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XV. But his genius shines more brilliantly in the
Museum of his native town than in the Louvre.
He acquired by the exercise of his profession a
large fortune, which he employed chiefly in the
advancement of art. La Tour became an acade-
mician in 1746, when he presented a portrait of
Restout, and subsequently one of Dumont le
Romain. That of Restout he afterwards retouched
and ruined. Some of his best works shared a
like fate when age had dimmed his sight and en-
feebled his hand. He exhibited for the last time at
the Salon of 1773. Towards the close of his life
his reason left him, and he returned in 1784 to St.
Quentin, where he died in 1788. La Tour executed
several portraits of Louis XV. and of his Queen,
Marie Leszczynska, of the Dauphin at different
ages, and, at a later period, of the Dauphiness.
His likenesses were considered to be so true that
when Carle van Loo painted in 1747 the fine
portrait of Marie Leszczynska, which is now in
the Louvre, he consented to spare the Queen the
trouble of sitting by painting the head from a
drawing by La Tour. Some of his works were
of large dimensions, but his masterpiece was the
magnificent drawing of Madame de Pompadour,
which adorned the Salon of 1755, and is now the
chief ornament of the collection of crayon drawings
in the Louvre. He received for it the large sum
of 24,000 francs.

The Museum of St. Quentin possesses eighty-five
of La Tour's works, among which are some of
the highest quality. There are fifteen of his draw-
ings in the Louvre, and others in the Dresden
Gallery, and in the Museums of Dijon and Valen-
ciennes. An excellent monograph on him is con-


tained in MM. de Goncourt's 'Art du xvinme
eiecle. A statue by Langlet has been erected in
liis honour at St. Quentin. R.E G.

painter, born in Paris, was a scholar of Boucher.
He was sent to Rome with a pension from the
Crown to pursue his studies for six years, and
afterwards went to Naples to explore the excava-
tions at Herculaneum. From thence lie went with
the Marquis of Osuna to Madrid, and resided there
for many years. He was not employed on any public
work, but painted many small pictures for indi-
viduals. These consisted of landscapes and flower-
pieces, which he painted more in accordance witli
the style of the Flemish than of the Spanish School,
especially in colour. He painted an allegory iii
honour of the birth of an Infanta of Spain, which
was engraved by Carmona. but it did not procure
him any royal favour. He returned to Paris, where
he died. in 1778.

DELATRE, JF.AN MARIE, a French engraver, was
born at Abbeville in 1746. He came to England
in 1770, and worked under Bartolozzi. He en-
graved in the chalk style after Angelica Kauffmann,
Wheatley, Stothnrd, and Hamilton. He also fur-
nished illustrations for Bell's 'British Poets,' and
there is a good plate by him after Guercino's ' St.
Cecilia.' He went to law with Copley in 1801, and
gained a verdict for 600 guineas. He died in
reduced circumstances at Fulham in 1845, within a
few months of completing his hundredth year.
engraver par excellence of the French School of
the eighteenth century." Born in Paris 1739.
His first master was L. Lempereur. He married
in 1768 ; his wife died in giving birth to his only
child, a daughter, in 1770. After her death he
went to La Havre, and there worked under the
name of De Valnay. He was received at the
Academy on Aug-ust 28, 1789, his reception works
being portraits of S6bastien le Clerc, fils, and J. B.
F. de Troy. He was also elected a member of the
Koyal Danish Academy. He had many pupils,
one of them, F. Huot, has left a profile likeness of
his master. He died March 22, 1792. It has
been said of him, " None drew better, none
interpreted better, no one prepared his plates with
greater care, nor worked them up with greater
brilliance, nor finished them with more perfect
harmony." His larger plates and his elegant
vignettes are equally admirable. He is chiefly
remarkable as the interpreter of Fragonard,
Badouin, and Lavreince. Bachanmont says, " His
graver was as fertile as it was extended and gay."
Among his works were :

March of Silenus ; after Rubens. 1777.

