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remarked, for the sake of " air and space ; " and,
in truth, we feel, in looking at it, that here there
is plenty of room in which to breathe.

The National Gallery also possesses a ' View at
Chapel-Fields, Norwich,' wherein the chequered
sunlight falling through the trees has a very
delightful effect ; ' The Windmill,' a pleasant
country scene, painted with forcible realism and
thorough understanding of light and shade ; and
the solemn and somewhat dreary ' Slate Quarries."
In his etchings for we must regard Crome as
an etcher as well as a painter he dealt chiefly
with woodland and river scenes. Nothing can, in
its way, be much more perfect than his rendering
in etching of the little bits of picturesque beauty
that he met with in his daily walks. His etchings,
chiefly done for his own delight, were not pub-
lished until after his death, when thirty-one were
collected, and a small number worked off for the
benefit of his widow, under the title of ' Norfolk
Picturesque Scenery.' Another edition, in which
some of the plates were re-bitten by Mr. Ninham,
and others re-touched by Mr. Edwards, appeared
in 1838, with an Essay by Dawson Turner. There
is a fine collection of Crome's etchings in the
British Museum, most of them being represented
in two, or three, and sometimes in four different

CROME, JOHN BERNAY, the son of 'Old Crome,'
was born in 1793 at Norwich, and was educated
as a painter. He first exhibited in his native
city, but from 1811 until the close of his life
he was an occasional contributor to the Royal
Academy. He died in 1842 at Yarmouth, where
he had resided for some years. His works are
similar in style to those of his father, but are far

CROMEK, ROBERT HARTLEY, was the son of
Thomas Cromek, of Berwick-in-EImete, Yorkshire,
and was born at Hull in 1771. He was originally
intended for the law, but showed so much aversion
to that profession that he was permitted to follow
his own strong inclinations for literature and the
fine arts. He first went to Manchester, and there
studied hard for some time, when, showing an evi-
dent taste and talent for engraving, he was sent to
London and put under Bartolozzi's care. He en-
graved many of Stothard's designs for book-plates,
which was then about the only work engravers
could find to do. He also engraved the ' Can-
terbury Pilgrims,' concerning which he laboured



for some time under the false imputation of having
first seen Blake's design for that subject, and then
induced Stothard to draw it for him as a speculation
in engraving. Among Cromek's works may be men-
tioned the illustrations to Blair's 'Grave' ; those in
'The Reliques of Robert Burns,' published in 1808 :
and those in ' The Remains of Nithsdale and
Galloway Song,' published in 1810; also the plates
in Gesner's works, after Stothard, and the plates in
Sharpe's edition of 'The Spectator.' He died in
London in 1812.

CROMEK, THOMAS HARTLEY, the son of Robert
H. Cromek, was born in London in 1809. His first
instructor in art was James Hunter, a portrait
painter at Wakefield ; but in 1826 he went to
Leeds, and there studied landscape painting under
Joseph Rhodes, an artist of considerable ability,
and also instructed himself in anatomical drawing.
In 1830 he decided to go to Italy for the purpose
of perfecting .himself by the study of the great
masters. He passed through Belgium, the Rhine
country, Switzerland, and Florence, and at length
reached Rome, where he soon attracted attention
by the excellence of his drawings and his careful
colouring. From 1831 until 1849, with the excep-
tion of two short visits to England, Cromek passed
his time in visiting and making drawings of the
principal buildings and the picturesque scenery of
Italy and Greece. In 1850 he was unanimously
elected an Associate of the New Society of Painters
in Water-Colours, when he retired to Wakefield,
where he died, after a long and painful illness, in
1873. His drawings, which are chiefly to be found
in the royal and private collections, are much
esteemed for the beauty of their colouring and
their truthfulness to nature.

CROMER, GIDLIO, a pupil of Mona, was born in
Silesia before 1570, and died at Ferrara in 1632.
In the latter city he painted ' The Preaching of
St. Andrew,' for the church dedicated to that
Baint; also 'The Calling of SS. Peter and

CRONE, ROBERT, was born in Dublin about the
middle of the last century, and received his early in-
struction from Robert Hunter, the portrait painter ;
but he soon left that branch of the profession, and
commenced painting landscapes, in which he
achieved considerable success. He afterwards
went to Rome and studied under Richard Wilson.
From 1772 until 1778 he annually exhibited at
the Royal Academy, although much hindered
and tried by ill-health superinduced by frequent
epileptic fits. His first exhibited pictures were
two landscapes called ' Morning ' and ' Evening.'
Crone likewise exhibited drawings, some of which
were finished after Richard Wilson's style in
black and white chalk on a bluish-grey paper.
His landscapes are now very scarce and much
sought after : a few examples are in the Royal
Collection. He died in London in 1779.

a Dutch painter, was born at Pietersbierum in
1552. She married Jan Craen, and secondly, in
1579, Jelle Sybes van Wythama, burgomaster of
Leeuwarden. Four female portraits by her are in
the Madrid Museum.



