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title-page to the works of Wouwerman. Etchings



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



have been made after him by Cochin, Tardieu, and
others. He died in Paris in 1761.

DE LA LIVE DE JULLY, ANGE LAURENT,
MARQUIS DE REMOVILLE, a French amateur en-
graver, etched several subjects after Boucher and
Greuze ; a set of caricatures, after Saly ; and some
portraits. He was born in Paris in 1725, and died
in the same city in 1779. He formed a fine col-
lection of works of art of the French School, but
this was dispersed in 1770, in consequence of its
owner having lost his reason.

DELAMAIN, PAUL, a French painter of Algerian
subjects, was born in Paris in 1821. He was a
pupil of Leblanc and of Drolling, but, fascinated
with a desire to visit the East, he left the studio of
the latter to enlist in the cavalry for service in
Algeria. In after years, when he could escape for
a time from Paris, he went for a year or two to his
favourite haunts, and lived on horseback and under
canvas. Algeria has inspired many painters, but
not one of them has represented the sentiment of
Arab life more faithfully than Delamain. He died
at Ornans in 1882.

DE LA MAISON, NICOLAS. See DELLA CASA.

DE LA MARE-RICHART, FLOBENT I., a French
portrait painter and engraver, was born at Bayeux
in 1638, became an academician in 1677, and died
at Versailles in 1718. His prints have a resem-
blance to those of Lutma and Morin. Robert-
Dumesnil has described twenty-one prints by him,
including ' St. Jerome,' after L. de La Hire ; and
two, an Ecce Homo,' and the Virgin, after his
own designs. The rest are fancy heads in the
style of Livens, the scholar of Rembrandt.

DE LA MONCE, RAIMOND FERDINAND, an archi-
tect and designer, was born at Munich in 1678, and
died at Lyons in 1753. He is chiefly known by his
architectural works, but he also designed the plates
for the beautiful French edition of Pope's ' Essay
on Man.'

DELAMOTTE, WILLIAM, a landscape painter
in water-colours, was born in 1775. He studied
for a time in the schools of the Academy, and
under West. His works appeared at the Academy
from 1796 to 1848, and also at the Water-
Colour Society from 1806 to 1808. In 1803 he
became drawing-master at the military school at
Great Marlow. He died in 1863 at Oxford, where
he spent the greater part of his life. His works
are chiefly outlined with the pen and tinted. At
the South Kensington Museum there are by him :

Bruges. 1819.

On the Scheldt, Antwerp in the distance. 1819.

Liege, the Bridge of Arches.

Christ Church, Oxford, from Hinksey Meadows.

Canterbury. 1844.

DE LANE, SOLOMON, a Scotch landscape painter,
was born at Edinburgh in 1727. He was self-
taught, and travelled much in France, Italy, and
Germany. Several of his pictures appeared at the
Royal Academy between 1771 and 1784, after
which date there is no further trace of him.

DELANY, MARY. See GRANVILLE.

DE LA PEIGNE, HYACINTHE, (H. PEGNA, or
PEIGNA,) a painter of battles and an etcher, was
born at Brussels about the year 1700. He was at
first engaged in the French service as an engineer's
artist and military painter, but subsequently he
served the Sardinian, and lastly the Austrian
Government. He was living at Rome when in
advanced years, and died later than 1766. The
Imperial Gallery at Vienna possesses two ' Views



of the Pont-Neuf at Paris' by him. He also
engraved an ' Attack of the French upon Col
d'Assiette in Piedmont ; ' and pictures of his have
been engraved by C. Francois and A. Tischler.

DE LA PENA, JUAN FERNANDEZ. See FER-
NANDEZ DE LA PENA.

DE LA PENA, NARCISSE VIRGILE DIAZ. See
DIAZ DE LA PENA.

DE LA POINTE, P., was a native of France,
who flourished about the year 1678. He engraved
a plan of the environs of Paris, in nine sheets, as
well as some views of the palace of Versailles, the
latter in conjunction with Israel Silvestre.

DE LA PORTE, HENRI HORACE HOLLAND. See

ROLLAND DE LA PORTE.