Le Cocu Imagiiiaire ; after Moreau. 1773.

Happiness of the Home (1779), and The Beloved

Child (1785) ; after Le Prince.
Portraits engraved for the Cazin Collection : Boileau,

La Fontaine, Voltaire, J. B. Rousseau, Rabelais, and

others ; after Marillinr. 1791.
The Pleasure Party; after tt'eenix. 1783.
Les Soins tardifs \

La SentineUe en defaut I , Badouin. 1785-88.
L Epouse indiscrete ( J
Le Carquois 6puise )
Le Billet doux -\

La Consolation de 1'Absence \ afterLamince _ 1785-88.
L Heureux Moment
Qu'eu dit 1'Abbe
Le Seducteur ^

Le Petit Jour; after Freudenberg. 1780.
Portrait of Louis XV. ; after Moreau.

Le Cbiff re d'Amour
Le Serment d'Amour

LHasaHeureu X ("The

Swing,' Wallace Collection)
L'Education fait tout

And Jive others.
His vignettes, which are most striking for
delicacy and high finish, were :

For ' Chefs d'CEuvre d'Antiquite,' Marmontel, 1773.

Le Triomphe de Bacchus et d'Erigoue ; after Cochin.

L'Abeille Justinie )

La Fause Pudeur \ after C. D. J. Eisen.

Les Jaloux Trompes J

and pupil of Nicolas Delaunay. Born in Paris
1754. He was appointed engraver to the Galleries
of the Palais Royal. His work lacks the brilliance
and perfection of his brother's. He died in Paris
April 20, 1814. Among his works are :

Les Adieux de la Nourrice, and four others ; after Auvry.

Les Soins Merites (washing a pet dog !) ; after Lavreince.

Le Malheur impreVu ; after Greuze.

Les Adieux ; after Moreau. 1777.

J'y passerai ; after Borel. 1785.

Many portraits ; the best, J. J. Rousseau.

Many vignettes, includi us; ' ExLibris Duche' (1779), and
'HeroetLeandre' (1784).

a French engraver, was born in Paris, or more
probably at Orleans, in 1518. He commenced his
career as an engraver of medals, and is said to
have been helped by Benvenuto Cellini, who was
at that time living in Paris. He afterwards en-
graved many prints after Raphael, and the Italian
masters of Fontainebleau, and still more after the
designs of his son Jean, with whom he passed the
greater part of his life at Strassburg. His style was
formed upon that of the Little Masters of Germany.
He died at Straesburg in 1595. Etienne Delaune
was one of the most famous designers of gold-
smith's work of his time. There are six of his
designs in the Louvre ; two of them are for circular
dishes representing the Histories of Moses and of
Samson. His prints, which are generally small,
are very numerous : they are executed entirely
with the graver, with great dexterity of handling,
and are very highly finished. He copied some of
the prints of Marc Antonio with success. He usually
marked his prints with the initial of his Christian
name, S., or S. F., or S. fecit, but sometimes
Stephanus, fecit. His works are described in
Robert-Dumesnil's ' Peintre-Graveur,' vol. ix. The
following are the principal :

A set of thirty Subjects from the Old Testament.

A set of eighteen Mythological Subjects ; oval, very


The Twelve Months of the Year ; circular.
Jupiter, Neptune, Mercury, and Ceres ; four circular


Four Subjects from Ancient History ; oval.
The Four Monarchies ; oval.
Four plates of Rural Occupations ; oval.
The Three Graces.

David and Goliath ; after Marc Antonio.
The Murder of the Innocents ; after the samt.
The Martyrdom of St. Felicitas ; after the same.
The Rape of Helen ; after the same.
The Brazen Serpent ; after Jean Cousin. This is one of

his largest prints.

DE LA VALLEE, ETIENNE, a French historic*.
painter, was born at Rouen in 1740, and became al
Paris a pupil of Descamps and of Pierre. He went
to Rome, where he assumed the name of LAVALLHE-



POUBSIN, and produced landscapes in Poussin's style.
He became a member of the Academy in 1789,
and died in Paris in 1793. Some of his works are
in the Museum of Alencon. Guyot engraved after
him some plates of Arabesques for the decoration
of rooms.