CROOS, JACOBDS VAN, a Dutch landscape painter,
flourished in the latter part of the 17th century.
There is in the town-hall of the Hague a ' View
of the Hague,' painted by him in 1666.


CROSS, JOHN, the son of the superintendent of
a lace factory at Tiverton, was born in that town in
1819. Soon afterwards his father went to St.
Quentin, as superintendent of an English factory,
and young Cross was admitted into the School of
Design, and there showed so much ability that he
was sent to Paris, where he entered the atelier of
Picot, a painter of some celebrity in the old classic
school. In 1843 Cross sent to the competition for
the decoration of the Houses of Parliament, held in
Westminster Hall, a cartoon of ' The Assassination
of Thomas a Becket,' which, from not fully com-
plying with the terms of the competition, vvas not
successful. His second attempt in 1847, with the
oil-painting of ' The Clemency of Coeur-de-Lion,'
gained for him the first premium of 300, and
was afterwards purchased by the royal commis-
sioners for 1000. In 1850 he first exhibited at the
Royal Academy, his subject being 'The Burial of
the Young Princes in the Tower.' This was followed
by ' Edward the Confessor leaving his Crown to
Harold,' in 1851 ; ' The Death of Thomas a Becket,'
in 1853; 'Lucy Preston's Petition,' in 1856; and
' The Coronation of William the Conqueror,' in
1859 ; but none of Cross's later productions equalled
his first effort, for they were all deficient alike in
drawing, colour, and execution. His death occurred
in London in 1861, after which his friends bought
his 'Assassination of Thomas a Becket,' and placed
it in Canterbury Cathedral.

CROSS, MICHAEL, was a painter employed by
Charles I. to copy some of the fine pictures in Italy,
and who is said to have contrived to abstract a
' Madonna ' by Raphael from the church of St.
Mark, at Venice, and instead thereof to leave his
copy. The picture was sold with the rest of the
Royal Collection, and is said to have been pur-
chased by the Spanish Ambassador, together with
the ' Twelve Ceesars ' by Titian, for the King of
Spain. Charles certainly knew nothing of the
theft ; nor can it be supposed that he mistook the
original for a copy.

CROSS, THOMAS, was an English engraver, who
flourished from about 1645 to 1685. He was
chiefly employed in producing portraits and plates
for the booksellers, mostly from his own designs.
We have by him, among others, the following
portraits :

King Richard III.

Francis Bacon, Viscount St. A] ban's.
Sir Eobert Cotton Bruce, Bart.
Joseph Hall, Bishop of Exeter.
George Webbe, Bishop of Limerick.
Richard Cromwell.

CROSSE, LEWIS, was a celebrated miniature
painter in the time of Queen Anne, who enjoyed
the patronage of the most distinguished personages
of that period. He also highly excelled in painting
copies in water-colours from the old masters. He
is said to have succeeded so admirably in a por-
trait of ' Mary, Queen of Scots,' painted by him for
the Duke of Hamilton, who wished him to make it
as handsome as he could, that for many years it
was considered to be a painting of the 16th cen-
tury, and on that account many times copied. He
formed a valuable collection of early miniatures
and drawings, which he sold in 1722. He died in

CROSSE, RICHARD, a miniature painter, was born
in Devonshire in 1745. He was a member of the


Free Society of Artists in 1763, with whom he
exhibited from 1761 to 1769. His first appearance
at the exhibition of the Royal Academy was in
1770, and he continued to exhibit there up to 1795.
He is said by Haydon to have been dumb, and to
have made his fortune by his art in early years ;
also, to have retired to Wells on account of being
disappointed in his hopes of marrying Haydon's
mother. He was celebrated for his miniatures and
small whole-lengths in water-colours. In this
latter style he painted tlie portrait of Mrs. Billing-
ton, exhibited by him in 1778. In 1790 he was
appointed painter in enamel to King George III.,
although he practised very little in his later
years. He died at Knowle, near Cullompton, in
1810. The South Kensington Museum has by him
a miniature portrait of Captain Swinburne.

