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Rembrandt, and his works, executed after that
master, display considerable merit, and are some-
what rare. He usually painted historical subjects,
but sometimes undertook interiors. His chef-
d'ceuvre is ' Solomon worshipping false Gods,' in
the possession of M. Coster in Paris. Besides this,
there are in public galleries the following works
by him :

Berlin. Gallery. Samson and Delilah.
Brussels. Arenberg Coll. An Interior.
Cassel. Gallery. The Circumcision.
Copenhagen. Gallery. Mercury and Proserpine.

Peace. 1643.

Dresden. Gallery. Ahasuerus and Esther. 1645.
The Woman taken iu Adultery.



Dresden. Gallery. The Virgin and Child, with St.
Joseph and St. Simeon ; after

Rotterdam. Museum. An Allegory of Human Insta-
bility. 1630.

of Nicolas Dequevauviller. Born in Paris in 1783 ;
pupil of his father and of Desnoyers. Among his
works are :

Episode in the Life of Fenelon ; after Hersent.
Portraits of Cardinal de Beausset \

Due de Berry V after H. Riaaad.

M. de Daigrefeuille. J

Child playing a Flute, and Jason ; after antiques.

FRANQOIS, a French engraver. Born at Abbeville
in 1745, he became a pupil of J. Daulle\ He made
extensive travels in Italy, along the Mediterranean,
and in Palestine, 1781-86. His chief plates are
distinguished by good distribution of light. The
figures and furniture are well executed. The
ensemble is charming, full of youth and pleasure.
His grading of the different parts of his compo-
sitions is admirable. He died in Paris in 1807.
Among his works are :

The Assembly, The Concert, and Le Contretemps ;

after Lavreince. 1783.
Bed-time, Rising, and The Dancing School ; after the

same. 1784.
Plates for ' Paris Bridges,' and ' Travels in Syria and


Views at Auxerre, Nimes, etc. 1780.
Temptation of St. Anthony ; after Salvator Rosa.
Noon and Evening ; after C. Berghem.
Illustrations for 'An Itinerary in France,' published

by Reville et Lavallee, Paris, 1816.
The Travellers ; after Jan Both. (Uffisi, Florence.)
The Flemish Nurse, and Flemish Girls bathing ; after

C. Poelembourg.

DE RAM, JAN, a Dutch engraver, was born
about 1680. He was a scholar of Romeyn Ds
Hooghe, but was more free and correct than his
instructor. He worked for the booksellers, and
also engraved in mezzotint, of which style there
is a specimen in a portrait of Christian V.,
King of Denmark. The date of his death is not

DERBY, ALFRED THOMAS, a water-colour painter,
was born in 1821. He was the eldest son of the
miniature painter, William Derby. After having
studied at the Royal Academy, his first attempts
were in oil, but he afterwards painted in water-
colour, assisting his father in his copies of pictures
by well-known modern artists. After his father's
death he still continued in the same line, painting
many exact and carefully-finished copies, besides
some original works. He frequently exhibited por-
traits at the Royal Academy. He died at Hammer-
smith in 1873.

DERBY, WILLIAM, an English miniature painter
and copyist, was born in 1786, at Birmingham, where
he received instruction from Joseph Barker. In
1808 he came to London and executed drawings
for the ' Stafford Gallery,' and in 1825 for Lodge's
' Portraits.' He also made copies of ancestral por-
traits for Lord Derby. In 1838 he was struck with
paralysis, but was able to pursue his avocations
till his death in 1847. There are two water-
colour drawings by him in the South Kensington
Museum: 'A Fisherman,' and 'A Man holding a

DE REYN, JAN, was born at Dunkirk about
the year 1610, and went when he was young to


Antwerp, where he became a scholar of Van Dyck.
His principal works for the churches at Dunkirk
were the ' Death of the four Royal Martyrs,' for
the church of St. Eloi ; and the ' Baptism of Totila,'
for the church of the English convent. There
are many of his portraits in private collections,
which are little inferior to those of Van Dyck.
The principal altar-piece in the parochial church
of St. Martin, at Bergues St. Vinox, near Dunkirk,
is by this master : it represents ' Herodias bringing
the Head of St. John to Herod.' De Reyn died at
Dunkirk in 1678. The Brussels Museum has a
Female Portrait by him, dated 1637.


DEROCHE, VICTOR, a French landscape painter
of some note, was born at Lyons in 1824 (?). He
was a frequent exhibitor at the Salon of pictures
illustrating the beauties of the Seine, and generally
somewhat melancholy in sentiment. He lived for
many years at Montigny, near Vernon-sur-Seine,
and died in 1886.