FIORENTINO, a painter, sculptor, and engraver, was
born at Florence, about the year 1506. French
documents mention bim by the surname of Ricoveri.
He was a disciple of Rosso, whom he followed to
France, when that master was invited by Francis
I. to decorate the palaces of Fontainebleau and
Meudon, in which works Domenico gave him much
assistance. Vasari says that he was the best of all
the pupils of Rosso. He was also employed after
the death of Primaticcio to execute some frescoes
after the designs of that master. Subsequently to
1562 he retired to Troyes, where he painted works
for the churches, and there he was buried in St.
Pantaleon. Domenico del Barbiere has also left us
some excellent engravings. He has sometimes
been confounded with the French engraver Domin-
ique Barriere, who lived about a century later ; but
the style of the latter is so different from that of
Barbiere, that the mistake will easily be discovered.
He sometimes signed his plates with his name,
Domenico del Barbiere; sometimes with Domen-
ico Fiorentino ; and sometimes marked them with
the initials D. F. We have the following prints
by him :

' Gloria,' standing on a Globe, and holding two Trumpets ;

after Rosso.
The Holy Family.

The Penitent Magdalen ; after Titian.

The Martyrdom of St. Stephen.
AmphiarauB with his horses and chariot swallowed up

in the earth ; after Rosso.
Venus, Mars, and Cupid ; after the same.
An ornamental Cartouche, in which is represented

Soldiers leaving a camp ; an etching; after the same.
Two Anatomical Figures, and two Skeletons ; after the


A Banquet ; after Primaticfio.
A Group of Saints ; from the ' Last Judgment ' of

A Group of Angels ; from the same.

DEL BARCO, ALONSO, a Spanish landscape
painter, was born at Madrid in 1645. He was a
scholar of Antolinez, and, according to Palomino,
painted landscapes with great success. Many of
his works were in the palaces and private collections
at Madrid, in which city he died in 1685.

DEL BARCO, GARCIA, a Spanish painter of
Avila, was employed in 1476, with Juan Rodriguez,
by the Duke of Alva.to execute ' Obra Morisca,' or
Moorish stucco-work, in his palace of Barco de


DEL BASTARO, GIUSEPPE, was a native of
Rome, who, according to Baglione, flourished dur-
ing the pontificate of Urban VIII. (16231644).
He painted for the church of Santa Maria Maggiore
an ' Assumption of the Virgin,' and for San Giro-
lamo, a ' Descent from the Cross,' and the ' Death
of St. Jerome.'






DEL CASTILLO, AGUSTIN, a Spanish painter
in oil and fresco, was born at Seville in 1565. He
was instructed there by Luis Fernandez, but after-
wards took up his residence at Cordova, where he
died in 1626. In the cathedral at Cadiz is his
' Adoration of the Kings,' which is said to be his
finest work.

DEL CASTILLO, FERNANDO, the younger brother
of Josef del Castillo, was born at Madrid in 1740,
and studied sculpture with Felipe de Castro. He
afterwards studied painting in the school of Cor-
rado Giacuinto, and gained a prize in the Academy
in 1757. Subsequently he was appointed painter
to the royal porcelain manufactory at Buenretiro.
He died at Madrid in 1777.

