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picture by him, containing the portraits of the
most eminent medical men of his time, painted for
the hall of the surgeons, which has more of the
attributes of the Venetian than of the Dutch school.
De Man died at Delft in 1706. There is by him in
the Rotterdam Museum a 'Village Interior'; in
the Darmstadt Gallery an 'Interior of a Gothic
Church' ; and in the Cassel Gallery another 'Church
Interior.' There exist also four portraits etched
by him.

DE MAN, J.,was a Dutch painter who flourished
in the 17th century. The Hague Gallery has a
' Peasant Wedding ' signed with his name.

DE MARE, PIETEE, a Dutch engraver, was born
at Leyden in 1757, and died in the same town in
1796. He was a pupil of Abraham Delfos. Be-
sides the ' Great Fire of Rotterdam,' after Haas-
broek, the 'Last Judgment,' after Lucas van
Leyden, and some Heads after Teniers, he executed
a large number of plates after the works of Berchem,
Frans van Mieris, and Cornelis de Visscher.

DEMARNE, JEAN Louis DE MARNETTE, painter
and etcher, born at Brussels in 1754, was the son
of a Belgian officer, and of his wife, the Baroness
Anschiitz. When only twelve years old he was
sent to Paris, and studied in the atelier of Gabriel
Briard. He became a successful painter of land-
scapes with figures or cattle, in the manner of
Berchem and Karel Dujardin. He also etched
thirty-eight plates of similar subjects. In 1783 he
became a member of the Academic des Beaux
Arts. He was long employed as painter to the
Sevres porcelain factory. He died at Batignolles
in 1829. In the Hermitage there are five of his
pictures, and several were in the San Donato
Collection at Florence.

DE' MEDICI, MARIA. See MART.

DEMER, JACOB. See DOMER.

DE MEDLEMEESTER, JOSEPH KAREL, a Belgian
engraver, was born at Bruges in 1771. He wasa pupil
of Bervic in Paris, and afterwards studied in the
French school of engraving at Rome. After twenty-
two years' absence he returned to Belgium in 1820,
and settled at Antwerp, where he died in 1836.
His most important work was the series of draw-
ings which he made from the fifty -two compositions
which form the ' Bible of Raphael ' in the Loggie_of
the Vatican. These copies of the frescoes occupied
his whole time for twelve years, and after his
return home he undertook their reproduction, both
by means of engraving and of water-colour, on a
scale of one-ninth of the originals. Thirty-six
were completed in water-colours, but twelve plates
only were engraved at the time of his death. All,
however, existed in outline, and these were finished,
and the entire work published with text by the
Baron de Reiffenberg, between the years 1844 and

56



1853. He also engraved the ' Virgin and Child,'
after Andrea Solario, ' Cupid triumphant,' after
Domenichino, and the portraits of Rubens and
Michelangelo.

DE MEYER, H., was a Dutch landscape painter,
who flourished about the middle of the 17th century.
There are by him in the Amsterdam Museum, the
' Surrender of the town of Hulst,' and the ' Departure
of Charles II. of England from Scheveningen.'

DE' MICHIELI. See DEI MICHIELI.

DE MOMPER, FRANS, a Flemish landscape
painter, who was a native of Antwerp, is inscribed
in the ' Liggere ' of the Guild of St. Luke in that
city in 1629-30. He died at Antwerp in 1660-61.
There are by him in the Augsburg Gallery, 'St.
Philip baptizing the Eunuch,' and a ' Rocky Scene,'
in which the figures are by F. Francken and the
animals by J. Brueghel.

DE MOMPER, JODOCUS, called at Rome EER-
VRUGHT, a painter and etcher, was born at Antwerp
about 1559. He was the son of Bartholomeus De
Momper, a dealer in pictures, who is believed also
to have painted landscapes, and to have instructed
his son in the rudiments of the art. He entered
the Guild of St. Luke in 1581, and became its dean
in 1611. His pictures are frequently decorated
with figures by the elder Teniers, Jan Brueghel, F.
Francken, and H. van Balen. Van Dyck painted
his portrait among the celebrated artists of liis
country, and etched a plate of it himself. De
Momper etched a few plates of landscapes from
his o\vn designs, which are scarce. He died at
Antwerp in 1634 or 1635. J. Visscher, E. van
Panderen, and Th. Galle have engraved landscapes
after him. His works are to be seen in the
Galleries of Amsterdam, Bordeaux, Brunswick,
Copenhagen, Darmstadt, Dresden, Madrid, and
Venice, and as follow :

Antwerp. Gallery. The Archduke Maximilian of
Austria huntiug.

