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afterwards visited Florence, and was employed by
the Grand-Duke Cosmo to ornament one of the
saloons of the Palazzo Vecchio, where he repre-
sented the 'Triumph and Exploits of Furius
Camillus,' composed and painted with great genius
and spirit, and with an accuracy in the delineation of
the arms, habiliments, and costume of ancient Rome,
which is worthy of the most learned antiquary.

The restless and unsettled disposition of Salviati
did not permit him to reside long in one place, and
he readily complied with the invitation of the
Cardinal de Lorraine to accompany him to France,
where Francis I. had engaged some of the ablest
artists of Italy in the decoration of the palace of
Fontainebleau. He was received with distinction,
and was treated with great kindness by Prima-
ticcio, the superintendent of the works ; but the
jealousy and turbulence of his nature returned
these good offices with ingratitude and malevo-
lence. During his stay in France he painted
for the church of the Celestines at Paris a fine
picture, representing the ' Taking down from the
Cross.' The ' Incredulity of St. Thomas,' by him,
is now in the Louvre. Dissatisfied with his situa-
tion in France, he returned to Rome, where he fell
into new difficulties and disputes with Daniele da
Volterra and Pietro Ligorio. The continual agita-
tion of his mind brought on a fever, of which he
died, at Florence, in 1563.

and in France MA!TRE Roux, was born at Florence
in 1494. Although he was not a disciple 'of
Andrea del Sarto, he was at first an admirer of his
manner, and afterwards improved his powers by
studying the works of Michelangelo and Parmi-
giano. Endowed with a ready and inventive
genius, he scorned to be the servile imitator even
of Buonarroti, and at an early age he ventured to
compete with the ablest of his contemporaries in
the cloister of the Annunziata, where lie painted
a large fresco of the ' Assumption of the Virgin,'
in which he displayed both originality and
taste. After painting several other pictures for
the churches at Florence, particularly the ' Marriage
of the Virgin,' in San Lorenzo, he went to Rome,
where his talents were alreadj known. There,
among other works, he painted an altar-piece for
Santa Maria della Pace ; and had acquired con-
siderable celebrity when Rome was taken and
plundered in 1527. Rosso was taken prisoner
by the Germans, and very badly treated, but he
at length escaped, and took refuge at Volterra,
where he painted for the cathedral a fine picture
of the ' Deposition from the Cross.' He after-
wards went to Venice, but not meeting with the
success he expected in Italy, he resolved, about
1530, on visiting the court of Francis I. of France,
who was at that time the great encourager of art.
He was very favourably received by that monarch,
who immediately engaged him in his service, and
appointed him superintendent of the great works
upon which he was then engaged at the palace of
Fontainebleau. As Rosso was not less eminent
as an architect than as a painter, he undertook the
building of the great gallery in that palace, which
was executed from his design, and which he decor-
ated with several paintings and with ornaments in
stucco, some of which were afterwards destroyed
by his rival and competitor, Primaticcio, to make
way for his own works. Thirteen frescoes, allusive
to the life of Francis I., still remain, but have been
restored by MM. Couder and Alaux.

The style of Rosso, though singular, is grand.
He displayed a dignity of character, a lively ex-
pression in his heads, a tasteful arrangement of
his draperies, an effective management of his
light and shadow, and a daring execution ; though
these excellences were accompanied by a wildness
and extravagance, too frequently attached to a
fertile and exuberant imagination. This able artist



was well versed in literature, and had a taste for
poetry and music. His conversation was agree-
able, and his manners polished. The possession of
such accomplishments secured him the regard and
good graces of Francis I. He was in the full
possession of royal favour, and of the public
estimation, when he sacrificed these advantages
to a mean and unfounded suspicion. He had con-
tracted a friendship with Francesco Pellegrini, a
Florentine painter, who was in the habit of visiting
him frequently, when his house was robbed of a
considerable sum. He rashly suspected Pellegrini
to be the robber, and brought a formal accusation
against him. Pellegrini was in consequence of the
charge put to the torture, and, after suffering the
most horrible torments, was declared innocent. The
remorse of having so unjustly exposed an innocent
person to so dreadful a trial, preyed upon his
mind, and he put an end to his existence by poison,
at Fontainebleau, in 1541. The principal works oi'
Rosso which exist are as follow :
Berlin Gallery. The Four Seasons.