CROUTELLE, Louis, a French line-engraver,
who executed chiefly book-plates and vignettes,
was born in Paris in 1765, and was a pupil of
Delaunay. His most interesting work is an alle-
gorical portrait of Voltaire, published in the Kehl
edition of the philosopher's works, proofs of which
are extremely rare. He died in Paris in 1829.

CROWLEY, NICHOLAS J., was born in Ireland,
and was elected a member of the Royal Hibernian
Academy in 1838. In that year he came to
London, and his works were constantly to be
seen in the Royal Academy Exhibitions. The
first picture which he exhibited in London, in
1835, was 'The Eventful Consultation,' and had ,
been sent from Belfast, where he then resided, j
He was highly esteemed as a portrait painter, and
was especially clever in painting portrait groups.
His death occurred in 1857.


CROZIER, J. P., was a French engraver of
talent, whose history is unfortunately lost to us.
We know only that he flourished about 1646, from
which we may conjecture that he was born about
1620. We have by him the following plates,
which are very scarce :

The Healing of the Paralytic.
St. John in the Desert.

Silenus about to make an offering at the Altar of

There is also a plate existing by a J. J. CROZIER,
engraved in honour of the appointment of Cardinal
Bicchi as Papal Nuncio.



CRUIKSHANK, GEORGE, the younger son of
Isaac Cruikshank, was born in London in 1792.
Very early in life he had a predilection for the sea,
but his mother opposed the wish, and urged his
father to instruct him in art. This, however, the
father refused ; saying, that if George was destined
to become an artist, he would find the way without
any instruction. The youth applied for admittance
into the Royal Academy schools, but was unsuccess-
ful. His father died when he was still very young ;
and when that event took place, he determined to
do his best to support his mother. Some wood
blocks which his father had on hand were finished
by him, and from that time his employment was
secured, and his destiny in life fixed. He was
soon engaged in a variety of undertakings. He
illustrated with caricatures a monthly periodical
called ' The Scourge,' and also one called ' The
Meteor,' which he founded in conjunction with a
person named Erie. He executed a great deal of

this kind of work for Hone, most of whose publi-
cations about that time bear the marks of his
active pencil. And not only with his pencil did he
assist Hone, for to the imagination of the young
artist the origin of many of the best political
squibs, such as the ' Slap for Slop,' was mainly
due. Merely to enumerate the pictorial trifles
which that epoch of his career produced, would
be an endless task. His was ' The Queen's Matri-
monial Ladder,' 'The Man in the Moon,' and 'Non
mi ricordo ' all squibs referring to the infamous
trial of Queen Caroline. A collection of the political
caricatures which were published by Cruikshank
at this time would furnish a kind of political his-
tory of the day, and would even illustrate many
of the changes of opinion which prevailed. The
first work of any great importance in which Cruik-
ehank bore part was the famous ' Life in London,'
the original suggestion of which was due to him
alone. The original design was to publish a
series of tableaux illustrating the bright side of
' life ' in London, and also the reverse. He was
ultimately persuaded, however, to develop the idea
in collaboration with his brother Robert and Pierce
Egan, and the result was that whilst the last-named
gentleman derived all the glory of writing one of
the most popular books of the time, the wholesome
moral which was originally intended was entirely
lost sight of. Disgusted with the perversion of
his plan, George Cruikshank virtually left the com-
pletion of the plates to his brother Robert. After
this, Cruikshank illustrated a periodical called ' The
Humourist.' In 1823-26 he illustrated with some
capital etchings Grimm's ' German Popular Stories,'
and ' Fairy Tales ' ; and soon after published a
very curious set of comic prints called ' Points of
Humour.' From this time he was called upon to
illustrate many of the most popular works of the
day. In 1847, although not at that time a tee-
totaller, he published a series of eight woodcuts,
called ' The Bottle,' which were very successful.
To this he next year added ' The Drunkard's
Children,' intended to show the terribly degrading
effects of the immoderate use of strong drink.
He also published, 'Sunday in London,' 'The Gin
Trap,' and ' The Gin Juggernaut,' all of which had
an immense circulation, and no doubt helped to
further the cause of temperance. Whilst he was
thus engaged, he was waited upon by some dis-
ciples of Father Mathew, who convinced him that
' moderate drinking ' was not the best way to aid
the temperance movement, and Cruikshank, enter-
ing into the movement with all the fervour of a
naturally ardent temperament, became a total