,, Cathedral. The Repose in Egypt.

Berlin. Museum. Rocky Landscape.

,, ,, Forest of Oaks.

,, ,, Hermits.

,, ,, A Flemish "Village.

Bruges. Academy. Horsemen attacked by Brigands.
Brunswick. Gallery. The Four Seasons.
Cassel. Gallery. The Tower of Babel.

Dresden. Gallery. Rocky Landscape with Travellers

on horseback.
Petersburg. Hermitage. Landscape.

DE MOMPER. See MOMPER.

DE MONI, LODOWYCK, who was born at Breda in
1698, was a scholar of Van Kessel, of J. B. Biset,
and of Philip van Dyk at the Hague. He studied
the works of Gerard Dou, and imitated the manner
of Mieris. He accompanied Philip van Dyk to
Cassel, and afterwards settled at Leyden, where
he died in 1771. His paintings consist of por-
traits and genre pieces of a simple and pleasing
character, though cold in colouring. There are
by him :

Amsterdam. Museum. A Woman watering Flowers.

Hague. Gallery. The Lacemaker. 1742.

Paris. Louvre. A Family Scene.

Petersburg. Hermitage. A Fish-Woman.

,, The Bon Vivant. 1723.

Rotterdam. Museum. A Fish-Seller.

DE MOOR, KAREL, the elder, a Dutch painter
and etcher, was born at Leyden in 1656. He was
intended by his parents for one of the learned
professions, but a decided inclination for art in-



ANDREA DEL VERROCCHIO




Brogi photo]



[Aceademia, Florence



THE BAPTISM OF CHRIST



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



duced his father to place him under the care of
Gerard Don. After a while he was sent to Am-
sterdam, where he became a scholar of Abraham
van den Tempel. The death of that painter, when
De Moor was only sixteen years of age, obliged
him to attach himself to other artists, and it was
by Frans van Mieris and Godfried Schalcken that
he was chiefly influenced. He painted in the
town-hall at Leyden the terrible subject of ' Brutus
condemning his two Sons to Death,' which he repre-
sented in the most awful and impressive manner.
The celebrity of Karel De Moor reached Italy, and
the Grand Duke of Tuscany expressed a desire to
place his portrait, painted by himself, among the
illustrious artists in the Uffizi Gallery. It was ac-
cordingly sent to Florence in 1702, and the painter
was honoured in return with a gold medal and
chain. He was also commissioned by the Emperor
of Germany to paint the portraits of Prince Eugene
and the Duke of Marlborough, and these he executed
so much to the satisfaction of that monarch, that
he conferred on the artist the order of knighthood.
One of his best works is in the hall of the magis-
trates at the Hague, representing the Burgomasters
and Eschevins in the year 1719. The pictures of De
Moor are cleverly composed, his figures are correctly
drawn, and his colouring is clear and transparent.
In some of his larger portraits he seems to have
aimed at a style combining the chaste delicacy of
Van Dyck with somewhat of the vigour of Rem-
brandt. Although his works are always very
highly finished, his touch is firm and free. De
Moor died at Warmond in 1738. He etched a few
portraits, from his own designs, among which are
those of Gerard Dou, Jan van Goyen, Frans van
Mieris, and himself. The following are some of
his principal works :

Antwerp. Gallery. A Lady with a Bouquet. (This
picture bears the forged sit/na-
ture of_ 6. Metsu.)

Dresden. Gallery. A Hermit praying.

Florence. Uffizi. His own Portrait.

Petersburg. Hermitage. Ecce Homo.

A Hermit. 1730.

DE' MOTTI, JACOPO. See DEI Mom.

DE MOUCHERON, FREDERIK. See MOUCHERON.