Cittadi Castello. Cathedral. The Transfiguration.
Florence. SS. Annunziata. The Assumption of the Virgin


& Lorenzo. The Marriage of the Virgin.

Fitti Palace. The Virgin enthroned, with St.
Sebastian, St. Mary Magda-
len, and other Saints.
UJizi. Moses driving away the Madi-

anite Shepherds.

The Virgin enthroned, with

the Infant Jesus, and SS.
Jerome and Francis.

Fontaiuebleau. Palace. Francis I. crowned by Victory.
A Sacrifice and Thanksgiving

for the King.

Jupiter and Europa.

Neptune and Amphitrite.

Alexander cutting the Gordian

Francis I. in Roman costume,

holding a grenade.

., The Burning of Troy.

A Hurricane, in allusion to the

Battle of Pavia.

., The Triumph of Venus.

,, Chiron and Achilles.

^Isculapius at Rome.

Cupid and Psyche.

The Battle of the Lapithse and

the Centaurs.
Paris. Louvre. A Pieta.

The Challenge of the Pierides.

Mars and Venus (pen-and-in*

,, Design for a Coffer (pen-and-ink

Petersburg. Hermitage. The Virgin and Child, with St.

John the Baptist.
The Madonna in glory.

DEI ROTARI, Conte PIETRO, who was of a noble
family of Verona, was born in 1707. For some
time he merely practised painting as an amuse-
ment, but his progress was so flattering, that he
at length resolved to adopt it as a profession,
and he became a scholar of Antonio Balestra,
under whom he studied until he was eighteen
years of age. He afterwards visited Venice,
where he passed two years in studying the works
of the best masters of that distinguished school
of colouring. In 1727 he went to Rome, where
he entered the school of Francesco Trevisani, and
spent four years in studying the great works of
art in that city. By the advantages of travel,
and an assiduous application to his pursuit, he
became a correct and graceful designer, and joined


to the expressive airs of his heads an elegance of
contour, and a tasteful disposition of his draperies,
in which he was not surpassed by any artist
of his time. His principal works in Italy are his
picture of the 'Annunciation,' at Guastalla ; and
the 'Birth of the Virgin,' in the church of San
Giovanni, at Padua. He afterwards visited the
courts of Vienna and Dresden, where he met with
the most flattering encouragement ; and in 1756
was invited to St. Petersburg by the Empress of
Russia, who appointed him her principal painter,
in which capacity he died, in 1762. We have
several slight but spirited etchings by this artist,
some of which are from his own compositions, and
others after the works of Balestra. Among them
are the following :

The Portrait of Filippo Baldinucci. 1726.

St. Francis kneeling before a Crucifix ; from his own


The Education of the Virgin ; the same.
Abraham and the Angels ; after A. Balestra.
David with the Head of Goliath ; after the same.
St. Jerome ; half-length ; after the same.
Venus and jEneas ; after the same.


DEI SERAFINI, SERAFINO, who was living in
Modena in the 14th century, is known by a ' Coro-
nation of the Virgin ' and other subjects in the
cathedral of that city. It bears the inscription
"Seraphinus de Seraphinis pinxit 1385 die Jovis
x.x.i. 1. 1. Marcii." Although there is but little
recorded of this artist, we may conclude that he was
probably of some importance in his time, from
the following inscription in a chapel, not named,
painted by him :

Mille trecento con septanta sei
Erano corso gli auni del Siguore
E'l quarto eutrava quando a so honore
Questa Capella al nobel fin minei.
Et io, che tutta in si la storiei
Fui Serafin da Mutina Pittore.