DE LA QUEWELLERIE, GUILLAUME, a native
of France, was probably a goldsmith. He engraved
a set of very small plates, representing ornamental
crosses, and other designs for jewellery. They
are neatly executed with dark backgrounds, and
dated 1680.

DELARAM, FRANCIS, an English engraver, was
born in 1590, and died in 1627. He was contem-
porary with Elstracke and the Van de Passes, and
engraved several plates in the neat but formal
style which was prevalent at that time. His
portraits are his best works, and among them are
the following :

King Henry VIII.
Queen Mary.

Queen Elizabeth.

James I., on horseback, with a view of London.

Charles I., when Prince of Wales, with Richmond
Palace in the background.

Henry, Prince of "Wales.

Frances, Duchess of Richmond and Lennox.

Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland.

James Montagu, Bishop of Winchester.

John Williams, Bishop of Lincoln (afterwards Arch-
bishop of York), with Angels playing on Musical
Instruments.

Sir Henry Montagu, Chief Justice of the King's Bench.

Sir Horatio Vere, with an armed Soldier on each side.

Robert Abbot, Bishop of Salisbury.

Sir William Segar, Garter King at Arms.

Sir Thomas Gresham, holding a Globe.

George Withers, poet. 1622.

DEL ARCO, ALONSO, born at Madrid in 1625,
was a disciple of Antonio Pereda. He was deaf
and dumb from his birth, and was called ' El
Sordillo de Pereda.' He was an eminent painter,
both of history and portraits. Several of his
pictures are mentioned by Palomino, particularly
the ' Miraculous Conception,' and the ' Assumption
of the Virgin,' in the cloister of the Trinitarios
Descalzos at Madrid, and in the church of San
Salvador is a fine picture of Santa Teresa. Cean
Bermudez enumerates a great number of his works
in the churches at Madrid, and in other public
buildings throughout Spain. He died at Madrid
in 1700.

DE LA RIVIERE, CHARLES PHILIPPE AUGUSTE.
See LARIVIERE.

DELAROCHE, HIPPOLYTE, (or, as he usually
called himself, PAUL,) an eminent French painter,
was born in Paris, on the 17th of July, 1797.
He devoted himself first to landscape painting
under Watelet, but afterwards took to history,
and entered the studio of Gros, under whom for
four years he applied himself to the human figure,
and soon became distinguished by the rapid pro-
gress which he made. He soon began to evince
the possession of original views, declaring his
dissent from the hitherto prevalent " classicism "

41



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



of the French School, which was then yielding
to the Renaissance, but taking up a position
between the classic and the romantic, and
labouring to create a style in harmony with the
temper and habits of his time. It was in 1819
that Delaroche exhibited his first picture, ' Naph-
thali in the Desert,' which he painted at the age
of twenty-two, but it attracted no attention ;
another, exhibited in 1822, the subject of which
was ' Jehoash rescued by Jehoshabeath,' was more
fortunate, and sufficiently indicated those powers
which Delaroche subsequently developed and so
judiciously tempered. In 1824 he produced three
pictures, which won for him a gold medal. The
first represented ' St. Vincent de Paul preaching in
the presence of the Court of Louis XIII. ' ; the
second, ' Joan of Arc examined in Prison by the
Cardinal of Winchester ' ; the third, ' Saint Se-
bastian." The first and second of these works
have been engraved, the second being almost as
well known in England as in France. In 1827
' The Capture of the Trocadero ' appeared, in
a work which had been commissioned by the
Government, and for which he received the cross of
the Legion of Honour. During some years after
this period, Delaroche painted only what our
neighbours call "moyenSge" subjects, although
the term is scarcely suitable, as comprehending
even those that come within a century or two of our
own time. In 1830 he produced ' The Princes in
the Tower,' which has been so often engraved and
lithographed, and which induced M. Delavigne to
compose his tragedy on the same subject. Another
highly successful picture was ' Richelieu on the
Rhone, with Cinq-Mars and De Thou ; ' as also
was that representing ' Cardinal Mazarin presiding,
while dying, at a game of lansquenet.' In 1831
he exhibited the most impressive, perhaps, of all
his works, 'Cromwell contemplating the remains
of Charles I.,' a subject well known by the en-
graving. In 1832 he became a member of
the Institute. In 1833, under the ministry of
M. Thiers, Delaroche was commissioned to de-
corate the church of the Madeleine, for which a
vote of public money had been passed, but on
hearing that the Administration had confided part
of the work to another artist he, thinking that it
should be by one hand only, returned the money
advanced and resigned the task. In the same year
he was appointed a professor at the Ecole des
Beaux- Arts. In 1834, Delaroche proceeded to
Italy, and at Rome, in 1835, he married Anne Elisa-
beth Louise, the only daughter of Horace Vernet,
who was then director of the French Academy
in that city. This lady died in 1843. Delaroche
was amply compensated for his disappointment
with respect to the Madeleine, by having confided to
him the adornment of the Amphitheatre of the Ecole
des Beaux-Arts, a task to which he devoted four
years of assiduous labour, and completed in 1841.
In this work he displayed great originality of con-
ception, and obtained a great and imposing result by
very simple means. Dramatic in his general tend-
encies, with a mind forming images the most
vividly true of the stirring incidents of the past,
and embodying them by his art with an utter
independence of preconceived systems of painting,
though with a practical perfection arising from
earnest study of previous works, we are not sur-
prised that, where others would have rushed into
allegory, he seized upon the real. How has he
accomplished his mission ? By summoning, at
42



