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Some call Cornelis Gerrits, the landscape painter,
Coenraet, others Karel, or Hendrik, each saying
that his pictures resemble those of Uuisdael ; Cus-
tos, like Frans, is said to have painted grotesque
subjects ; Adriaen, to have been a scholar of Ever-
dingen ; Jan, a painter of interiors, conversations,
and landscapes in the manner of Murant ; Hans
was a sculptor ; the others occur in the following
articles. The Dekker whose works are best
known in England is Frans, who painted views,
similar to Ruisdael's, on a small scale, and also
weavers' workshops. Brulliot, following Hei-
necken, says that Karel was an engraver, who
flourished about the commencement of the 18th
century.

DEKKER, CORNELIS GERRITS (often incorrectly
called COENRAET DECKER), who was born in the
earlier half of the 17th century, is supposed to
have studied under Solomon Ruisdael. He died in
poverty at Haarlem in 1678. A good example of
his style is a ' Wooded Landscape,' in the Rotter-
dam Museum. There are likewise two Landscapes
by him in the Louvre. He was of the same period
and of the same school of landscape art as Ruis-
dael, to whom his works were for a long time
attributed. Adriaan van Ostade and Adriaan van
de Velde painted figures of men and animals in his
pictures.

_ DEKKER, FRANS, is a painter of whom but
little is known, although his pictures possess great
merit, and are to be met with in almost every col-
lection. He is stated to have been born at Haarlem
in 1684, and to have died at the same place in 1751,
having been a pupil of Romeyn De Hooghe and of
Bartholomeus Engels. He painted landscapes in a
very pleasing and natural style, resembling the
charming productions of Ruisdael. but without the



servility of an imitator. He also excelled in cari-
cature.

DE KONINCK, DAVID, (DE KONING, DE KONINGH,
or DE CONINCK,) called RAMMELAAR, was born at
Antwerp in 1636. After studying for some time
in his native country under Jan Fyt, he travelled
in Germany, France, and subsequently in Italy.
He settled at Rome, and eventually died there in
1687. His works, which are not numerous, repre-
sent chiefly landscapes ornamented with animals
of all descriptions, and in every respect are nearly
as good as those of his master, Jan Fyt. At
Ghent there is a ' Garden with domestic animals ' by
De Koninck ; and in the Museum of Amsterdam
there are a ' Stag-hunt ' and a ' Bear-hunt.'

DE KONINCK, PHILIP, (DE KONING, DE KONINGH,
or DE CON'INCK,) was born at Amsterdam in 1619,
and was one of the ablest scholars of Rembrandt.
He painted historical subjects and portraits, but
was particularly eminent in the latter, in which he
was one of the most distinguished artists of his
time. His colouring, though rich and harmonious,
is clearer than that of Rembrandt, and partakes of
the chaste and tender tinting of Van Dyck. There
is an uncommon appearance of truth and nature in
his heads, with a more tasteful arrangement of the
attitudes and habiliments than is usual in the
portraiture of the artists of his country. There is a
fine portrait of De Koninck, by himself, in the Uffizi
at Florence. He died at Amsterdam in 1689. In
the Museum of that city there is a ' Landscape
with Animals ' by him ; another landscape is in the
Museum at the Hague, a replica of which is in the
National Gallery ; another is in the Rotterdam
Museum ; and another, which is assigned to
Rembrandt, is in the Uffizi at Florence. A ' View
in the Environs of Scheveningen' is in the Brussels
Gallery.

DE KONINGH, LEENDERT, a Dutch marine and
landscape painter, was born at Dordrecht in 1777.
He was instructed by A. Vermeulen and M. Versteeg,
and in 1801 came to England, but was soon com-
pelled to leave this country on account of the
war. He then went to Paris, and studied under
David. Thence he returned home by way of
Germany, and afterwards paid a second visit to
England, where he remained till after the fall of
Napoleon. He died at Dordrecht in 1849.