In his later years George Cruikshank tried oil-
painting, but his works in this branch of art are
as much caricatures as any etching he ever exe-
cuted ; yet they betray a marvellous power of
grotesque humour and deep insight into human
nature. His 'Cinderella,' painted in 1854, is in
the South Kensington Museum, and the last and
greatest of his efforts in oil-painting, ' The Wor-
ship of Bacchus,' painted for the National Tem-
perance League in 1862, is now in the National
Gallery. This picture is a crowded and imaginative
conception, full of weird fancies, and as a work of
art most unsatisfactory. He died in London in
1878, and was buried in St, Paul's Cathedral. The
following, arranged iu chronological order, are the
most important of the books which he illustrated
with etchings :



Life in London ; or the Day and Night Scenes of Jerry
Hawthorn, Esq., Corinthian Tom, Bud Bob Logic, hi
their rambles through the metropolis. By Pierce
Egan. With coloured plates by G. and R. Cruik-
shank. 1821.

Grimm's German Popular Stories. 1824-26.

Hans of Iceland. 1825.

Mornings at Bow Street. 1825.

Grimm's Fairy Tales. 1827.

Punch and Judy. 1828.

John Gilpin. By Cowper. 1828.

The Epping Hunt. 1830.

The Novelist's Library. Edited by T. Roscoe. 1831-32

My Sketch Book ; containing 200 groups. 1833-34.

Thirty-five Illustrations of Don Quixote, in a series of
fifteen plates, designed and etched by G. Cruik-
shank. 1834.

The Comic Almanac. 1835-52.

Sketches by " Boz " (Charles Dickens). 1836-37.

Memoirs of Joseph Grimaldi. 1838.

Jack Sheppard. 1839.

Oliver Twist. (By Charles Dickens.) 1839.

The Ingoldsby Legends. (By R. H. Barbara.) Series
i. iii. 1840-47.

George Cruikshank's Omnibus. Edited by L. Blanchard.

George Cruikshank's Table Book. Edited by G. A. a
Beckett. 1845.

Windsor Castle. 1847.

The Miser's Daughter. 1848.

Three Courses and a Dessert. 1849.

The Loving Ballad of Lord Bateman. 1851.

George Cruikshank's Fairy Library. 1853.

The Tower of London. 1854.

Guy Fawkes ; or, the Gunpowder Treason, an historical
romance. 1857.

Fuller details may be found in Mr. G. W. Reid's
Descriptive Catalogue of the Works of George
Cruikshank,' published in 1871.

CRDIKSHANK, ISAAC, was born at Edinburgh
in 1756 or 1757. His father had been one of the
followers of the Pretender, and had lost his pro-
pert}' in that hopeless cause. Isaac first came to
London at the close of the last century, and, after
the death of his father, tried to gain his living
by drawing caricatures. He was the contemporary
of Rowlandson and Gillray, and his first published
print was one in defence of Pitt in 1796, who was
at that time bitterly assailed by Gillray. The
greater part of the humorous sketches illus-
trating the works of Dean Swift, Joe Miller, and
John Browne, and published by Messrs. Laurie
and Whittle, were by Isaac Cruikshank. He
exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1789, 1790,
and 1792, and in his water-colour drawings ex-
hibited some talent. He died in London in 1810,
or the year following. He was the father of
Robert Isaac and George Cruikshank.

CRUIKSHANK, ROBERT ISAAC, the elder son of
Isaac Cruikshank, was born in or about 1790, and
commenced life as a midshipman on board the East
India Company's ship ' Perseverance." Probably
influenced by his brother George's success as a
caricaturist and artist, he left the service and
practised in water-colours and made comic designs,
in which, however, he rarely went beyond medi-
ocrity. He was connected with his brother George
in illustrating 'The Universal Songster,' 1828;
and ' Cruikshank at Home,' which was followed
by a supplementary volume, entitled 'The Odd
Volume,' in illustrating which Robert Seymour
was associated. Robert I. Cruikshank's best draw-
ings were those made for the illustration of
Cumberland's ' British Theatre ' and ' Minor
Theatre.' His designs on wood were often excel-
lent, but generally spoilt by the engraver. His
death occurred in 1856.

CRUYL, LIEVIN, a Flemish priest, who was a
designer and engraver, was born at Ghent about
the year 1640, and died there in 1720. He de-
signed the views of the most interesting objects in
and near Rome, enriched with figures and animals :
these are touched with spirit and in a pleasing
style. Several of his drawings have been engraved
by Giulio Testa ; and we have by him some very
interesting etchings from his own designs. He

generally marked his plates Q?,ruyl. The follow-
ing are by him :

A set of Twenty-three Plates of Ancient and Modern

Rome ; L. Cruyl del. et scul. 1665.
A set of Views of Roman Ruins, &c. 1667.
The Triumphs of the Roman Emperors ; after Andrea

Mantegna ; ten plates.





