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1691, was a native of Aix. There are by him a
large number of portraits which bear dates ranging
between 1717 and 1727.

CUNEGO, DOMENICO, an Italian designer and
engraver, was born at Verona in 1727, and died
at Rome in 1794. He was instructed in the art of
painting by Ferrari, but devoted himself after-
wards entirely to engraving. His copier) from the
works of the Italian masters gained him a great
reputation, and his plates are distinguished for
their deep appreciation of the original, excellence
of design, and beauty of execution. He engraved
several portraits of the royal family of Prussia ;
and was employed by Mr. Hamilton to engrave
Borne of the plates for his ' Schola Italica.' Cunego
afterwards came to England, and engraved some
plates for Boydell's collection. Among many

others we have the following engravings by this
artist :


Three subjects of the Creation, from the Sistine Chapel ;

after Michelangelo.
Eapbael's Mistress, called ' La Foruarina ' ; after

Galatea ; from the picture in the Barberini Palace ;

after the same.
Ganymede ; after Titian.
Head of tbe Magdalen ; after Guido.
The Prodigal Son ; after Guercino.
The Birth of St. John the Baptist ; after L. Carracd.
Galatea, from the Farnese Gallery ; after Agostino


Apollo aud Silenus ; after Anniliale Carraeci.
St. Cecilia receiving the Palm of Martyrdom ; after



Portrait of Kaphael Mengs ; after Menys. 1778.

The Virgin and Infant; after the same.

Five sheets after Paintings in the Library of the

Vatican ; after the same.
The History of Achilles and Hector ; five plates ; after

G. Hamilton.

The Virgin and Infant ; after Corregyio.
The Entombment ; after Raphael.
The Annunciation, the Visitation, the Nativity, the

Circumcision, the Adoration of the Magi, and the

Presentation in the Temple ; six plates ; after

Domenichino. 1779.
Kiualdo and Armida ; after Guercino.
A set of thirteen plates of Ruins ; after Clerisseau.
Musical Assemblies and Conversation Pieces -, after

Niccolo dell' Ablate.

Portrait of Cardinal de Bernis; after A. Ca/let.
Portrait of Emmanuel de Eohau ; after Fabre. 1776.

CUNEGO, GIUSEPPE, the younger son of Do-
menico Cunego, was born at Verona in 1760, and,
like his brother, was instructed by his father.
By this artist we have the following plates of
landscapes :

Four Italian Landscapes, with figures ; after F. de Capo.
Eight Landscapes ; af terthe pictures by Gaspard I'oussin,
in the Colouna Palace.

CUNEGO, LuiGl, the elder son and pupil of
Domenico Cunego, was born at Verona in 1750.
He chiefly resided at Leghorn. We have by him
a few plates, of which the following are the

The Statue of the Apollo Belvedere.
St. Margaret ; after Guercino.
The Persian Sibyl ; after the same.
Mary Magdalene ; after Guido.

CUNINGHAM, WILLIAM, was a physician, who
practised at Norwich about 1559, when he pub-
lished his work called ' The Cosmographical Glasse,'
which contained many woodcuts, as well as a bird's-
eye map of Norwich, the wholeengraved by himself.

called KELSO or CALZE,) was sprung from a good
Scotch family, and is said to have been born at
Kelso about 1742. His father, having been im-
plicated in the attempt of the Pretender in 1745,
was obliged to fly from Scotland to the Continent,
and took his son with him. Cunningham studied
art with much perseverance at Parma, Rome,
Venice, aud Paris. He is said to have assumed
the cognomen of ' Calze ' in Italy. Soon after his
arrival in Paris he inherited the family estates, and
shortly afterwards a second bequest fell to bia
share ; but being dissipated and extravagant he
speedily ran through all his money, and was then
induced to follow the Duchess of Kingston to



Russia. On leaving her Grace he entered the ser-
vice of the Russian Court, and afterwards went
to Berlin, where he found full employment as
a portrait painter. Unhappily his improvident
habits continued, and he finally came to London,
where he died in great poverty in 1795. As a
portrait painter he achieved a deserved success,
and some of his portraits have been engraved. He
also painted a few historical subjects.