DE LA BAER, JOHANNES, (or DE LA BARRE,) a
Flemish painter upon glass, who has been often
confounded with Jan Barra, a Dutch engraver, was
a native of Bois-le-Duc, and was received as a
master into the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp in
1625. He was an artist of real merit, and belonged
entirely to the school of Rubens. The windows of
the chapel of the Virgin in the church of St.
Gudule at Brussels, which were for a long time
attributed to Rubens, are known now to have been
executed from his designs. He also engraved a
plate of the fi^ade of the Jesuit church at Antwerp.
DE LA BERGE, CHARLES AUGDSTE, a French
landscape painter, was born in Paris in 1805. In
1824 he entered the studio of Bertin, the landscape
painter, and in 1827 that of Picot, the historical
painter. He first exhibited at the Salon of 1831,
and in the years 1837-39 painted entirely from
nature, and at the time of day which it represents,
a ' Landscape at sunset,' which is in the Louvre.
He died in Paris in 1842.

DE LA BOISSIERE, SIMON, was a French engi-
neer, who also distinguished himself as an engraver.
He was born in Paris about 1637, and executed

37



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



several plates from his own designs, and after
Sebastien Le Clerc. There are by him :

The Death of a Prince, surrounded by his Court.
Several plates of Medals for Molinet's ' Historia

Pontificum,' 1679.

A View of the Palais Royal ; in two sheets.
Several plates for Desgodets' 'Traite des Edifices

Antiques de Rome,' Paris, 1682.

DE LA CALLEJA, ANDREAS, a Spanish painter,
was born at Rioja in 1705. He was a pupil of
G. A. Ezquerra, and was so successful in his early
efforts that he was soon appointed by King Philip V.
to a post of honour. Philip VI. in 1752 made him
first Director of the newly-founded Academy at
Madrid, and he established a school of some repute.
But we are told that the principal occupation of
his latter years was that of restoring the ancient
pictures belonging to the king I It would be un-
just to visit on him all the iniquities that have
been perpetrated on pictures in Spain by the pro-
cess of restoring ; for to such an extent has it been
carried, that very few of them, really worth pre-
serving, have escaped. His best works are in the
churches of Santa Cruz and of San Felipe el Real
at Madrid. He died in that city in 1785.

DELACAZETTE, SOPHIE CLEMENCE, a French
miniature painter, was born at Lyons in 1774. She
was a pupil of Regnault and of Augustin, and
exhibited annually at the Salon from 1806 to 1838.
In 1808 she sent a portrait of Mile. Barilli, which
has been engraved by Masquelier. She died in
Paris in 1854.

DE LA CHAPELLE, GEORGE, a painter born at
Caen, visited the Levant in the early part of the 17th
century. His work is known to us by a series of
engravings executed probably by Nicolas Cochin.

DE LA CO RTE, GABRIEL, the son of Juan de La
Corte, was born at Madrid in 1648. Without the aid
of a master he practised flower-painting by copying
the works of Mario and Arellano. He arrived at
such a degree of excellence that Antonio de Cas-
trejon and Matias de Torres employed him to paint
garlands of flowers to surround their mythological
subjects. He died at Madrid in 1694.

DE LA CORTE, JUAN, a Spanish painter, was born
at Madrid in 1597. He was instructed by Velaz-
quez, and painted portraits and history, but chiefly
excelled in battle-pieces and perspective views. He
also painted small pictures of subjects from sacred
history. He was painter to Philip III., and was
continued in that situation by his successor, Philip
IV. There are several of his pictures in the palace
of Buen Retiro. He died at Madrid in 1660.

DE LA CROCE, JOHANN NEPOMHK, an Austrian
painter, was born at Pressano, in the Tyrol, in 1736.
He studied under Lorenzoni, and after travelling
in Italy, Germany, Hungary, and France, he settled
at Burghausen. The portraits which he painted
are estimated by Lipowski at the immense number
of 5000, and his historical pictures at 200. There
are many altar-pieces by him in the churches of
Bavaria. He died in 1819. His son, CLEMENS DE
LA CROCE, who was also a painter, was born at
Burghausen in 1783, and died in 1823.

DELACROIX, AUGUSTE, a French marine painter,
was born at Boulogne in 1809, and died there in
1868. He produced some elegant sea-pieces taken
on the French and North African coasts, and also
painted some African genre pictures.