his potent will, the chiefs of the arts in past
ages, to witness the triumphs of the labourers
in this. How engrossingly the artist's heart
was in this work may be judged by some cir-
cumstances related of it. Delaroche, it is said,
received the order from the Minister of the
Interior to paint a work consisting of twenty-four
figures, for which he was to receive the sum of
3000. He supplied the sketch, in conformity
with this agreement: it was approved, and it
was arranged that lie should finish the picture in a
year. Subsequently he so completely altered, or
rather enlarged, his plan, that he introduced into
the work no fewer than seventy-five figures : and
in executing it he occupied no less than four
years of his life. It would have been only just
and reasonable that his pecuniary recompense
should have been augmented in proportion ; but
upon a proposal to that effect being intimated
to the painter, it was immediately declined.
" No," said he, " of my own will I did what
1 have done ; and I will receive nothing beyond
the stipulated sum." He added, "and I shall be
amply paid for my labour, inasmuch as I have
learned more from the execution of this work,
than by all my studies that preceded it." This
was, indeed, true patriotism the example of a
great mind. This work may be divided into three
portions. In the centre, elevated on a throne, are
the three great artists of antiquity Apelles,
Ictinus, and Pheidias. Beneath and around them
are the Genius of the Arts, and allegoric figures of
Gothic Art (said to be a portrait of the painter's
wife), Greek Art, Roman Art, and the Renaissanse.
Upon their right are grouped the sculptors and
the colourists, Claude Lorrain, Ruisdael, Potter,
Titian, Velazquez, Rubens, and Rembrandt, and
further on, Paolo Veronese, Correggio, Murillo, and
Antonello da Messina. Upon their left are the
architects and the greatest masters of Italian and
German Art, Michelangelo, Raphael, Leonardo,
Holbein, and Diirer, with Poussin at the extreme
edge. All branches of art find representatives in
this mighty work. It is a mass of picturesque
groups and yet a uniform whole. It may not be
uninteresting to give a complete list of all the
figures which go to make up this work : they are
named in order, beginning at the spectator's left.