CUQUET, PEDRO, a Spanish painter, was bom
at Barcelona in 1596. According to Palomino, his
works were confined to the churches and convents
of his native city, the principal being some pictures
of the life of 8t. Francis of Paola, in the cloister
of the convent of that name. He died at Barce-
lona in 1666. The industrious restorers, who for
some time overran Spain, have destroyed the
greater part of his works.

CUREAU, GDILLAUME, a native of Bordeaux, was
principally employed in the early half of the 17th
century in painting the portraits of the Mayors and
Jurats of Bordeaux. A collection of his works was
sold by the city in 1793, but Bordeaux still retains
in its Museum a portrait of Messire de Mullet,
Seigneur de Latour, by Cureau, who died in his
native city in 1647.

CURIA, FRANCESCO, was born at Naples in 1538.
He was instructed in painting by Leonardo di
Pistoja, but afterwards visited Rome, where he
studied the works of Raphael, and other dis-
tinguished masters. On his return to Naples,
he painted many pictures for the public edifices.
He distinguished himself by the grandeur of his
compositions, the fine expression of his heads, and
a vagueness of colouring that approaches to nature,
but was not free from the mannered style, which
was also adopted by Vasari and Zuccaro. His
most admired work is that in the Chiesa della
Pieta, representing the 'Circumcision.' It is an
admirable composition of many figures, painted
in a fine style, and is considered by Lanzi as one
of the finest pictures at Naples. He was the
founder of a prosperous school in that city, and
died there in 1610.

CURRADO, FRANCESCO, was born near Florence
in 1570, and was brought up in the school of
Battista Naldini. He painted first for the churches
at Florence, and afterwards visited Rome, where
he stayed some time and painted several works for
the King of Portugal, who gave him the Order of
Christ. After his return to Florence, he was un-
remittingly occupied during a long life, until he
reached his 91st year, in painting, and in the
instruction of his numerous pupils. He painted
historical subjects, and some of his large works
are in the churches of Florence : the altar-piece
of ' St. Francis Xavier preaching in India,' in
the church of San Giovannino, is esteemed one
of the best. But he chiefly excelled in historical
pictures of an easel size, of which two of the finest,
representing the 'Magdalen' and the 'Martyrdom
of St. Thecla,' are in the gallery at Florence. His
works are composed with taste and judgment, his
drawing is correct, and his heads are full of ex-
pression. In his colouring, like most of the Tuscan
painters, he is more to be admired for sobriety than
vivacity. He died in 1661. We find of his works :

Florence. UJpa. His own Portrait.

The Magdalen.

., Martyrdom of St. Thecla.

., Pitti Pal. Narcissus.

St. Catharine.

Vienna. Gallery. Abraham receiving the Angels.

PIETRO and Cosmo, his brothers and pupils, became
his faithful followers.

CURRAN, AMELIA, who was the daughter of the
famous Irish advocate and orator, the Right Hon.
John Philpot Curran, practised painting only as an
amateur. She died at Rome in 1847. A portrait
of Percy Bysshe Shelley by her was exhibited at
the National Portrait Exhibition in 1868.

CURTI, BERNARDINO, was a native of Bologna,
who flourished about the year 1645. He engraved
some portraits, among which is that of Lodovico
Carracci. We have also by him a middle-sized

Elate, representing an emblematical subject after
uca Ferrari.

CURTI, FRANCESCO, an Italian engraver, was.
born at Bologna about the year 1603, and died
there about 1670. He worked principally with
the graver, in a neat, clear style, resembling the
manner of Cherubino Alberti, but very unequal to
that artist in drawing. Besides some portraits, we
have the following by him :

Two Busts of the Virgin and St. Catharine, on the

same plate.
The Virgin teaching the Infant Jesus to read ; after


The Marriage of St. Catharine ; after D. Calvaert.
Venus directing Vulcan to forge Arms for JEneas;

after Carracci.

Hercules combating the Hydra ; after Guercino.
The Infant Christ sleeping ; after Guido ; etched and
finished with the graver.