DELACROIX, FERDINAND VICTOR EUGENE, a
French historical painter, was born at Charenton
St. Maurice, near Paris, in 1798. His father held

38



high office under the Republic and First Empire,
being successively deputy in the Convention,
minister under the Directory, and prefect of Mar-
seilles, and subsequently of Bordeaux. Young
Delacroix received his first instruction in the
Lycde Imperial ; but on the death of his father,
he had to make his own way in life, almost
unaided. In 1817 he entered the studio of Gudrin,
where amongst his fellow-pupils were Ge>icault,
Ary Scheffer, Henriquel-Dupont, and Cogniet. His
first exhibited work, 'Dante and Virgil,' appeared
in 1822, and achieved a great success. Through
it he spent some time in the studio of Baron Gros,
and might have obtained great academic honours
but for his divergence from the prevalent classicism.
This breach widened, and Delacroix, Ge>icault,
and others, became the recognized leaders of the
Romantic School. The conflict between the rival
schools was very bitter, and it was not till after the
Revolution of 1830 tluit Delacroix and the Roman-
ticists began to receive a share of the state patron-
age which exercises so great an influence on art in
France. ,'In 1831 he visited Spain, Morocco, and
Algiers, and several important works were the
result of this journey. In 1832, through the
influence of Thiers, although not without great
opposition, he received his first public commission.
Between that year and 1855 he executed decorative
works for the Chamber of Deputies, the Library
of the Luxembourg, the Galerie d'Apollon in the
Louvre, the Salon de la Paix in the Hotel de Ville,
and the Church of St. Sulpice. He was elected at
the Academy in 1857. He last exhibited at the
Salon in 1859, and died in Paris in 1863. Person-
ally, Delacroix was a nervous man, objecting to
visitors in his studio, although he was not deficient
in those traits which render a man agreeable in
society. His works show the attraction which the
darker side of human nature had for him, and it was
in the depiction of scenes of passion and of blood
that he achieved his greatest successes, to which
his excellence as a colourist no little contributed.
Besides the decorative works already mentioned,
the following are amongst his chief productions :



Arras. Museum.
Bordeaux. Museum.



Chantilly. Duke

d'Attmale.

Grenoble. Museum.
Lille. Museum.

Ijoudon. Hertford Hon.

Lyons. Museum.

Melun. Museum.
Montpellier. Jllmewm.



Nancy. Museum.
Nantes. Museum.



Paris.



Louvre .



Martyrdom of St. Stephen. 1853.
Greece expiring on the ruins of

Missolonghi. 1827.
Lion Hunting. 1854. (Destroyed

by fire in 1870.)

[- The Two Foscari. 1855.

A Moorish Guard.
St. George.
Medea. 1838.

'.Death of Marino Faliero. 1827.
Faust and Mephistopheles.
The Last Words of Marcus

Aurelius. 1845.
Head of Actseon.
A Mulatto Woman.
Charge of Arab Cavalry. 1832.
Algerian Women at home.
Daniel in the Lions' Den. 1853.
Michelangelo in his studio. 1853.
Portrait of Himself. 1829.
Portrait of M. Bruyas. 1853.
Battle of Nancy. 1834.
The Halt. 1837.
Dante and Virgil. 1822.
The Massacre of Scio. 1824.
The 28th of July, 1830. 1830.
Algerian Women. 1834.
Portrait of Himself. 1837.
Jewish Wedding in Morocco.
1841.



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Paris. St. Paul.

Rouen. Museum.
Toulouse. Museum.



Tours. Museum.
Versailles. Museum.



Christ in the Garden of Geth-

semane. 1327.
The Justice of Trajan. 1840.
Mule j-abd-el-Eahmann, Sultan of

Morocco, leaving his palace at

Mequinez. 1S45.
Arab Musicians. 1848.
Battle of Taillebourg. 1337.
Taking of Constantinople by the

Crusaders. 184L
Portrait of Marshal de Tourville.

1835.

OJ.D.

Delacroix also executed a considerable number
of etchings, engravings, and lithographs, a list of
which is to be found in Moreau's ' E. Delacroix
et son oeuvre,' Paris, 1873, 8vo. He likewise wrote
some articles on painters and sculptors in the
'Revue des Deux-Mondes. ' His 'Lettres' were
published by M. Burty in 1878, and again, with
additions, in" 1880.