Correggio

Paolo Veronese

Antonello da Messina

Murillo

Van Eyck

Titian

Terborch

Rembrandt

Van der Heist

Rubens

Velazquez

Van Dyck

Michelangelo da Caravaggio

Giovanni Bellini

Giorgione

Ruisdael

Potter

Claude Lorrain

Gaspard Poussin

Vischer

Pierre Bontems

Luca della Robhia

Benedetto da Majano

Giovanni Pisano

Baccio BandiiR-lIi

Donatello

Ghiberti

Palissy



Jean Goujon

Cellini

Germain Pilon

Puget

Giovanni da Bologna

Allegoric figures of Gothic
Art, Greek Art, Roman
Art, and the Renaissance

Ictinus

Apelles

Pheidias

Delorme

Peruzzi

Erwin von Steinbach

Sansovino

Robert de Luzarches

Palladio

Brunelleschi

Inigo Jones

Arnolfo di Cambio

Pierre Lescot

Bramaute

Mausart

Vignola

1'ra Angelico

Marc Ajntonio

Edelinck

Holbein



HIPPOLYTE (OR PAUL) DELAROCHE




[Louvre t Paris



THE DEATH OF QUEEN ELIZABETH



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Le Sueur

Sebastiano del Piombo

Orcagna

Albrecbt Diirer

Leonardo da Vinci

Domenichino

Fra Bartolommeo

Mantegna

Giulio Eomano



Raphael
Perugino
Michelangelo
Masaccio
Nicolas Poussin
Andrea del Sarto
Cimabue
Giotto



The ' Hemicycle ' has been finely engraved by
Henriquel-Dupont. During its painting, Delaroche
made a rapid journey to Rome, which he visited
again for the last time in 1843, when he passed
a twelvemonth there. After the Revolution of
1848, he declined, from generous scruples, to
accept commissions on liberal terms for certain
proposed works at Versailles, the Louvre, the
Invalides, the Palais de Justice, and other public
edifices, refusing alone to enjoy the emoluments of
his profession, whilst his comrades in art were neg-
lected and starving. On the 16th of December,
1855, a disaster occurred, which nearly obliterated
for ever the greatest work of this noble painter.
On the day appointed for the distribution of the
medals in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, the stage
erected for the ceremony took fire, and the famous
' Hemicycle ' was, it seemed at first, hopelessly
destroyed. Delaroche contemplated restoring it
himself, but he was prevented by his death, which
occurred in Paris on the 4th of November, 1856. It
was afterwards restored by Robert-Fleury. Besides
historical subjects Delaroche executed many por-
traits of great merit. During his life-time two only
(the Duke of Angouleme and Mdlle. Sontag) had
been publicly shown. When, after his death, his
collected works were exhibited, none excited more
praise than his portraits. The most famous are
those of M.de Remusat, the Duke of Noailles, Prince
Adam Czartoryski, M. de Salvandy, and M. Thiers.
As the head of a school Delaroche exercised an
important influence on art not only in his own
country, but likewise abroad. He numbered among
his pupils several Englishmen, including Mr.
Edward Armitage, R.A., and other foreigners.

Delaroche did not exhibit at the Salon after
1837. The following is a list of his principal
works arranged in the chronological order of their
execution :

1822. Jehoash saved by Jehoshabeath. (Louvre, but not

exhibited.)
Filippo Lippi.

1823. St. Vincent de Paul preaching before Louis XIII.

1824. Joan of Arc.

1825. Children surprised by a Storm.

1826. The Death of Agostino Carracci.

The Massacre of St. Bartholomew : Young Canmont
de La Force saved by Du Verdelet. (Koirigsbery
Museum.)

Flora Macdonald.

1827. The Death of President Duranti. (Painted for the

Conseil d'Etat.)

The Death of Queen Elizabeth. (Louvre.)
The Capture of the Trocadero.

1829. Cardinal Richelieu on the Rhone, with Cinq-Mars

and De Thou. (Hertford House.)

1830. Cardinal Mazarin on his death-bed. (Hertford

The Children of Edward IV. (Louvre.)

1831. Cromwell opening the coffin of Charles I. (Names

Museum.)

1834. The Execution of Lady Jane Grey. (Lord Cheyles-

more.)
Galileo.

1835. The Assassination of the Duke of Guise. (Duke

d'A umale. )

The Earl of Stafford on his way to execution.
(Duke of Sutherland.)



1836. Charles I. insulted by the soldiers ot Cromwell.

(Bridyewater Gallery.)