CURTI, GIROLAMO, called IL DENTONE, was born
at Bologna in 1570, and was first a disciple of
Lionello Spada, and of Baglioni, a painter of decor-
ations, but he afterwards applied himself to study
from the noble edifices erected from the plans
of Giacomo Barozzi, called Vignola. He next
went to Rome, where he improved his taste by
contemplating the magnificent vestiges of ancient
architecture in that capital. He was a perfect
master of chiaroscuro, and gave to his works so
surprising a relief, that they have the appear-
ance of perfect illusion. There are many of his
works in the palaces and public edifices at Bologna,
in which the figures are painted by the most distin-
guished of his contemporaries. He died in that
city in 1631.

CURTIS, CHARLES M., was born in London in
1795, and practised chiefly on natural history
subjects, which he drew with much accuracy and
spirit. His brother was the author of ' British
Entomology.' His death occurred in 1839.

CURTIS, JOHN, was a landscape painter, and the
pupil of William Marlow. He exhibited at the
Royal Academy from 1790 to 1797, his first
painting being a ' View of Netley Abbey,' and his
last a sea-piece, called ' Sir Edward Pellew's Action
with the French Seventy-Four, " Les Droits de
1'Homme." '

CURTIS, SARAH, was born in the latter pnrt
of the 17th century, and was a pupil of Mrs.
Beale. On her marriage with Dr. Hoadly, after-
wards Bishop of Winchester, she quitted her pro-
fession, and died in 1743. Her productions are
mediocre, and wanting in both life and colour.
She painted the portraits of Whiston, Bishop
Burnet, and her own husband. Bishop Burnet's
portrait was engraved by William Faithorne.


DAL PERON, both being the names of villages near
Belluno, was living in portions of the 14th and
15th centuries, and is thought to have died close

s^ ^



npon 1416. The altar-piece of the high altar in
the cathedral of Belluno was executed by him in
1397. There also remain of his works :

Belluno. Baptistery. St. Martin dividing his Cloak:
and sixteen other episodes from
his life.

Casa Pagani. Virgin of Mercy, between 16
subjects from the life of St.

CUSTODIS, HIERONYMO, was a painter of Ant-
werp, of whom nothing is known beyond the few
words he has inscribed on his portraits. Two of
these, Giles Bruges, Lord Chandos, and Elizabeth
Bruges, Lady Kennedy, are at Woburn Abbey,
and a third, Sir John Parker, is at Hampton Court.
All three were painted in England in 1589, and are
very poor productions.


CUVILLIES, FRANCOIS, a French architect, and
engraver of ornaments, was born at Soissons in 1698,
and went to Paris in 1714 to study architecture
under Robert de Cotte. About 1720 he was sent
to Cologne to execute work for the Elector James
Clement, and in 1738 he was nominated architect
to the Elector of Bavaria, afterwards the Emperor
Charles VII. He died about the end of 1767 or
the beginning of 1768.

CUVILLIES, FRANCOIS, the son of the preceding,
was an engineer and architect, horn at Munich in
1734. He succeeded his father at the court of
Munich, and there published his father's works in
17691772. He etched some plates of Funeral
Monuments, Fountains, and Caryatides, and is sup-
posed to have died about 1805.

VAN MIERHOP,) was born at Bruges in 1640, and
painted in Ghent historical pictures, with portraits
of the persons in the events depicted, but his
best productions represent animals, especially fish,
and some of his works are scarcely to be dis-
tinguished from those of Snyders. He was de-
scended from a noble family, and at first painted
only for amusement ; but a reverse of fortune
compelled him to pursue the art as a profession.
He died after 1686. The Academy of Bruges has
a picture of ' Still Life ' by this painter.

or KUYLENBURG,) was a painter of Utrecht, who
flourished in the 17th century. He was instructed
by Poelenburg, in whose manner he executed land-
scapes with idyllic and mythological scenes ; his
figures, however, are but abortive imitations of that
master. In 1639 he was appointed master of the
Guild at Utrecht, and his name occurs in the
records as late as 1660. Among his paintings we
may notice :




A Grotto.
A Grotto.


CUYLENBURG, Cs. VAN, of Utrecht, painted in
Holland in the early years of the nineteenth century.
He died at the Hague after 1816. A portrait of
Willem Crul by him is in the Amsterdam Gallery.