DE LA CRUZ, JUAN PANTOJA. See PASTOJA
DE LA CBCZ.

DE LA CRUZ. MANUEL, a Spanish painter, was
born at Madrid in 1750. and died in the same city
in 1792. He distinguished himself by his pictures
in the cathedral of Carthagena and in the monastery
of San Francisco el Grande at Madrid. In the
Gallery of the latter city there is a painting by
him of 'The Annual Fair at Madrid.' He also
etched a few plates of Heads of strongly-marked
character.

DE LA CRUZ, MIGUEL, a Spanish painter of
promise who died young, was employed in 1633
by Charles I. of England to make copies of the
remarkable pictures in the Alcazar of Madrid.

DE LA FAGE, NICOLAS, a French painter and
etcher of the first half of the 17th century
native of Aries in Provence. Robert-Dumesnil
mentions nine plates by him, among which are :

The Virgin and Child; after Anmbale Carracci.

Anne of Austria, Queen of France. 1643.

Louisa Mary Gonzaga, Queen of Poland.

Francois de Vendome, Duke of Beaufort. 1649.

DE LA FAGE. RAYMOND, a French draughts-
man, was born at L'Isle en Albigeois in 1656. He
studied under Jean Pierre Rivalz at Toulouse, but
soon left his master and went to Rome, where he
resided three years. He afterwards went to Paris,
where his wonderfully facile pen-and-ink sketches
found many admirers. Crozat possessed no less
than three hundred of them, and the Louvre has
now about seventy. He died at Lyons in 1684.
Robert-Dumesnil mentions twenty-five etchings
by hun.

"DE LA FERTE, M., was a French amateur,
who, according to Basan. etched several small
plates of landscapes, from the designs of Boucher
and other masters.

DE LA FLEUR, NICOLAS GUILLAOIE, who was
bom in Lorraine about 1608, was a painter of
flowers in miniature and an etcher. He was work-
ing at Rome in 1638, and in Paris in 1644. He died
in Rome in 1670. His etchings, which are very rare,
are executed with the point, and are very effective
and tasteful. The principal of them are :

Thirteen plates of Flowers ; copied ly Danckerts. 1638.

Twelve plates of Flowers. 1639.

DE LA FOSSE, CHARLES, an eminent French

painter, was born in Paris in 1636. He was

educated under Fra^ois Chauveau and afterwards

under Charles Le Brun. At the age of twenty - v. o

he went to Italy, where he made such satisfactory



rogress that Colbert obtained for him the pension
>f the King, in order that he might be able to
continue his studies. He passed two years at
3 >ome, and then went for three years to Venice to
study the works of the great colourists. He appears
:o have been less sensible to the sublime beauties
of the Roman School, than to the seductive cplour-
.ng of the Venetian, and he returned to Paris one
ofthe most accomplished colourists of the French
School. He was immediately taken into the service
of Louis XIV.. and was first employed in painting
four pictures for the apartments in the Tuileries.
His next work was the marriage chapel in St.
Eustache, where he painted in fresco ' Adam and
Eve ' and the ' Marriage of the Virgin.' He painted
for Versailles the 'Sacrifice of Iphigenia' and
Moses saved from the Waters ' ; in the chapel
of the palace the 'Resurrection'; and at the
Trianon, ' Apollo and Thetis.' At Marly, he painted
a picture of ' Bacchus and Ariadne.' These works
brought him into great repute ; and he was received
into the Academy in 1673, on which occasion he
painted the ' Rape of Proserpine.' which is now in
the Louvre. La Fosse visited England in 1689,
and again in 1690, when he remained upwards of
two years, during which time he was employed in
decorating the mansion of the Duke of Montagu,
afterwards the British Museum, in which he painted
two ceilings, representing the ' Apotheosis of Isis '
and an 'Assembly of the Gods. 1 His principal
work at Paris is the fresco in the dome of the
Invalides, which is fifty-six feet in diameter, and
represents ' St. Louis placing his crown and sword
in the hands of Christ, who is accompanied by the
Virgin, and by Angels who bear the instruments
of the Passion' : in the angles are the Four
Evangelists. This immense work was finished in
1705, and did great honour to the artist. In the
choir of Notre-Dame he painted the ' Nativity' and
the ' Adoration of the Magi.' Although the genius
of La Fosse was equal to great and copious com-
positions, his drawing was neither elegant nor
correct; and though he is considered to be one
of the best colourists among his countrymen, he
is very far distant from Titian or Paolo Veronese.
He died in Paris in 1716. Besides the ' Rape of
Proserpine.' the Louvre has by him ' Moses saved
from the Waters,' the ' Annunciation of the Virgin,'
the ' Marriage of the Virgin,' the ' Triumph of
Bacchus,' and the ' Sacrifice of Iphigenia.'