DENANTO, FRANCESCO, of Savoy, a painter
and engraver on wood, worked at Venice from
1440 to 1450, and is said to have been a disciple
of Titian. Among other wood-cuts by him, there
is a large one representing 'Christ healing the Lame
Man.' It is executed in a spirited, taste-
ful style, and, being inscribed, Francis-
cus Denantp deSabaiidia, /.,is probably
from a design of his own. The annexed
monogram is stated to be his :

DENBY, WILLIAM, an English painter, was born
at Great Bookham, in Surrey, in 1819. He studied
under Dyce in the School of Design at Somerset
House, of which he became an assistant master in
1847. He subsequently superintended the Antique
Department in the South Kensington School till
his death in 1875, which was occasioned by ill-
ness contracted at Rome a few years previously.
Amongst the few works which he exhibited at the
Royal Academy may be mentioned : ' The Infant
St. John," A Girl reading,' and 'St. Peter and Rhoda.'

DEN DUYTS, GUSTAVE, a Belgian landscape
painter of great skill, and not only well known
and esteemed in his own country, but also abroad.
He is represented at the Luxembourg in Paris, but
he will be best remembered as a designer of




pageants. He had actually prepared a set of
drawings for the cars and groups for the " cortege
des cloches," one of the attractions of the Inter-
national Exhibition at Brussels, when he died in
1895.

DE NECKER, JOBST, who also signed his name
DE NEGKER and DIENECKER, a most skilful wood-
engraver, was a native of Antwerp. He settled at
Augsburg about 1510, and, in conjunction with
several other artists, executed the wood-cuts of
Burgkmair's and Schauflein's designs. He en-
graved the designs which the latter made to
illustrate the allegorical poem of ' Theuerdanck,'
and also some of those which Burgkmair made for
the ' Triumph ' of the Emperor Maximilian. He
was the inventor of chiaroscuro in three tints, of
which the best example is the fine portrait of
Hans Baumgartner, dated 1512, after the design
of Burgkmair. His chief work is the ' Prodigal
Son,' which appears to be likewise after Burgkmair.
There is also by him an enlarged copy of Holbein's
' Dance of Death,' dated 1544. He died probably
before 1561.

DAVID DE NECKER and SAMSON DE NECKER, who
were wood-engravers and natives of Augsburg,
were probably his sons, and HERCULES DE NECKER,
another engraver on wood, is said to have been a
son of David De Necker.

DE NEVE, FRANS, was born ut Antwerp about
the year 1627, and for some time studied the works
of Rubens and Van Dyck. He afterwards visited
Rome, where he resided for some years, and on his
return to his native country gave proof of con-
siderable ability as a painter of historical subjects;
but he afterwards distinguished himself more as a
painter of what are called heroic landscapes, with
subjects from history or fable, in which he exhibited
the fertility of his genius and the refinement of his
taste. There are the following paintings by him :

Vienna. Gallery. The Archduke Leopold William

of the Netherlands.

Charles II. of Spain.

Liechtenstein Gal. The Judgment of Solomon.
The Murder of the Innocents.

De Neve likewise executed several etchings in a
slight but very masterly style. They are embellished
with figures, correctly drawn and cleverly grouped.
Among them are :

Narcissus.

A Shepherdess playing the Tambourine.

DE NEYN, PIETER, who was born at Leyden in
1597, studied for some time under Esajas van de
Velde, and gave promise of becoming a good
landscape painter, in the manner of his master;
but he afterwards applied his talents to archi-
tecture, in which he succeeded so well that he was
appointed architect to his native city, Leyden,
where he died in 1639.

DENIS, SIMON ALEXANDRE CLEMENT, called 'den
Schelen,' was born at Antwerp in 1755. After
studying for some time under Antonissen, he
went, in 1786, to Italy, and there married a
Roman lady. He afterwards settled at Naples,
where he became painter to the king, and died in
1813. Denis's pictures, which are for the most
part landscapes, are executed in an Italian manner,
and, with the exception of colour, are good in
every respect. The Antwerp Museum contains
three specimens of his art, and the Louvre one.