CTESICLES, (or CLESIDES,) was a painter of
Ephesus, who was living in B.C. 294. Although
this artist is not spoken of as a painter of very
distinguished talents, yet he may be presumed
to have possessed some merit, from the celebrity
he acquired by the outrageous insult he offered to
Stratonice, the queen of Antiochus. Piqued at not
being treated by her with the distinction which he
thought he merited, he painted a picture of her in
the arms of a fisherman, whom rumour gave to her
as a paramour, and placing it in the most public
part of the port of Ephesus, he immediately em-
barked. Stratonice, however, would not suffer the
picture to be destroyed, such was the exact resem-
blance the artist had given both to herself and the
object of her affection.

CTESILOCHUS, a Greek painter of the time of
Alexander, was a disciple of Apelles, and is chiefly
remarkable for the singular manner in which he
treated one of his principal works, representing
the Birth of Bacchus.

HAERT,) a Dutch engraver, was born at Amsterdam
in 1522. He is more distinguished as a religious
controversialist than as an artist. He has, however,
the credit of having been the instructor of Hen-
drik Goltzius. He resided at Haarlem, but died at
Gouda in 1590. Heinecken and Huber have given
catalogues of his engravings, but they are far from
being complete. His plates are signed with the

initials D. V. C-, or with the monogram ~RJ,
Amongst them are the following :

The Creation of the World. Seven plates.
The Descent from the Cross ; after L. Lombard. 1556.
Joseph explaining his Dream ; after Jlf. Heemskerk.
Joseph interpreting the Dreams of the Prisoners of

Pharaoh ; after the same.
Job reproached by his Wife ; after the same.
Balaam and his Ass ; after the same. 1554.
The Elector of Saxony appearing before Charles V.

after the same.
The Landgrave of Hesse Cassel before Charles V

after the same.

CUEVAS, , a Spanish painter, was a native of
Huesca, who studied under and assisted Tomas
Pelegret in his decorative paintings for the cathe-
dral of that city. He flourished about the middle
of the 16th century, and died at Huesca at the age
of 33.



CDITT, GEORGE, the elder, was born at Moul-
ton, in Yorkshire, in 1743, and having shown a
natural taste for drawing and design was sent to
Italy at the expense of Sir Lawrence Dundas,
whose family had already been painted by him.
He studied earnestly for six years at Rome, and
also pursued landscape painting, a branch of art
that was more congenial to his tastes. He re-
turned to England in 1775, and in 1776 he
exhibited at the Royal Academy 'The Infant
Jupiter fed with goat's milk and honey.' He
afterwards exhibited portraits and landscapes, his
last contribution being in 1798. Owing to fre-
quent attacks of low fever he was unable to reside
in London, and he finally settled at Richmond in
Yorkshire. Here he found constant employment
in the commissions given him by gentlemen whose
parks and residences were in his neighbourhood.
His death occurred in 1818. His portraits are
elaborately finished, although very thinly painted,
whilst his earlier landscapes show much ability
and feeling in their execution.

CUITT, GEORGE, the younger, the only son of
the painter of the same names, was born at
Richmond, in Yorkshire, in 1779. He followed his
father's profession from his youth, and added to it
the art of etching, which he developed with great
success, being induced to do so by a careful study
of Piranesi's ' Roman Antiquities.' He went to
Chester, where he became a teacher of drawing,
and published, in 1810 and 1811, 'Six Etchings of
Saxon and other Buildings remaining at Chester,'
' Six Etchings of Old Buildings in Chester,' and
1 Six Etchings of Picturesque Buildings in Chester,'
and, in 1815, five etchings for a ' History of Ches-
ter.' About 1820, having realized a certain com-
petence by his labours, he retired from the more
active duties of his profession, and built himself a
house at Masham, near Richmond, from whence he
published his ' Yorkshire Abbeys,' and in 1848 his
collected works, under the title of ' Wanderings and
Pencillings amongst the Ruins of Olden Times.'
These etchings exhibit considerable talent, verve,
originality, and truth. His death occurred at
Masham in 1854.


CUMING, WILLIAM, nourished at Dublin in the
early part of the 19th century, and in 1823 was
one of the three artists chosen by their fellows
to elect the remaining eleven who formed the
nucleus of the Royal Hibernian Academy. He
was chiefly esteemed for his female portraits.

CUNDIER, JACQUES, a French engraver, born in

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