DE LA FOSSE. JEAN BAFTISTE JOSEPH, a French
engraver, was born in Paris in 1721. He was a pupil
of Etienne Fessard, and engraved a large number
of book-plates and vignettes after Eisen and
Gravelot. He died in Paris about 1775. We have
also several portraits by him after the drawings of
Carmontelle, among which are the following :
The Duke of Orleans on horseback.
The same, with his Son. the Duke of Chartres.
M. P>ameau.

The Abbe de Chauvelin.
The unfortunate Calas Family.

DE LA FOSSE. JEAN- CHARLES, a French architect
and draughtsman, was one of the best designers of
ornaments, decorations, and furniture of the reign
of Louis XVI. In 1768 was published his ' Icon-
ologie Historique,' in which many of the plates
were engraved by himself.

DE LA FDENTE. JUAN LEANDRO, was a Spanish
painter, who flourished at Granada from 1630 to
1640. Although not mentioned by Palomino or by
Pons, he was an artist of distinguished merit. He



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



followed the manner of Bassano both in subject
and treatment, and his colouring is quite of the
Venetian School. His pictures are to be found at
Granada, Seville, and Madrid.

DE LA FUENTE DEL SAZ, JULIAN, was a
Hieronymite monk, who painted miniatures at the
Escorial. He is known to have been living- from
1527 to 1598.

DE LA GOURDAINE, JEAN PIERRE NORBLIN.

See NORBLIN DE LA GOURDAINE.

DE LA GUERT1ERE, FRANCOIS, a French his-
torical painter, was born in 1624. He etched
seventeen plates of the Grotesques by Raphael in
the Vatican.

DEL AGUILA, FRANCISCO, was a Spanish fresco
painter, who resided at Murcia in the latter part
of the 16th century. In 1570 he painted and
gilded the beautiful tomb of Alfonso the Wise,
in the cathedral of that city.

DEL AGUILA, MIGUEL, a Spanish historical
painter, was a native of Seville, where he died in
1736. His pictures are valued for their near
approach to the style of Murillo.

DE LA HAYE, CHARLES, a French engraver,
was born at Fontainebleau in 1641. He went
to Italy, where he engraved, with C. Bloemaert,
Spierre, Blondeau, and others, the paintings by
Pietro da Cortona in the Palazzo Pitti at Florence.
His style of engraving resembles that of Cornells
Bloemaert ; and though his plates want harmony,
they possess considerable merit. The following are
among the best :

The Virgin and Child, with St. Catharine and other

Saints ; after Ciro Ferri.
St. Philip Neri kneeliug before the Virgin ; after the

same.
Coriolanus refusing to see the Roman Ambassadors;

after the same.
The Grecian Philosophers in the Gardens of Academus ;

after Romanelli.

DE LA HAYE, CLAUDE, was a French portrait
painter, who flourished at Lyons in 1564, and was
patronized by Charles IX. Catharine de' Medici
visited his studio, and sat to him for her portrait.

DE LA HAYE, REYNIER, a Dutch painter, was
a native of the Hague, and there entered the Guild
named ' Pictura ' in 1662. In 1669 he removed to
Utrecht, and was admitted into the Guild of St.
Luke. He painted scenes of private life, in the
manner of Terborch and of Metsu ; but his style
is not so large or so light, his colouring is less
vigorous, and his chiaroscuro defective.