DENNEL, ANTOINE FRANQOIS, a French en-
graver, possibly a brother of Louis Dennel, was a

57



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



pupil of Wille. He worked in Paris from 1760
to 1815, and engraved several plates for Filhol's
1 Musee Fransais,' but his best works are the ' Essai
du Corset,' and the ' Dedicace d'un Poeme 6pique,'
after P. A. Wille.

DENNEL, Louis, a French engraver, was born
at Abbeville in 1741, and died in Paris in 1806.
He was a pupil of Beauvarlet, in whose style he
engraved several plates, among which are the
following :

The Triumph of Galatea ; after Luca Giordano.
Pygmalion enamoured of his Statue ; after Layrenee.
The Triumph of Painting ; after the same.
Painting cherished by the Graces ; after the same.

DENNER, BALTHASAR, a German painter, whose
works surprise by the toilsome servility of their
finish, as much as they disgust by a total absence
of all that is estimable in the art, was born
at Hamburg in 1685. After being instructed in
drawing by an obscure painter of that town, he
went to Berlin in 1707, where his works were
admired by Frederick II. The Duchess of Bruns-
wick- Wolfenbiittel invited him to her court in
1720, where he painted her portrait; and from
thence he went to Hanover, where he met with
so much encouragement that he came to London
in 1721, and remained here until 1728. The only
productions of this mechanic in the art, that have
any claim to notice, are his heads of old men and
women, which still find collectors among the ad-
mirers of patient and persevering precision. There
are examples of these at Hampton Court and in
the Louvre, as well as in the Galleries of Berlin,
Cassel, Copenhagen, Dresden, Florence, Munich,
St. Petersburg, and Vienna. He died at Rostock
in 1749.

Brulliot mentions a B. DENNER, an engraver,
who executed some views on the Tiber after Cor-
nelis Meyer for a work published in 1683, but he
gives no particulars of the artist.

DENNING, STEPHEN POYNTZ, an English mini-
ature and portrait painter, was born in 1795. He
was a pupil of John Wright, and exhibited at the
Royal Academy from 1814 to 1851, but he employed
himself chiefly in copying the works of other artists
In 1821, he became curator of the Dulwich Gallery
and resided at the college until his death in 1864,
There is in the National Portrait Gallery a vignette
sketch in water-colours by him of James Hogg
the Ettrick Shepherd. He also painted portraits
of Isaac D' Israeli and Sir Matthew Wood, Lore
Mayor of London.

DENON, Baron DOMINIQUE VIVANT, (or DE
NON,) born at Chalons on the Saone in 1747, was
one of the train of artists and literary and scientific
men who accompanied Napoleon Bonaparte to
Egypt ; where he wielded alternately the pen anc
the sword, it is said with equal dexterity. His
great work on the Egyptian, expedition, the ' Voy
age de la Haute et Basse Egypte,' the numerous
drawings for which were made by himself , is alone
sufficient to immortalize his name. Napoleon was
warmly attached to him, made him Director-Genera
of the Museums, and consulted him on all matters
connected with the fine arts. He took but littl
interest in politics, his thoughts being principal!)
occupied by engraving, and by the fair sex, man}
of whose portraits he drew and etched during hi:
diplomatic travels. He also etched the celebratet
collection of painters' portraits in the Uffizi Galler;
at Florence, but his most remarkable works wen
58



lis reproductions of Rembrandt's etchings, espe-
cially those of the ' Resurrection of Lazarus,' the
Death of the Virgin.' and the painter's own portrait,
lis large etching of Luca Giordano's ' Adoration
if the Shepherds ' opened to him in 1787 the doors
>f the Academy. One of his best-known portraits is
hat of Benjamin de La Borde, which was engraved

y Masquelier and published in his 'Chansons.'
)enon died in Paris in 1825, universally beloved
'or his good qualities, and admired for his talents
and the purity of his taste. He resembled Voltaire,
as well in his wit as in his features.