DEI SERVI, CONSTANTINO, was an architect and
painter who was living at Florence at the beginning
of the 17th century. After studying awhile under
Santi di Tito, he went to Germany, where he painted
in the manner of Pourbus. His Florentine mosaics
earned him much renown, and he also worked as
an architect and engineer for the Shah of Persia,
the Prince of Wales, and the Emperor Rudolph II.
He died in 1622.

DEI VECCHI, GIOVANNI, was born at Borgo San
Sepolcro about the year 1536. He went to Rome
when he was young, where he first became a dis-
ciple of Raft'aellino dal Colle, but he afterwards
studied under Taddeo Zuccheri, who was at that
time employed by Cardinal Alessandro Farnese in
the embellishment of his palace of Caprarola, where,
in conjunction with his instructor, he executed
several considerable works. There are many of
his pictures in the churches at Rome, of which a
particular description is given by Baglione. In
San Lorenzo in Damaso is one of his most esteemed
productions, representing the ' Martyrdom of St.
Lawrence ' ; in the cupola of the Chiesa del Gesii
is a fresco of the ' Four Doctors of the Church ' ;
and in Santa Maria in Araceli are several pictures
from the life of St. Jerome. He died at Rome
in 1614.

CESCO DA COTIGNOLA, was born in the latter part of
the 15th century at Cotignola, in the Duchy of


Ferrara. He afterwards lived at Ravenna, anc
learned his art under Rondinello. At the Brera
Milan, is a ' Virgin and Child, between SS. Franci
and Nicholas, and a kneeling patron,' signed bj
him in 1505 ; another similar subject, in which hi
brother Bernardino is said to have assisted him
is in the same gallery. In 1509 he painted the
' Infant Christ,' now in the Dublin National Gallery
The Costabili Collection, in Ferrara, possesses i
'St. Sebastian,' painted in 1513; and of abou
that time is the altar-piece now in the gallery o:
Forli, representing the 'Eternal in Glory, adorec
by the Saints on earth.' His celebrated pictun
of the ' Resurrection,' at Classe, and his esteeme(
work of the ' Baptism of Christ,' at Faenza, an
productions that do honour to his country. He
also painted, in 1518, an admirable picture of the
' Madonna surrounded by Saints,' at the Osservant
at Parma, in which he was assisted by his brother
Bernardino, who was an artist of considerable
ability. Others of his most important works are
the ' Virgin and Child, with SS. John the Baptist
John the Evangelist, and Bernardino' ; and the two
portraits of the Pallavicini family, painted in 1518
in the church of the Nunziata, outside the Ports
Nuova of Parma. Signer Federico Mylius, ol
Genoa, possesses a bust of the Saviour executed
by Francesco and his brother Bernardino. Of the
latter's own work only a single example is known,
viz., a ' St. Sebastian,' belonging to Signor Frizzoni,
of Bellaggio. Many other paintings by Francesco
are to be met with in the galleries and churches of
Ravenna. The date of his death is uncertain, but
after 1518 all traces of him are lost.

DE JAGER, GERARD, a native of Dordrecht,
flourished about 1646. He painted marine sub-
jects, and particularly excelled in the representation
of still water. He was still living in 1663.

DE JODE, ARNOLD, the son of Pieter De Jode,
the younger, was born at Antwerp in 1638. He
was instructed in engraving by his father, but he
never rose above mediocrity. He worked in the
Netherlands and in Spain, and was in England in

1666, the year of the great fire in London, and in

1667. His best prints are portraits, though they
are but indifferent. Among other plates, the fol-
lowing are by him :


Cardinal Pallavicini ; after Titian.
Catharine Howard, Duchess of Lennox: after VanDuek
Sir Peter Lely ; after Lely.

Alexander Browne ; prefixed to his ' Ars Pictoria' ; after


The Education of Cupid ; after Corregyio. 1667.