1837. Napoleon in his Study. (Countess of Sandwich.)

1838. Portrait of Peter the .Great.

1838-41. The Hemicycle. (Ecole ties Beaux- Arts, Paris.)

1839. The Conquerors of the Bastille in front of the Hotel

de Ville. (Destroyed by fire at the Hotel de Ville,
Paris, in 1871.)

1842. La Vierge a la vigne. (Destroyed by fre at Mr.

Thomas Baring's in 1853.)
The Childhood of Pico della Miraudola. (Nantes

Museum.)
Pilgrims at Rome.

1843. A Mother's Joys. (Luxembourg Museum.)
Herodias.

1844. Portrait of Pope Gregory XVI. (Versailles.)
The Little Beggar.

1845. Napoleon at Fontainebleau. (Leipsic Museum.)
The Swing. (Nantes Museum.)

1847. Charlemagne crossing the Alps. (Versailles.)

1848. Bonaparte crossing the Alps.

1851. Marie Antoinette after her Condemnation.

1852. Napoleon at St. Helena. (Edward VII.)

The Last Prayer of the Children of Edward IV.
Mater Dolorosa. (Litae Museum.)

1853. Moses exposed on the Nile.
The Eutombment of Christ.

1S54. The Last Communion of Mary Stuart.

1855. Beatrice Cenci going to Execution.

Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane.
., A Martyr in the time of Diocletian.

1856. The Girondists.

The Return from Golgotha.
The Virgin in Contemplation.

1857. The Virgin with the Holy ^Vomen.

The '(Euvre de Paul Delaroche,' published in
folio in 1868, with a biographical notice by the
Vicomte Henri Delaborde, consists of a series of
eighty-six photographs from his chief paintings
and drawings, with a descriptive account of them
by Jules Godde. An exhibition of his works was
held in the Palais des Beaux-Arts in 1858.

DE LA ROSE, JEAN BAPTISTE, a native probably
of Aix in Provence, was a marine painter who in
his day enjoyed a considerable reputation. He was
master-painter at the port of Toulon from about
the year 1665 until his death, which appears to
have taken place in 1687. He was succeeded as
master-painter by his son, PASCAL DE LA ROSE,
who died at Toulon in 1746, at about eighty years
of age, after having resigned his office in 1731 to
his son, JKAN BAFTISTE DE LA ROSE, who died before
him at Toulon in 1740.

DE LA ROUSSIERE, FRANCOIS, was a French
engraver, who flourished about the middle of the
17th century. A portrait of Michel de Castelnau,
Ambassador from France to England in the reign
of Elizabeth, is attributed to him by Le Long.

DE LA RUE, PHILIBERT BENoiT, a French
painter and etcher, who was born in Paris in 1718,
was a pupil of Charles Parrocel. His subjects were
battles, landscapes, genre pictures, and portraits of
the chief persons of his day. He also etched a
large number of plates, principally of military
scenes. His brother, Louis FELIX DE LA RDE, who
was born in Paris in 1720, and died in the same
city in 1765, was a sculptor, who also designed
and etched six plates of Bacchanalian subjects.
The two brothers are often confounded. Both
signed their works D. L.

DE LA RUELLE, CLAUDE, was a painter and
designer, who lived at Nancy about 1611, and was
court-painter to the Dukes of Lorraine. He is best
known by his drawings, with groups of figures, for
the engravings illustrative of the funeral ceremonies
of Charles III. and the accession of Henry II.

43



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



DE LAS CUEVAS, EUGENIC, the son and scholar
of Pedro de Las Cuevas, and the half-brother of
Francisco Camilo, was born at Madrid in 1613.
He was chiefly employed in painting small por-
traits, by which he gained great reputation at the
Court of Spain, and was appointed by Philip IV.
to instruct his son Don John of Austria in drawing.
He died at Madrid in 1667. He was not only
a painter, but also a poet and a musician.

DE LAS CUEVAS, PEDRO, a Spanish painter, was
born at Madrid in 1568. According to Palomino,
he painted several pictures for private collections,
for which he was more employed than for public
edifices. He gained, however, more celebrity by
hia academy than by his own works. Some
of the most distinguished painters of the time,
such as Josef Leonardo, Antonio Pereda, Antonio
Anias, and Juan Carefio, were educated in his
Bchool, called the School of Madrid, which was
distinguished for its extraordinary and masterly
colouring. He died at Madrid in 1635.