DE ROORE, JACQUES, was born at Antwerp in
1686. He was the son of a goldsmith, who in-
tended to bring him up to his own profession, but
his father died when he was very young, and his
mother permitted him to indulge the inclination he
had shown for art. He was at first placed under
the care of Louis van der Bosch, under whom
he studied for two years, and then enteied the
school of Caspar Jacobus van Opstal. He painted
historical subjects and conversations ; in the for-
mer, he adopted the style of Richard van Orley,
and in the latter imitated that of the younger
Teniers. His works were held in the highest esti-
mation, and he was loaded with commissions, not
only for the collections of Brabant and Flanders,
but also for those of Holland. When not more
than twenty years of age he was received into the
Academy at Antwerp, and was considered one of
the ablest artists of his time. He was much em-
ployed in embellishing the saloons of the principal
mansions, and in painting the ceilings of the public
edifices. One of his most admired performances
was a saloon and ceiling, representing the ' History
of Pandora,' painted for the family of Hasselaer, in
1740. He died at Antwerp in 1747.

DE' ROSSI. See DEI Rossi.


DERSON, N., a French engraver, appears from
the inscription on one of his prints to have been of
Reims in Champagne. We have by this artist a
plate of the stately fayade of the cathedral of
Notre-Dame at Reims, neatly etched and finished
with the graver, with several figures spiritedly
touched in the style of Callot, and dated 1625.

DERTINGER, ERNST, who was born in 1816,
engraved after Von der Embde, T. Schiitz, W.
Kaulbach, and other artists. He died at Stuttgart
in 1865.

DE RUEL, JOHAN BAPTIST, was born at Ant-
werp in 1634. He was introduced as a singer to
the court of the Elector of Mayence, and was
there instructed in painting by Jan Thomas. He
afterwards settled at Wiirzburg, where he exe-
cuted altar-pieces and portraits. A portrait by
him is in the Munich Gallery. He died in 1685,
or, according to others, in 1715.

DERUET, CLAUDE, a painter and engraver, was
born at Nancy, in Lorraine, in 1588, and died in
the same town in 1660. He was a scholar of
Claude Henriet, and living in habits of intimacy
with his fellow-citizen Callot, he adopted the style


of that master, and engraved in it a few plates, of
which the best are :

Charles IV., Duke of Lorraine, on Horseback. 1628.
The Carriere, or Rue Neuve, at Nancy.
The Ducal Palace at Nancy.

DE RUYTER, JAN, was a Dutch painter of
scenes from every-day life, who was still living in
1822. A 'Cook in a Kitchen' by him, in the
Amsterdam Gallery, is dated 1820.

DE RUYTER, N., was a Flemish engraver, who
flourished about the year 1688. He appears to
have imitated the style of Paulus Pontius, but with-
out much success. Among others, we have a plate
by him representing ' Diana reposing after the
Chase,' after Gerard Valck.


DE RYCKE, DANIEL, a Flemish painter, was a
native of Ghent, who flourished there and at
Bruges between the years 1462 and 1469. His
mural and decorative paintings and portraits caused
him to be thought one of the most distinguished
painters of his time, but his works have unfor-
tunately perished by the hands of the Iconoclasts.

a Flemish painter, was born at Antwerp in 1635.
He was brought up a goldsmith, but quitted that
business to study painting, and made some pro-
ficiency in history and portraits, though he never
reached any eminence. He visited England in the
reign of King William III., and died in London
in 1697. He is also known as an engraver, and
among his plates are the following :

Susanna surprised by the Elders.
St. Catharine before her Judges.
Mars and Venus. 1683.

His daughter, CATHAEINA DE RTCKE, was a talented

DE RYCKER, A., was a Flemish painter, who
in 1591 executed for the church of St. Jacques at
Antwerp a triptych, the centre panel of which,
representing ' Christ on the Cross, between the
two Thieves," has since disappeared. The wings,
however, which contain the portraits of the donor,
Jan Doncker, and his wife, are sufficient to place
the painter among the most distinguished masters
of his time. There are in the Antwerp Gallery
the two wings of another triptych which are
ascribed to him, but the archives of the Guild of St.
Luke fail to afford any information about this artist.

DE RYE, AEGIDIUS, was a painter who flourished
in the Netherlands about 1597, which date is on a
' Burial of St. Catharine ' by him in the Vienna

DE RYNG, PIETER, a Flemish painter of sub-
jects of still-life, flourished about the middle of
the 17th century. In the Museum at Amsterdam
there is a picture by him, representing a table
covered with blue velvet, on which are various
kinds of fruit, oysters, and other shell-fish. There
is in the Antwerp Museum a fruit piece by him,
dated 1651, and in the Dresden Gallery is a picture
of shell-fish and fruit with his monogram a ring
with a diamond. Some twenty or thirty years ago
several of his works were brought to England by
dealers ; but it is apprehended that they have
changed their name, and assumed that of Jan
Davidsz De Heem.