The Magdalen ; oval ; after Van Dyck.

The Infant Christ embracing St. John ; after the same ;

inscribed Arnoldus de Jode, sculp. Londini, tempore

incendii maximi.

A Landscape ; after L. De Tadder. 1658.
Some other Landscapes ; after Jacques Fouquieres.

DE JODE, GERRIT, a Flemish engraver and
printseller, appears to have been born at Antwerp
in 1521. He was the head of a family greatly dis-
tinguished in the art of engraving. He executed
several plates of historical and geographical sub-
jects, in which his style appears to have been an
imitation of that of Cornells Cort. He died at
Antwerp in 1591. The following are some of his
principal prints :

A set of twenty-nine Portraits of the Popes. 1585.

\ Roman Triumph, in twelve sheets ; after Jf. Heemc-

The Crucifixion ; a large print, in three sheets ; after

Michelangelo Buonarroti, but without the name of

the painter.
St. Jerome in meditation ; after Titian. 1565.

DE JODE, PIETER, ' the elder,' the son of Gerrit De
Jode, was born at Antwerp in 1570. After being
taught the rudiments of design by his father,he was
instructed in engraving by Hendrik Goltzius. He
afterwards went to Italy for improvement, par-
ticularly in drawing, and engraved several plates
from the works of the great masters. About the
year 1601 he returned to Antwerp, where he dis-
tinguished himself by producing various prints
after the principal Flemish painters. He and his
son were in 1631 in Paris, where they worked for
some time. His drawing is very correct; and
though his command of the graver is less daring
and bold than that of his instructor, he is less
mannered and extravagant. He died at Antwerp
in 1634. He engraved about a hundred plates, of
which the following are the principal :


Erycius Puteanus, (Hendrik van der Putte,) a Dutch


Giovanni Boccaccio ; after Titian.
Ferdinand, Count Palatine of the Rhine ; oval ; after


Philip III., King of Spain ; oval ; after the same.
Francisco de Mello, Count d'Azumar.
Ambrogio Spinola.


The Five Senses ; apparently from his oim designs.
The Life and Miracles of St. Catharine of Siena ; twelve

plates ; after Francesco Vanni. 1006.
The Life of Christ ; thirty-six plates.
Costumes of the People of Europe ; after S. Francken.
The Virgin and Child ; after Titian.
The Marriage of St. Catharine ; after the same.
The Holy Family ; after the same.
The Adoration of the Shepherds; after A. van Oort.
Christ and Nicodemus ; after the same.
The Beheading of St. John the Baptist ; after Ruben*.
Christ giving the Keys to St. Peter ; after the same.
The Virgin fainting at the sight of 'Christ crowned

with thorns ; after F. Vanni.
The Coronation of St. Catharine ; after the same.
The Last Judgment; after Jean Cousin; on twelve

plates ; one of the largest prints known.

DE JODE, PIETER, 'the younger,' the son of
the elder artist of the same names, was born at
Antwerp in 1606, and was instructed by his father,
whom he surpassed in the taste and facility with
which he handled the graver. He engraved up-
wards of three hundred plates, but they are very
unequal. His best works are his portraits, several
of which he engraved after Van Dyck. The date
of his death is unknown. The following are his
nost esteemed prints :

Charles I.

Henrietta Maria, his Queen.
Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford.
Prince Rupert.

Catharine, Countess of Newburgh.
Pieter De Jode, the younger.
Jacob Jordaeus, painter, of Antwerp.
Cornells van Poelenburg, painter, of Utrecht.
Jan Snellinck, painter, of Antwerp.
Daniel Mytens, painter.
Adam De Coster, painter, of Mechlin.
Andreas Colyns de Nole, sculptor, of Antwerp.
Hendrik Liberti. organist.
Albert, Duke of Friedland, Count of Wallenetein.