CUYP, AELBERT, the son of Jacob Gerritsz Cuyp,
was born at Dordrecht in 1605, and studied under
his father. He married in 1658, and lived chiefly
on his estate, Dordwijk, near Dordrecht, in which
town he was considered of some importance. His
name does not occur in the records of the Guild :

and it is thought by some that he may have practised
art only as an amateur. But little is known of his
life. He died in 1691, ana was buried in the church
of the Augustines at Dordrecht.

Cuyp, who has been called the Dutch Claude,
acquired the chaste and exquisite style, for which
he is so particularly admired, by a close and vigilant
attention to nature, under all the vicissitudes of
atmosphere and season. His pictures frequently
represent the borders of the Maas, with shepherds
and herdsmen tending their cattle. These sub-
jects he has treated with an enchanting simplicity,
that may truly be said to be peculiar to him.
Whether he wished to exhibit the dewy vapour of
morning, ushering in the brightness of a summer
day, the glittering heat of noon, or the still radiance
of evening, nature is perfectly represented. No
painter, perhaps, has surpassed him in the purity of
aerial tint. Cuyp did not confine himself to land-
scapes and figures ; he painted with equal success
sea-pieces and views of rivers, with boats some-
times sailing with a fresh breeze, sometimes at
anchor in a sultry calm ; winter-scenes, with people
amusing themselves on the ice ; and pictures of
birds, which would have been a credit to D'Honde-
coeter. He excelled also in horse-fairs and skir-
mishes of cavalry, which he painted with infinite
spirit, in a manner equal, if not superior, to Wou-
werman. He was not less happy in his pictures
of moonlight ; in which the works of Van der Neer
are eclipsed by a superior and a more delicate
degradation of light. He also painted portraits
(an example is in the National Gallery), interiors of
churches, fruit, and flowers ; and may thus be called
the most universal painter of the school to which he
belonged. The pictures of Cuyp are to be met
with more frequently inEngland than in any other
country, and, with the exception of those in the
Louvre, almost all his masterpieces may be found
in the public galleries and private collections of
this country, for it was in England that the beauty
of his pictures was first appreciated. Till about the
middle of the 18th century, they could be bought
for as little as thirty florins a-piece ; they now
fetch as much as 3,000.

The following are some of his principal works,
which are usually signed (in early life, A. C., and
later, A. CUIJP), but rarely dated.

Amsterdam, Gallery.

Amsterdam Six Coll.

,, 11 ')

Antwerp. Gallery.
Berlin. Museum.

Brussels. Museum.

Hilly Landscape.

Shepherds with their Flocks in

a landscape.
Cavalry Combat.
View of Dordrecht.
Moonlight Scene.
The Two Cavaliers.
Sandy Landscape.
Sunny View of the Dunes.
River Scene.
Cows in a Landscape.
Interior of a Stable, with an Ox

and Fowls.

Copenhagen. Museum. Landscape with Horsemen.
Darmstadt. Museum. Herdsman and Cattle.
Dresden. Gallery. Hunting Scene.

Boy with a Greyhound.

M Portrait of Himself, as a bride-


A Grey Horse with a Groom.

Dublin. Nat. Gall. Milking Cows.
Dulwich. Gallery. The White Horse in a riding


Evening Ride near a River.

A Road near a River.

Cattle and Figures near a River,

with Mountains.






London Nat. Gall.

Gallery. Cattle near a River.

A nd others.
St&del. Portrait of a Boy.

Evening Landscape.

Gallery. A member of the De Roovere
Family directing Salmon-fish-
ing in the environs of Dor-

Landscape, with Cattle and
Figures: Evening (a master-

A Plan's Portrait (dated 1649).
Horseman and Cows in a

Meadow: Evening.
River Scene with Cattle.

Ruined Castle in a Lake.
The Windmills.
Cattle and Figures (the ' Large

Dort ').
Cattle and Figures (the ' Small

Landscape, with Figures on

horseback and on foot.

Jindgewater \ Woman m ;iking a Cow.

House. )

View on the Meuse.