SEPH, a French amateur and writer on art, was
born in Paris in 1680. He etched several plates
of subjects arid landscapes from his own designs,

and was the author of the well-known ' Abrege de
la Vie des plus fameux Peintres,' published first
in 1745-52. He died in Paris in 1765.
DE SAN, GERARD, was born at Bruges in 1754,
and studied under Legillon at the Academy of
that city. In 1781 he travelled about France and
to Rome, where he painted for four years, and
received in 1782 a silver medal from the Papal
Academy for drawing from the nude. He further
received two gold medals from the Academy of
Parma. On returning home he devoted himself
to the painting of portraits, and in 1790 was made
director of the Bruges Academy. After five years,
however, the Revolution caused him to proceed to
Groningen, and in 1798 he became president of
the newly-founded Academy in that town. He
died at Groningen in 1829.

DESANGIVES, NICOLAS, a French painter on
glass, who acquired a great reputation early in the
16th century for his windows in the church of St.
Genevieve, and in the charnel-house of the church
of St. Paul, in Paris.

DESANI, PIETHO, was born at Bologna, accord-
ing to Malvasia, in 1595, and was a disciple of
Lionello Spada, under whom he became a very
fair painter of history. He resided chiefly at
Reggio, where there was scarcely a church or a
public edifice that did not contain some of his
works. Among the most esteemed were the
'Crucifixion,' with the Virgin Mary, the Mag-
dalen, and St. John, in the Chiesa del Corpo di
Christo, and 'St. Francis receiving the Stigmata,'
in the church of the Padri Zoccolanti. The com-
positions of Desani are masterly, and his drawing
correct ; but there is a crudity and hardness in his
colouring that give to his pictures a disagreeable
effect. He died in 1657.

merly BOUTEILLIER, was born in 1829 in Paris,
where she studied under Chaplin. She received
medals of the third class in 1855, 1857, and 1859,
of the second class in 1861, and of the third class
for engraving in 1863. Of her pictures, which fre-
quently represent oriental and North African scenes,
the most important are : ' The Poor School at Aix,'
' Sisters of Charity,' 'An Apothecary's'' (1859), 'The
Toilette,' 'A Woman of Eleusis ' (1861), 'Oranges
in Upper Egypt' (1870), and 'The Coptic Poet'
(1874). She died in 1901.


DESBOIS, MARTIAL, who was born in Paris in
1630, and died there in 1700, was an excellent
engraver in mezzotint. He engraved 'Moses strik-
ing the Rock,' after Giro Ferri, and other plates
after Paolo Veronese, Guercino, N. Poussin, &c.

guished peintre-graveur, born at CeVilly in 1823.
After preliminary study he became a pupil of
Couture, whose studio he entered in his twenty-
fourth year. After eighteen years spent in Italy
he made his debut in Paris as a portrait-painter,
and the quality of his work at once attracted atten-
tion. Among the best known of his portraits we
maymention: 'Leclerc, the painter' (1876), 'Dailly,
the actor, in the rule of Mes Bottes' (1878), ' M.
Hyacinthe Loison and family en triptyque ' (1880),
'Aristide Bruant'(1892), 'MissMaudGonne'(1894),
'PuvisdeChavannes'(1895), ' Portrait del'Auteur,'
now at the Luxembourg, and 'La Femme au
Chapeau,' which was purchased in 1883 by the



State. The Luxembourg also possesses sixteen
dry-paint engravings by him, in which manner he
was particularly successful, as his etched portraits
of Zola, Rochefort, Monet, Edmond de Goncourt
and other celebrities attest. His various accom-
plishments included the writing of poetry and
dramatic pieces. Desboutin obtained an Honour-
able Mention in 1883 ; he was made a Knight of
the Legion of Honour in 1893, and his brilliant
artistic career was fittingly crowned by the Grand
Prix at the Universal Exhibition in 1900. After
that date he retired to Nice, where his death
occurred on the 23rd February, 1902.

painter and engraver, was born at Lille in 1779.
He was a pupil of Vincent, but, obtaining the
" prix de Rome," he improved himself by travel-
ling in Italy, and became court-painter of Murat in
Naples. He died in Paris in 1858. The following
paintings were executed by him :

The Women of Sparta (in the Lille Museum). 1808.

The Martyrdom of St. Andrew (in fit. Andre, Lille).