DE NOTER, HERMANUS AUGUST, the son of Pieter

ranc^ois De Noter, was born at Ghent in 1806.

e was instructed by his father, and gave early

romise of success. He painted landscapes,
,vinter scenes, marine views, and subjects in the
manner of Wouwerman. He died at Ghent in 1837.
DE NOTER, PIETER FRANCOIS, a Flemish painter
of landscapes and interiors, was born at Waelhem,
near Mechlin, in 1779. He became a professor in the
Academy of Ghent and developed into an eminent
painter of landscapes, marine subjects, winter
scenes, views of the interiors of cities, and
cathedrals. His most esteemed pictures are his
views of cities and winter scenes ; and during
the latter part of his career he confined his
talents almost exclusively to the representation of
such subjects. His pencilling was delicate ; and in
this respect he may be considered as belonging to
the Dutch school. His pictures are numerous and
varied, and are to be found in the cabinets of
Belgium, Holland, and the north of France. He
also engraved a collection of landscapes, several
of which are after Hobbema. He died at Ghent
in 1842. Amongst his works, which show great
minuteness of detail, are :
Brussels. Museum.

j

Ghent. Academy.



View at Bruges.
View from Pont Neuf, Ghent.
Abbey of St. Pierre, Ghent.
"Winter view of Ghent.



DENTE, MARCO, called MARCO DA RAVENNA, an
Italian engraver, born in the latter part of the 15th
century, was one of the most eminent pupils of
Marc- Antonio's school. His best works, remark-
able for their purity and care of execution, are
copies after Baccio Bandinelli, Giulio Romano, Ra-
phael, and more especially Marc-Antonio, whom
he imitated in a most -p^ <*vO "D
deceptive manner. He *-\J * -!/y -D A
generally used the ac- ' *

couipanying monogram :

DENTONE, IL. See CURTI, GIBOLAMO.

DEN TYN, LAMBERTUS, was born at Antwerp
in 1770. He was a scholar of P. van Regemorter,
and painted interiors by candle-light, and land-
scapes by moonlight. He died in 1816.

DENUELLE, ALEXANDRE DOMINIQUE, a French
decorative painter and architect, was born in Paris
in 1818. He studied under Delaroche, and after-
wards served on the Commission for Historical
Monuments. He died at Florence in 1879. He
was largely engaged in mural paintings for
churches, and specimens of his art will be found
in the Abbey of St. Denis, in St. Paul at Nimes,
St. Polycarp at Lyons, the Oratory at Birmingham,
the Church of the Celestines at Avignon, and in
Strassburg Cathedral.

DEN UYL, JAN (UiL, or VTL), is probably the
artist by whom there are many drawings to be
found in Holland, signed /. den Uil, or /. den
Uyl. There are only five of his etchings described :



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



an Ox and a Sheep, a Bull, two Oxen, a Dog, and
a Buffalo. In style they approach those of Nicolaes
Moojaert, but do not eqiuil them in merit. They
appear to have been executed about the end of the
16th century.

DENY, JEANNE, was a French engraver of
merit, who flourished in the last quarter of the
18th century. She executed some of Monnet's
and Marillier's illustrations to the ' Romans et
Contes ' of Voltaire, of Desrais's designs for the
' Contes ' of La Fontaine, and several of the
plates for the ' Cabinet Choiseul ' and the ' Cos-
tumes Franjais.'

MARTIAL DENY, her brother, likewise engraved
subjects for the same works. The one or the other
engraved also ' Le Restaurant ' after Lavreince.

DENYS, FRANS, a Flemish painter of portraits,
who may be ranked amongst the first artists
of his time, is very often confounded with his
son Jacob, a painter of less account. Frans
was a native of Antwerp, and was received into
the Guild of St. Luke in 1631, but the dates of
his birth and death are not known.

DENYS, JACOB, a Flemish painter, the son of
Frans Denys, was born at Antwerp in 1644, and
received into the Guild of St. Luke in 1664. He
was a scholar of Erasmus Quellinus, the elder,
but at an early age he went to Italy, where he
passed the greater part of his life. His merit
recommended him to the patronage of the Duke of
Mantua, in whose employment he passed several
years. He afterwards was invited to Florence,
where he painted for the Palazzo Pitti several his-
torical pictures, and the portrait of the Grand-Duke,
with those of the principal personages of the court.
After fourteen years' absence, he returned to his
native country, and died at Antwerp in 1708.
The style of Denys, both in his historical works
and in his portraits, resembles that of Van Dyck,
with something more of the Italian taste, though
with less purity of colouring. There are in the
Antwerp Gallery two works by him, a portrait of
Gregorius Martens, head-man of the corporation of
St. Luke (dated 1694), and a 'Study from the
Living Model. '

DENYS, SIMON ALEXANDRE CLEMENT. See DENIS.