DE LAS MARINAS, HENRIQUE, a Spanish
marine painter, whose family name is unknown,
was born at Cadiz in 1620. He was celebrated for
hie representations of scenes of embarkation in the
bay of his native city, which he executed with so
much truth and beauty that he pleased both artists
and seamen. He is praised for the transparency
of hie water and his aerial gradations. He realized
a large fortune, and indulged himself in travelling;
but having arrived at Rome he never quitted it,
dying there in 1680. His pictures are still sought
after by amateurs, but it is uncertain under what
name they are sold in Italy.

DE LAS ROELAS, JUAN, called EL CLERIGO
ROELAS and EL LICENCIADO JUAN, and by Palomino
DOCTOR PABLO, was descended from a noble family,
of Flemish origin. He was born at Seville be-
tween the years 1558 and 1560, and was brought
up to the profession of physic, in which he had
already taken a degree, when an inclination for
the art of painting, which he had manifested in
the early part of his life, induced him to devote
himself to its study, and he travelled to Italy for
the purpose of improvement. He went to Venice,
where he studied for some years. Palomino says
that he was a scholar of Titian, but as Titian
died in 1576, when Roelas was only sixteen years
of age, it is more probable that he received his
instruction from a disciple of that great master.
On his return to Seville, he was much em-
ployed in the churches of that city, where there
are many pictures by him, which have been com-
pared to the works of Palma and Tintoretto. To
rich and harmonious colouring, which he had
acquired in the Venetian School, he added correct
drawing and perfect acquaintance with the anatomy
of the human figure. One of his most admired
works is the ' Martyrdom of St. Andrew,' in the
College of St. Thomas. He went as a canon to
Olivares in 1624, but whether he ever practised as
a physician is not stated. His pictures are very
numerous in Seville. His masterpiece is the
' Death of St. Isidore,' in the church of San Isidoro ;
another fine picture by him is the ' St. James,'
in the chapel of that saint in the cathedral, in
which the saint is represented riding over the
Moors. Cean Bermudez says it is full of fire,
majesty, and decorum. Ford, however, says
that it is surpassed by the picture of the ' Con-
ception,' in the Academy, and by three in the
chapel of the University at Seville. Roelas has
44



been compared with Tintoretto and Carracci, and is
certainly the best of the Andalusian painters. It
is a subject of regret that none of his fine works
have been engraved, as he excelled in design and
composition, and displayed a grandeur of form and
character which belong only to the greatest masters.
He died at Olivares in 1625.

DELATOUCHE, JACQUES IGNACE, a French
painter of miniatures and portraits, was bom at
Chalons-sur-Marne about the commencement of
the 18th century. The beautifully executed canons
for the altar of the church of Notre-Dame at
Chalons are almost the only examples of his work
which have not disappeared. The Chevalier Dela-
touche, who was also a poet, died at Chalons in
1781.

DE LA TOUR, ELISABETH M. (nee SIMONS), was
born at Brussels in 1780. She painted portraits
and scenes from popular life, and in 1817 received
the prize of the Antwerp Society for the Encourage-
ment of the Fine Arts. She was still living in 1830.
DE LA TOUR, MAURICE QDENTIN, the best of
French artists in crayons, was born at St. Quentin in
1704. He became a pupil of Spoede, but he soon
abandoned painting in oil for drawing in crayons.
Early in his career he visited London, and upon
his return to Paris he set up as an English
portrait painter. The first works " en pastel "
which he sent to the Salon were the portraits of
Madame Boucher and of himself, in 1737. These
created a great sensation, and the reputation of
the artist increased with each succeeding Salon.
Joseph Vernet alone shared with him the favour
of the public. Diderot styled him a magician, and
MM. de Goncourt call his work a magic mirror,
in which is seen all the talent and all the glory, all
the wit and all the grace, of the reign of Louis



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