Murat on board the Ceres distributing Eewards (en-
graved by himself).

The Conversion of St. Augustine (in St. Eustache, Paris).

The Apotheosis of Cardinal Tommasi (in San Martino di
Monti, Rome).

The Neapolitan Troops marching out against Capri.

As an engraver he also produced six plates from
the ' Fable of Psyche.'

DESCAMPS, JEAN BAPTISTE, a French historical
and subject painter, was born at Dunkirk in
1706. He studied under D'Ulin and Largilliere,
and painted several pictures for Louis XV., illus-
trating that monarch's coronation and visits to
Havre. In 1764 he was received into the Academy,
on which occasion he painted his best known work,
' A Mother in a Kitchen with her two Children,'
which is now in the Louvre. His latter years were
chiefly spent at Rouen, where he was director of a
School of Design, which he had been instrumental
in founding. In 1753-64 he published, ' La Vie
des Peintres Flamands, Allemands, et Hollandois,'
and in 1769 his 'Voyage pittoresque de la Flandre
et du Brabant.' He died at Rouen in 1791.

DESCOMBES, Le Chevalier, a French painter,
was a disciple of Largillie're, of whom he painted
a portrait, which has been engraved by Petit.

DES COUDRES, LDDWIG, an historical, portrait,
and genre painter, was born at Cassel in 1820, and
pursued his first studies under J. von Schnorr, at
the Academy of Munich. He travelled in Italy in
1844-5, and placed himself in 1848-9 under Karl
Sohn at Diisseklorf, where for a time he settled,
but in 1855 he was appointed professor in the School
of Arts at Carlsruhe, in which city he died in 1878.
Among his best pictures we find :

Francesca da Rimini. 1850.

The Weeping Magdalen. 1852.

The Lamentation before the Burial (Carlsruhe Gallery).

The Adoration of the Shepherds (in possession of the
Grand-Duke of Uaden). 1857.

The Holy Women before the Cross (in St. Nicholas,
Hamburg). 1863.

Iphigeueia (in possession of the Grand-Duke of Baden).

Under the Eed Cross. 1872.

Psyche and Pan.

Happy Existence a child's picture.

engraver, was born in Paris in 1753, and died in
the same city in 1820. He was a pupil of Janinet,
and engraved in colour after his style. He executed


views in Paris and in Rome after De Machy, but hia
best works area 'Village Fair,' a 'Village Wedding,'
' The Quarrel,' and ' The Tambourine,' after Taunay.


in 1785, and showed at an early age a taste for art.
He was in his time the most celebrated designer of
vignettes, and illustrated the works of no less than
twenty-seven authors. He died in Paris in 1827.


DES GODETS, ANTOINE, a French designer and
engraver, as well as architect, was born in Paris in
1653, and died in the same city in 1728. He pub-
lished in 1682 a folio volume of plates, entitled, ' Les
Edifices antiques de Rome,' engraved from his own
designs ; and he etched the frontispiece himself.

DESGOFFE, ALEXANDRE, a French landscape
painter, was born in Paris in 1805. He studied
under Ingres, and travelled in Italy from 1837 to
1842. He usually introduced into his landscapes
historical or mythological incidents, and he also
painted some Biblical subjects. The Luxembourg
Gallery has his ' Fury of Orestes,' and the Museum
of Lyons his 'Cyclops.' He decorated the Salle
des Etudes of the Bibliotheque Nationale in 1868,
and died in Paris in 1882.

DES GRANGES, D., a miniature painter, said to
have been the pupil of Peter Oliver. Of his history
nothing is known, save that he is said to have fled
to England on account of his holding the Catholic
faith. Some of his best works are at Ham House,
and there are others at Windsor Castle and Welbeck

HENRI, a French historical painter, was born at
Rouen in 1729. He was first instructed by his
father, and afterwards became a pupil of Boucher,
whose daughter he married. He also visited Italy,
and was received into the Academy in 1759. He
excelled particularly in painting altar-pieces, one
of the best of which is a ' St. Jerome,' in the church
of Le Plessis-Piquet (Seine). Deshays died in
Paris in 1765. He had a younger brother, FRANQOIS
traits, but had not a spark of genius.

landscape painter, was born at Chateauroux in 1817,
and died in Paris in 1863. As a specimen of his
painting may be mentioned ' St. Ouen's Bay,

grapher, died in 1880, aged 68, at Montlignon (Seine-
et-Oise). Amongst his most successful works are
his reproductions of paintings by Vidal and Edouard

torical painter, was born in Paris in the latter part
of the 18th century. He studied at Rome from
1786 to 1790, and subsequently became professor
and vice-president of the Academy at Carrara,
where he died in 1814.

portrait painter, was born in 1697 at Stockholm,
where he was instructed in painting by Peter
Martin van Meytens, whose assistant he afterwards
became. In 1724 he made a stay in Amsterdam,
and in the following year in Nuremberg and then
in Venice, where he received further tuition from
Piazzetta. In 1731 he settled in Munich, where he
became court painter, and where he continued to
reside till his death in 1776. A portrait of him-
self and one of his daughter are, with a third in


the Munich Gallery, and other portraits by him are
at Augsburg.