DEL CASTILLO, JOSEF, a Spanish painter and
engraver, was born at Madrid in 1737. His
early promise of excellence in the art of paint-
ing, under Josef Romeo, induced the Minister of
State, Josef Carvajal, to send him to Rome, at
his own expense, to study the great masters there
under Corrado Giacuinto, with whom he returned
to Madrid in 1753. He visited Rome a second
time in 1758, and became a disciple of Preciado.
On his return to his native city in 1764, the king
ordered his principal painter, llengs, to give work
to the young artist. Mengs did so, by employing
him on designs for the royal tapestries, and in
painting devotional pictures for the cells of the
Royal Convent of Salesas, as well as two portraits
of Charles III. Castillo made drawings for the
edition of ' Don Quixote,' published by the Madrid
Academy ; he etched the ' Supper at Emmaus,'
after Cerezo, the 'Flight into Egypt,' and other
works, after Luca Giordano, and made for the en-
gravers small copies of the frescoes in the Retire.
His productions are to be met with in Madrid, at
the Escorial, and in various churches, convents, and
hospitals. He died at Madrid in 1793.

DEL CASTILLO, JDAN, the brother of Agustin
del Castillo, was born at Seville in 1584. He
had the advantage of being educated under Luis
de Vargas, by whose instructions, joined to his
own natural ability, he rose to be a distinguished
historical painter. His principal works are at
Seville and Granada. He enjoys the reputation
of having been the instructor of Murillo, Alonso
Cano, and Pedro de Moya. He died at Cadiz in 1640.

Spanish portrait painter, was born at Cordova in
1603. He was the son of Agustin del Castillo,
from whom he received his first instruction in
art. At his father's death he became the pupil of
Francisco Zurbaran, who was at that time in high
repute. The cathedral of Cordova possesses many
paintings by him, which bear ample testimony
to his merit ; and had his colouring been equal to
his composition and design, few artists of his own
country would have surpassed him, as may be judged
from his paintings of the 'Assumption of the
Virgin," and 'SS. Peter and Paul.' The convent
of St. Francis at Cordova possesses a painting
taken from the life of that saint, which Castillo
painted in competition with Juan do Alfaro, under
whose name in this work will be found the story
of the incident which led to its execution. In 1666
he revisited Seville at the time when Murillo was
at the zenith of his fame. On seeing the pictures
of that great master Castillo was so struck with


their excellence and bis own inferiority, that he
cried " Ya murio Castillo!" and from that time
sank into a state of despondency that hastened his
death, which took place at Cordova in 1667.

Florence, who flourished in the early part of the
16th century, was a pupil of Lorenzo di Credi, and
subsequently an assistant of Ridolt'o Ghirlandajo.
He executed church pictures, amongst which was
a 'Crucifixion, with St. Mary Magdalen and St.
Francis,' now in the Pitti Palace ; but he was
especially celebrated for his portraits.

DELCLOCHE, PAUL JOSEPH, a Flemish painter
of interiors and battle-pieces, was born at Namur
in 1716. He was the son of Pierre Delcloche, an
almost unknown painter, from whom he received
his first lessons in art. Whilst still very young he
went to Paris, but returned in 1747 to Liege, where
he painted some pictures for the Salle des Etats
and the churches. His small pictures are full of
life and spirit, but his larger works are much less
successful. He died about 1752.

DEL CONTE, JACOPO, a Florentine painter, was
born in 1510. He was brought up in the school
of Andrea del Sarto. Few of his works are to be
met with in Florence, as he went to Rome when
he was young, and resided there until his death.
He was a respectable painter of history ; but is
more distinguished for his excellence in portraits,
of which he painted a greater number, and of more
distinguished personages, than any artist of his
time. He visited Rome during the time of Paul
III., and he painted his portrait, and that of each
succeeding pontiff until Clement VIII., in whose
pontificate he died. His principal historical
works at Rome are, ' St. John preaching,' and the
' Deposition from the Cross,' in San Giovanni
Decollate, the church of the Florentines ; the
' Dead Christ,' with several figures, in the Madonna
del Popolo ; and at the Cappuccini on Monte
Cavallo, a'Pieta,' and 'St. Francis receiving the
Stigmata.' He also painted a portrait of Michel-
angelo. He died at Rome in 1598.