DE LA HELE, ISAAK, a Flemish historical
painter, was born at Antwerp about 1536. He was
the younger son of Ysbrant de La Hele, a sculptor,
and left his native city early in life, but whether
he went to Italy and studied under Michelangelo
is uncertain. From 1562 to 1568 he was employed
upon work for the cathedral of Toledo, and painted
a capital picture of ' St. Nicasius,' which Pons
mistook for the work of Berruguete, a certain proof
of its merits. He returned to Antwerp probably
in 1571, and was still living there in 1573. ABRA-
HAM DE LA HELE, his elder brother, was likewise
a painter. He was born in 1534 at Antwerp, where
he was still living in 1564, but in 1572 we lose
sight of him in Augsburg.

DE LA HIRE, LAURENT, (or DE LA HYRE,) a
French historical and portrait painter, was born in
Paris in 1606. He was the son of Etienne de La
Hire, an historical painter, who had acquired some
reputation in Poland. He studied under him, and
from the pictures at Fontainebleau, aiming especi-

40



ally at the style of Primaticcio. On his return to
Paris he spent some time in the school of Lallemand,
then in great reputation. His colouring was some-
what cloudy, but otherwise his execution was good,
although he inclined to mannerism. One of his
earliest and best pictures, ' The Martyrdom of St.
Bartholomew,' is in the church of St. Jacques.
In the Louvre are ten of his works, including ' St.
Peter healing the Sick,' a ' mai ' painted for the
cathedral of Notre-Dame in 1635, and in the Belve-
dere is an ' Ascension of the Virgin.' In 1637 he
painted another ' mai ' for the cathedral of Notre-
Dame, the 'Conversion of St. Paul.' He painted
also a large number of portraits, but in the later
years of his life he confined himself to landscapes
and small easel pictures. La Hire was one of
the twelve artists who in 1648 founded the Royal
Academy of Painting and Sculpture. He died in
Paris in 1656. He engraved forty-six religious
and mythological subjects and landscapes, many
of which were from pictures by himself which
perished during the troubles of 1793 and 1794.
Among them are the following :

The Holy Family, with St. John kissing the foot of the

Infant Jesus.

The Holy Family reposing, surrounded by Angels.
The Holy Family, with the Palm-branch.
The Repose in Egypt.
The Crucifixion, with the Virgin, Magdalen, and St.

John. 1639.

The Conversion of St. Paul.
The Judgmeut of Paris.
Venus and Adonis.

DE LA HIRE, PHILIPPE, the son of Laurent de
La Hire, was born in Paris in 1640. He at first
devoted himself to landscape painting, and painted
several pictures in the style of Watteau, but
afterwards studied astronomy, and attained some
eminence in that branch of science. He died in
1719.

DE LA HUERTA, CASPAR, was born at Cam-
pillo de Altobuey in Cuenca in 1645. At an early
age, seeking instruction in Valencia, he fell into the
hands of Jesualda Sanchez, the bustling widow of
Pedro Infant, a third-rate painter, who continued on
her own account her husband's school for the manu-
facture of religious pictures. La Huerta, never-
theless, attained some skill as a draughtsman and
colourist, and married the widow's well-dowered
daughter. Working for moderate prices he found
abundant employment in the neighbouring churches
and convents. For the Franciscans he painted the
' Jubilee of the Porciuncula,' and for the Domini-
cans the picture which long served as a veil to the
wondrous image of ' Our Lady of the Forsaken.'
He died at Valencia in 1714. The Museum of
Valencia possesses a pleasing- picture of ' Christ and
the Virgin enthroned,' the latter with the bright
complexion peculiar to Valencian beauty.

DE LA HUERTA, MANUEL, a Spanish monk,
who flourished at the beginning of the 18th century,
produced some excellent miniature paintings in the
monastery of La Merced Calzada at Valladolid.

DE LA HYRE. See DE LA HIRE.

DE LA IGLESIA, FRANCISCO IGNACIO Ruiz.
See Ruiz DE LA IGLESIA.

DE LA JOUE, JACQUES, a French architectural
painter, was born in 1687. He became a member
of the Academy in 1721, and is noticed for a
'Perspective' which he executed in 1732 at the
Library of St. Genevieve. He also designed the



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