DEODATE, . The name of this engraver is
affixed to a portrait of Sir Theodore Mayerne,
physician to James I. and Charles I.

DEODATO. See ORLANDI.

DE' PA ESI, GIROLAMO. See MUZIANO.

DE PAPE, ABRAHAM, a Dutch painter, who lived
probably at Leyden in the middle of the 17th
century, is said to have been a scholar of Gerard
Dou. Balkema, who is the only writer who notices
him, says that in the sale of Cornelis van Dyck's
collection of pictures in 1713, there was a picture
by De Pape representing a ' Kitchen with a Woman
paring Turnips ' ; and in Gerrit Muller's collection
sold at Amsterdam in 1827, another of a ' Kitchen
with a Woman plucking a Fowl.' The latter, he
says, is more in the manner of Brekelenkam than
of Gerard Dou. It is now in the Hague Gallery.
He gives no particulars relative to his birth, place
of residence, or death, though he says he was
worthy of the school whence he proceeded. In
the Marquis of Bute's collection is a picture signed
by him of a 'Woman paring Apples,' and in the
'Exposition retrospective' held at Brussels in
1873, was a painting by him, dated 1648, lent by
theComte G. Du Chastel.

DE PASSE. See VAN DE PASSE.



DE PATINIR, JOACHIM, (or DE PATENIER,) was
born at Dinant about the year 1490. He resided
chiefly at An twerp, where he acquired considerable
reputation as a landscape painter, and was admitted
a master of the Guild of St. Luke in 1515. He
was one of the earliest Flemish painters who painted
landscapes independent of history. Many of his
works exist, and, considering them as the earliest
productions of their class, they fully justify the
praise of Van Mander. In most of them is found
a small clownish figure indecently exhibited. He
also painted hunting scenes and battles, which, at
that early period, were held in considerable estima-
tion. Some historical pictures also are attributed
to him. Those which are, perhaps, least liable to
doubt are in the Gallery at Vienna. Albrecht
Diirer found De Patinir to be the most agreeable
of all the Flemish artists, and formed with him a
close intimacy ; he also painted his portrait. De
Patinir died at Antwerp in 1524. The following
paintings by him may be mentioned :

Antwerp. Museum. The Flight into Egypt.

,. The Adoration of the Magi.

Berlin Gallery. The Conversion of St. Hubert.

" The Rest on the Flight into Egypt.

Brussels. Museum. Mater Dolorosa.

London. Ifat. Gall. The Crucifixion.

., St. Christopher.

Madrid. Gallery. The Temptation of St. Anthony.

Vienna. Academy. The Entombment.

Christ bewailed under the Cross.

Gallery. St. John the Baptist preaching.

DEPAULIS, ALEXIS JOSEPH, a French engraver,
was born in Paris in 1792, and died there in 1867.

DE PAULIS, ANDREAS. See PADLI.

DE PAY, JOHANN, was born at Riedlingen in
Swabia in 1609, and' died at Munich in 1660. His
own portrait, by himself, dated 1655, is in the
Munich Gallery.

DE PETERS, ANTON, a painter and etcher, was
born at Cologne in 1723, and studied in Paris under
Greuze. He was raised to the rank of a noble by
the king of France, and appointed court painter
by the Danish king, Christian IV., as well as by
Prince Charles of Lorraine. The Revolution drove
him back to his native country, where he lived in
poverty, and died at Cologne in 1795. There are
by him:

PAINTINGS.

Death of Cleopatra (in miniature upon ivory).
A Girl leaving the Bath (Herr Merlo, Coloyne).
The Girl with the Carp.

ETCHINGS.

Virgin and Child, in a landscape.

Holy Family on the Flight to Egypt (after Rembrandt).

DE POORTER, WILLEM, a native of Haarlem,
who flourished from 1630 to 1645, was a pupil of



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