DELCOUR, JAN GILLIS, a Flemish painter of
religious subjects, was born at Hamoir, near Liege,
in 1632. He was a scholar of Geraert Douffet,
but went to Rome and there studied for a long
time under Andrea Sacchi and Carlo Maratti. He
made excellent copies of some of Raphael's most
celebrated works, which still exist at Lie'ge, where
there are also some original pictures by him in the
churches. He died at Liege in 1694.


DE LEEUW, JAN, a Dutch engraver, was born
at the Hague in 1660. In conjunction with Jan
Lamsveld, he engraved the portraits for Le Vas-
sor's ' Histoire du Regne de Louis XIII.,' published
at Amsterdam in 1701. We have also by him the
following portraits :

Carolus Niellius, D. Theol.
Jacob Wilhelm Imhof , Senator of Nuremberg.
Joseph Justus Scaliger.
John, Duke of Marlborough.

Abraham Cowley ; for the edition of his works published
in 1700.

DE LEEUW, THOMAS, (or DE LEU,) a native
of Flanders, was in France from 1560 to 1612.
He was a pupil of Jean Rabel, and afterwards of
Antoine Caron, whose daughter he married. He
engraved at first after Cornelis Cort, Sadeler, and
Wierix, in a dry manner, but devoted himself

afterwards to portraiture, in which he became
one of the most distinguished artists of his time.
He is supposed to have died about 1620. M.
Duplessis has described the works of this engraver
in vols. x. and xi. of Robert-Dumesnil's ' Peintre-
Graveur.' They amount in number to 512, of which
213 are portraits, and are generally signed with
his name. Among others are the following :


Henry III., King of France and Poland.

Louise de Lorraine, his Queen.

Henri de Bourbon, Prince of Conde, at the age of nine


Cesar, Dnke of Vendome, aged four years.
Bust of Henry IV. ; after JSunel.
Henry IV. ; after Qitesnel.
Marie de Medicis ; after the same.
Mary, Queen of Scotland and France.
Charles de Bourbon, Count of Soissone.
Francois de Bourbon, Prince of Conti.
Charles de Lorraine, Duke of Mayeune.
Henri de Savoie, Duke of Nemours.
Henri de Montmorency, Constable of France.
Anne, Duke de Joyeuse, Admiral of France.
Charles de Gontaut, Duke of Biron, Marshal of France.


The Ecce Homo, with Angels bearing the Instruments

of the Passion.

Eighteen plates of the Life of the Virgin.
The Twelve Sibyls ; from his own designs.
Justice rewarding the Labours of the Husbandman ;

after F. Zuccheri.
The Coronation of Louis XIII. ; after Qucsnel.

DE LEEUW, WILLEM, a Flemish engraver, was
born at Antwerp in 1610. He was a disciple of Pieter
Soutman, but instead of following the neat, finished
style of that artist, his etching is bold and free.
There is a coarseness and want of harmony in his
prints, except in those after Nieulant, where he
handled the point with the greatest fineness ;
otherwise his manner is well adapted to some_ of
the subjects he engraved, particularly his hunting
pieces after Rubens. He died about 1665. The
following are his most esteemed prints, which are
sometimes signed with his name, and sometimes

marked with the cipher \\ri-

Lot and his Daughters; after Rubens.

Daniel in the Lions' Den ; after the name.

The Virgin, supported by Angels; called 'Mater
Dolorosa ' ; after the same.

The Martyrdom of St. Catharine ; after the tame ; fine
and scarce.

Four large plates of Hunting scenes; after the samr.
The same subjects, viz. the Lion-hunt, the Boar-hunt,
Hunting the Wolf, and the Crocodile and Hippo-
potamus, have been engraved by P. Soutman.

Tobit and his Wife ; after Rembrandt.

David playing on the Harp before Saul ; after the same.

Rembrandt's Wife ; after the same.

A Female with a Veil ; inscribed ' Marianne ; hall-
length ; after the same.

St. Francis in Meditation ; after J. Zierens.

