

It was from the midst of society such as this,
from a busy, jolly artist life, that Crome was called
away on the 22nd of April, 1821, after a few days'
illness. His last words are said to have been,
" Hobbema, my dear Hobbema, how I have loved

yon 1 " An exhibition of his paintings was held in
Norwich shortly after his death, when one hundred
and eleven of his works were gathered together,
including those that remained unsold in his studio.
But even this exhibition, though it greatly increased
his local fame, did not make him more known to
the world at large, and thus it has happened that
up to the present day almost all his pictures have
remained as cherished possessions in Norfolk
homes, very few comparatively having found their
way into the market. In 1878, at the Winter
Exhibition at the Royal Academy, there were no
less than twenty-seven of his works exhibited.
They attracted much attention and high praise.

Of his extensive landscapes, embracing generally
a far-reaching view over heath and hill, with a wind-
mill or two to give human interest to the scene, the
well-known picture of ' Mousehold Heath,' in the
National Gallery, may be taken as a good example.
This was painted about the year 1816, and shows
his powers at their full. He painted it, as he once

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