Buckingham ) A Herdsman, a Woman, and

Palace. J Cattle.

tl Landscape with River.

Bedford Coll. Fishermen on the Ice.
Hotford Coll. View of Dordrecht.

Munich. Pinakotliek. A Horseman holding a white


Fowls in a Stable.

Paris. Louvre. Landscape with Shepherd and

six Cows (a masterpiece).
Starting for a Ride.
The Ride.

Portraits of Children.

,, Portrait of a Man.


Landscape and Cattle.
Portraits of Himself and


Petersburg. Hermitage. Cows in a Landscape.
The Meuse.
The Scheldt.
Cattle in a Landscape.
Horses on the Bank of a River.
Moonlight at Sea.
Landscape Woman with Cows.
Rotterdam. Museum. River Scene.

Interior, with a Forge.

Two Grey Horses.




Head of a Cow.

Aelbert Cuyp has left eight small etchings of
cows, which, though not executed with m'ich
delicacy or care, evince the hand of the master.
They are very scarce.

CUYP, BENJAMIN, a pupil, and apparently a
nephew of Jacob Gerritsz Cuyp, was born at
Dordrecht in 1608, and was received into the
Guild there in 1631. He formed his style on
that of Aelbert Cuyp, Rembrandt, and Teniers
the elder. His subjects are taken from sacrec
history, coast scenery, and peasant life. His
works are rarely met with in public galleries

Pesth. Gallery.

The following are attributed to him :

Berlin. Gallery. Adoration of the Shepherds.

Dresden. Gallery. Peasants playing and singing.
,ille. Museum. The Resurrection.

Portrait of a Young Woman.
Petersburg. Hermitage. Peasants quarrelling.

CUYP, JACOB GERIUTSZ, the father of the cele-
jrated Aelbert Cuyp, and a pupil of Abraham
Bloemaert, was born at Dordrecht in 1575. Ho
occasionally painted views of towns, landscapes,
and battle-pieces, but he is principal!} 7 famous for
lis portraits. He was one of the four founders of
the Guild of St. Luke at Dordrecht. He was still
iving in 1649. The following works are by him :

Amsterdam. Gallery.
Berlin. Gallery.

A Dutch Family.

Portrait of an OldWoman. 1624.

Portraits of a newly-married

Portrait of a Young Man.
Frankfort. Stddel. Portrait of a Lady.

Munich. Finakothek. View of a Town on a broad River.
Petersburg. Hermitage. Two Soldiers sitting at Table.
Rotterdam. Museum. Three Children in a Landscape.

Portrait of an Officer. 1644.

Portrait of a Lady. 1644.


CYDIAS, a native of Cythnus, who was living
in B.C. 364, may be presumed to have been a
painter of considerable ability, as one of his
pictures, representing 'Jason and his followers
embarking for Colchis, in search of the Golden
Fleece,' was purchased at Rome by the orator
Hortensius for twenty-four thousand sesterces, and
was afterwards bought by Marcus Agrippa, and
placed in the Porticus of Neptune to commemorate
his naval victories.

CYL, GERARD VAN, a painter of Amsterdam or
Leyden, who, about the year 1649, produced a
number of portraits and conversation pieces in the
style of Van Dyck, whom he imitated with decep-
tive accuracy.

CZECHOWICZ, SIMON, was born at Cracow in
1689, and went when quite young to Rome, where
he placed himself for improvement under Maratti,
and resided during thirty years. After his re-
turn he worked principally in Warsaw, but also
in Cracow, Wilna, Podhorce, and Polock. He at
length entered the order of the Capuchins, and
from that time devoted himself wholly to painting
for them. He established the first school of paint-
ing in Poland. His death occurred at Warsaw in
1775. Some three hundred strictly religious pic-
tures by him have been estimated to exist, of which
107 are in Podhorce Castle, and others in the
Jesuits' College at Polock, and the churches of the
Piarists and St. Florian at Cracow. His masterpiece
is the 'Miracle of the Broken Milk-pot,' at Wilna.


CZERNY, LUDOVIC, an Austrian painter, and
professor of the Academy, died at Vienna in
January 1889, aged sixty-nine.



Richard Clay * Smt, iimiud, London *


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