A set of four large Landscapes; after Adnaen Nieulant.
These prints are in a more finished style than is usual
with De Leeuw, and are scarce.

engraver, was born at Abbeville in 1781. He
engra\3d the 'Toilet of Venus' after Albano,
'^Eneas and Anchises,' after Domenichino, and
portraits of Napoleon and Josephine after Lebel,
and Madame de Sevigne after Nanteuil.

DELEIDI, LUIGI, an Italian painter, who was
born in the Bergamese in 1774, painted landscapes


and ornaments which are particularly happy in
their grouping and colouring. He died at Bergamo
in 1853.

DE LELIE, ADRIAAN, was born at Tilburg in
1755, and was a scholar of Peeters, a painter of
tapestries and ornaments, and afterwards of Quer-
tenmont at Antwerp. He made copies of many
of the portraits by Rubens and Van Dyck at
Diisseldorf, and also of historical pictures by
Italian and Dutch masters. By the advice of Pro-
fessor Camper, he established himself at Amster-
dam, where he painted a great number of portraits
and cabinet pictures ; among the latter is one of
the celebrated amateur Jan Gildemeester showing
his collection to a party of ladies and gentlemen,
in which the principal pictures are readily recog-
nised. One of his best works is that representing
the ' Drawing Academy ' of the Felix Meritis
Society at Amsterdam. His pictures are highly
esteemed in Holland and Germany, where they
are to be met with in the best collections. He
died at Amsterdam in 1820.

born at Amsterdam in 1788, was instructed in art
by his father, Adriaan De Lelie, and by Haan. He
excelled in painting fruit-pieces and genre pictures;
and also practised picture restoring. He died at
Amsterdam in 1845.



DELESTRE, JEAN BAPTISTS, a French artist and
writer upon art, was born at Lyons in 1800. He was
a pupil of Gros, and studied also water-colour paint-
ing and sculpture, but after a time he forsook the
practice of art, and devoted himself to its history
and criticism. He was a radical in politics, and
took an active part in the revolution of 1848. He
died in Paris in 1871. A 'Scene during the erup-
tion of Vesuvius,' by him, is in the Museum of
Nantes. His principal writings were ' Etudes pro-
gressives des tetes du Cenacle peint a Milan par
Leonard de Vinci,' 1827, and 'Gros et BBS ouv-
rages,' 1867.

DE LETH, HENDRIK, was a Dutch engraver,
who lived at Amsterdam, where he published in
1729 a series of views of Kennemerland, which
are very poorly executed.


DELF, COPPIN, a French historical painter, who
flourished in the 15th century, and became painter
in ordinary to King Rene and King Louis XI. He
executed the mural paintings in the churches of
St. Martin at Tours, St. Maurice at Angers, and
St. Peter at Saumur, between 1456 and 1482.

DELFF, JACOB WILLEMSZOON, 'the elder,' a por-
trait, painter of Delft, is known by a picture of an
' Archery- feast ' in the Hotel de Ville at Delft,
dated 1592 ; and by a ' Reconciliation of Esau and
Jacob,' in the Belvedere at Vienna, bearing the
date 1584. He also painted ' The Sportsman's
Dinner,' and a portrait group of his family. Delff
died at Delft in 1611. His works display good
conception and execution, but are somewhat heavy
in colouring.

Jacob Delff had three sons, Cornelis, Rochus, and
Willem. CORNELIS DELFF, born in 1571, was a
pupil of Cornelis van Haarlem, and distinguished
himself by very fine pictures of still life. He died
in 1645. ROCHUS DELFF was a portrait painter,
and a pupil of his father. WILLEM DELFF is
noticed below.


DELFF, JACOB WILT.EMSZOON, ' the younger,' the
son of Willem Jacobszoon Delff, and grandson of
the elder artist of the same names, was born in
1619 at Delft, where he afterwards resided. He
was highly esteemed and much patronized by
many celebrated personages of his country. He
also held, with great credit to himself, several
important civic posts, and at his death, which
occurred at Delft in 1661, a marble monument was
erected to his memory. He followed the style of
Rembrandt. A Man's Portrait, by him, is in the

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