Genevieve d'TJrfe, Duchess de Croy.
Jeanne de Blois.

Jean de Tserclaes, Count de Tilly.
Diodorus van Tulden, professor at Louvain.
Anthony Trieste, Bishop of Ghent.


Karl Heinrieh, Baron von Metteruich ; after A. t-mi


August Adolph, Baron von Trautdorf ; after the same.
Thomas Ricciardi ; after Simon J'ouet.
Ernest, Count d'Isembourg ; after J. Willelmrts Bosc/t-

Petrus de Fraucavilla, sculptor and architect ; after



St. Augustine, crowned by Religion ; P. de Jode,fec.
St. Frauds kneeling before a Crucifix ; after aroccio.
The Holy Family ; after Titian.
The Visitation of the Virgin to St. Elizabeth ; after


The Three Graces ; after the same.
Venus rising from the Sea ; after the same.
Cybele and Neptune ; after trie same.
St. Francis and St. Clara adoring the Infant Jesus ; after

Gerard Seyers.

Christ with Nicodemus ; after the same.
The Nativity ; after J. Jordaens.
The Miracle of St. Martin of Tours ; after the same.
Folly and Ignorance ; after the same.
St. Augustine supported by Angels ; after T'an Dyck.
St. Augustine adoring the Mystery of the Holy Trinity ;

after the same. (His best work.)
Riualdo and Armida ; after the same.
The Holy Family, with St. Anne ; after A. van Die-pen-


An Allegory of Peace ; after the same.
St. John the Baptist in the Desert ; after P. van Mol.

was born at Overschie, a village near Rotterdam,
in 1616. He was the son of a shoemaker, who
intended bringing him up to the same business,
but from his aversion to the work and strong
disposition for art, he was placed under Cornelis
Sachtleven, with whom he passed two years. He
afterwards studied successively tinder Anthony
Palamedes of Delft, and Jan Bijlert of Utrecht.
He subsequently went to France, and passed
seven years at Paris, where he met with encour-
agement as a portrait painter, in which branch
of art he chiefly excelled. He also painted easel
pictures of hunting-parties and battles, which are
ingeniously composed and touched with spirit and
vigour. On his return to Holland he settled at
Rotterdam, where he was much employed. His
most considerable work is a large picture in the
' Salle des Princes ' in that city, containing the por-
traits of the officers of the Company of Burghers.
He died at Hillegersberg in 1697.

scape painter, was born at Courtrai in 1785. He
studied under Ommeganck, and travelled in Hol-
land, France, and England. He finally settled at
Brussels, where he had many pupils and followers.
He exhibited his works at Paris, Lyons, Brussels,
Amsterdam, the Hague, Vienna, &c., and obtained
various medals. He died at Antwerp in 1844.
Amongst his best productions are :

Environs of Tournai (Brussels Jlfuseum).
Stream with Cattle (Ghent Academy).
View near Courtrai (Ghent Academy).
Interior of a Farm (Haarlem Museum).
Travellers Resting (Haarlem Museum).
Flock of Sheep ; sandy road (Tournai Museum).

DEJUINNE, FRANCOIS Louis, was born in Paris
in 1786, and learned the art of painting under

Girodet. He visited Rome, where he studied the
works of Titian, Paolo Veronese, and other great
masters. He died in Paris in 1844. His paintings
were mostly historical ; among them are the
' Ascension of the Virgin ' and ' St. Genevieve ' for
Notre-Dame de Lorette, and ' The Four Seasons '
for the Trianon Palace.