DESMOLES, ARNAUD, a French painter on
glass, flourished about 1510. He executed some
windows in the cathedral at Auch, between the
years 1509 and 1513, by order of the Cardinal de


DESPERRIERES, Madame, a French portrait
painter, exhibited at the Salon from 1812 to 1819.
A portrait of the Duchess of Angouleme by her is
in the Bordeaux Museum.

DESPLACES, Louis, a French engraver, was
born in Paris in 1682. He engraved a considerable
number of plates, possessing great merit, some of
which are in the style of Gerard Audran, and
though he was unequal to that distinguished artist,
his drawing is correct, and his works evince ex-
cellent taste. His best prints are those after
Jouvenet. He worked with the point and the
graver. He died in Paris in 1739. The following
are his principal works :

Jupiter and Danae ; after Titian,
Paolo Veronese between Virtue and Vice ; after Paolo


Wisdom accompanying Hercules ; after the same.
Christ washing the Disciples' Feet ; after G. Mu;iano.
The Adoration of the Magi ; after Giulio Romano.
The Triumph of Titus and Vespasian ; after the same.
The Crucifixion ; after Annibale Carracci.


The Martyrdom of St. Peter ; after II Calabrese.

The Purification ; after Tintoretto.

Diana and Actseon ; after Carlo Maratti.

The Rape of Helen ; after Guido.

The Birth of Adonis ; after C. Cignani.

The Gallery of the President Lambert ; after Le Sueur.

The Roman Charity ; after Le Brun.

Hercules combating the Centaurs ; after the same.

Christ healing the Sick ; after Jouvenet.

The Elevation of the Cross ; after the same.

The Descent from the Cross ; after the same.

St. Bruno praying ; after the same.

Venus prevailing on Vulcan to forge Arms for jEneas ;

after the same.

The Triumph of Venus ; after Antoine Coypel.
Cupid taking refuge with Auacreon ; after the same.
tineas saving his Family from the Burning of Troy ;

after the same.


Mile. Duclos as Ariana ; after Laryilliere.
Evrard Titou du Tillet ; after the same.
Marguerite Becaille, veuve Titon ; after the same.
The Abb6 de Ranc<5 ; after Bigaud.
Charles Fran9ois Silvestre ; after Herault.

painter of hunting scenes and animals, was born at
Champigneul, in Champagne, in 1661. He was a
scholar of Nicasius Bernaert, a Flemish painter
then resident in Paris, who had studied under
Snyders, but who died before his pupil had made
any great progress in the art. Without further in-
struction, he applied himself with great assiduity
to the study of nature, not only in animals and
landscape, but in perfecting himself in the draw-
ing of the figure after the Academy model. Des-
portes was not satisfied, as is frequently the case
with artists in that branch, with painting the
animals, and leaving to others the more important
part of the picture. He painted the hunters, as
well as their game, and his figures are well drawn

and full of character. He was much employed by
Louis XIV. in the palaces of Versailles, Fontaine-
bleau, and Meudon, and was made painter to the
king. In 1699 he became a member of the
Academy in Paris. Walpole does not mention
him in the 'Anecdotes,' but in 1713 he accom-
panied the Duke of Aumont in his embassy to
England, and here painted several pictures. He
died in Paris in 1743. There are twenty-seven of
his works in the Louvre. Among them is his own
portrait, painted for his reception at the Academy
in 1699.

painter, and the son of Alexandre Franjois Des-
portes, was born in Paris in 1695, and died there
in 1774. A large picture of 'Still Life' by him is
in the Louvre; it constituted his reception painting
on his entry into the Academy in 1723.

DESPOKTES, NICOLAS, a nephew and pupil of
Alexandre Francois Desportes, was born in 1718.
He at first painted animals, but afterwards, under
the tuition of H. Rigaud, devoted himself to por-
trait painting. He was received into the Academy
in 1757 with a picture of 'A Wild Boar pursued
by a Dog.' He died in 1787

DES PREZ, F., was a French engraver on wood,
who resided in Paris about the year 1573. He

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