DE KEMPENEER, PIETER, better known by
his Spanish name of PEDRO CAMPANA, which has
been translated into French as CHAMPAIGNS, and
into Flemish as VAN DE VELDE, was a painter born
at Brussels in 1503, although from the character of
his works and his subsequent life he should be
classed with the Spanish school. He visited Italy
early in life, and there studied the masterpieces of
Raphael and Michelangelo. On his journey to
Rome in 1530 he painted the triumphal arch which
was erected at Bologna for the coronation of
Charles V. He afterwards went to Spain, and
subsequently to 1548 painted numerous devotional
pictures for the churches of Seville. His master-
piece is the ' Descent from the Cross,' which he
painted about 1548 for the church of Santa Cruz,
and which, when that church fell into ruins, was
removed to the cathedral of Seville. This work
compares favourably with the productions of
Albrecht Durer. Such was at one time its life-
like awful character that Murillo used to stand
watching, as he said, until these holy men should
have finished taking down the Saviour. A ' Puri-
fication of the Virgin ' and a ' Resurrection ' by
him, also in the cathedral, by the beauty of their
design and the luminous character of their colour-
ing are suggestive of the highest period of Italian
art. The parish churches of Triana and of Santa
Maria at Carmona possess paintings by this
master. De Kempeneer returned to Brussels not
later than 1563, and died in that city in 1580.
Besides the above-named works he lias left the
following :

Seville, 5. Isidore, St. Paul the Hermit ; St. Anthony,
Abbot. 5. Pedro, Christ bound to the Pillar; St.
Sebastian ; St. Jerome enthroned. iS. Catalina, St.
Jerome enthroned, with Saints. & Juan de la Palma,
Crucifixion, with the Virgin and St. John. (An
early work.)

DE KEYSER, NICAISE, a Flemish painter, was
born at Santvliet, near Antwerp, in 1813. He was
a pupil of J. Jacops and of Van Br^e, and distin-
guished himself by his battle-pieces, &c., in the
manner of Wappers and the reactionaries of 1830.
In 1855 he became director of the Academy of
Antwerp. He died in 1887.

DE KEYSER, THOMAS, (until recently, named in
error Theodoor,) was born at Amsterdam about
the year 1595. In the Gallery at tke Hague
is a fine picture by this Dutch painter, represent-
ing the Four Burgomasters of Amsterdam deliber-
ating on the honours to be paid to Marie de
Medicis, on her entrance into that city in 1638.
The heads are admirably painted, and with a rich-
ness of colouring nearly approaching to Rembrandt.
The portraits of Rombout Hoogerbeets, his wife,
and family, and two other pictures, now in the
Museum at Amsterdam, were also painted by him.
There is also a picture by him in the National
Gallery, representing 'A Merchant and his Clerk.'
He died at Amsterdam in 1679. Some of
his works are signed with the accompanying
monogram :

born at Antwerp about the year 1647. He was


brought up as a jeweller, in which profession he
became very eminent, but having been well edu-
cated, and taught to draw, he had a strong inclina-
tion for painting, and employed all his leisure hours
in practising in miniature, enamel, and oil-colours.
Haying painted some altar-pieces at Antwerp, his
business called him to Dunkirk, where he painted a
picture for the chapel of the English nuns, who
were so pleased with it, that they persuaded De
Keyser to go to England, and gave him letters of
recommendation to Lord Melfort, then in favour
with James II. The enthusiastic painter could not
resist the proposal ; he embarked on board an
English vessel, and, unknown to his wife or
family, sailed for England. His reception waa
equal to his wishes. He was introduced to the
king, who promised to countenance him, and
several persons of rank, who had known him at
Antwerp, encouraged him in his new vocation.
Transported with this prospect he sent for his
wife, ordering her to dismiss his workmen, and
convert his effects into money. Within half a
year the bubble burst ; the Revolution happened,
De Keyser's friends could no longer be his pro-
tectors, his business decreased, and the pursuit of
the philosopher's stone, to which he had recourse
in his despair, completed his ruin. He died at
the age of forty-five, about the year 1692. He
left a daughter, whom he had taken great pains
to instruct, and with success. She painted small
portraits in oil, and copied well.

DEKKER (or DECKER). There are several
artists of this name, either German or Dutch,
enumerated by different writers, with admirable
confusion in apportioning their respective works.

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