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executed a large plan of the town of Rochelle,
with the additional fortifications made at the time
it was besieged in the civil wars in 1573. It is
inscribed, A Paris, par F. des Prez, rue Mont-
orgueil au ban pasteur.

DESPREZ, Louis JEAN, a French historical
painter and architect, was born at Lyons in 1740.
He produced some works in Paris, and then went
to Rome, where he assisted in the production of
the 'Voyage pittoresque de Naples." He was
patronized by Gustavus III., with whom he went
to Sweden, and for whom he painted decorations,
battle-pieces, &c. He died at Stockholm in
1804. His 'Costumes of Sweden' have been

engraver, was born at Lyons about 1661. He
engraved and published upwards of 600 portraits,
which must have had in their day some popularity,
for in 1723 he was elected a member of the Aca-
demy. He died in Paris in 1741.


DESSURNE, MARK, painter, born in 1825, was
a student and frequent exhibitor at the Royal
Academy. He also contributed to the Suffolk
Street and British Institution Galleries between
1840 and 1870, and held an art mastership in
connection with the Glasgow school of design for
many years. He died May 4, 1885.



native of Flanders, who went when young to
Bologna. He was educated in the school of Guido
Reni. He painted some pictures for the churches
at Bologna, especially for that of Gesii e Maria,
which partake of the style of his master, with
something of the vigour of Guercino. He resided
during a great part of his life at Venice, where
there are several of his works, the most esteemed
of which is an altar-piece in the church of the
Carmelites, representing some Saints of that order.
In the Bologna Gallery are four works by him :
a ' St. Agnes,' a ' Virgin,' ' The Apparition of the
Virgin to St. Augustine and others ' (from the



church of Gesii e Maria), and ' St. John the Baptist

painter born in Paris, October 5, 1848. la early
childhood he showed great talent for drawing ;
and fortunately this was encouraged by his family.
When his term of schooling came to an end he
entered the studio of Meissonnier, whose favourite
pupil he soon became. He sent in his first contri-
bution to the Salon of 1867. It was entitled 'A
Corner of the Studio ' (Meissonnier's studio), which
received but scant notice. But the following year
the critics spoke in terms of high praise concerning
his ' Halt of the Drums,' and their eulogy was con-
firmed in 1869 by the marked advance in his art
made by the young painter, his 'Repose during
the Manoauvres' being, in fact, the success of that
year's Salon. On the other hand his ' Engagement
between Cossacks and Guards, 1814,' exhibited at
the Salon in 1870, did not meet with such favour-
able notice. Called to serve with the colours during
the Franco-German war, Detaille acted as secretary
to General Pajol, and later to General Appert, a
post which gave him ample opportunity to study
military life. The jury were obliged to reject his
picture, ' Les Vainqueurs,' submitted to the Salon
in 1872, but nevertheless they accorded it a
recompense. His remarkable canvas, ' Charge of
the 1st Hussars, 1807,' was acquired for the Mus^e
oVu Luxembourg. M. Detaille, who, for military
subjects, stands in the very first rank, gained two
medals in 1869 and 1870 ; a second-class medal in
1872 ; a medal of honour in 1888, a Grand Prix
at the Universal Exhibition of 1889. He was
decorated with the Legion of Honour on November
3, 1873, being promoted to the rank of officer
on July 13, 1881. He published an album for
children, ' Les bonnes ide'es de Mile. Lili.' ; and a
number of his designs and sketches have been
reproduced by different modern processes. Two
large folio volumes, ' L'arm^e franfaise : Types et
Uniformes, 1 a sumptuous work, were illustrated by
him in 1885-8. He painted with Alphonse de
Neuville the ' Panorama de Champigny ' and the
' Panorama de Rdzonville.' He has been since
1892 a member of the Academie des Beaux Arts,
President of the Society of French Artists, but
has entirely given up painting.


pupil of David, Gue'rin, Gros, and Girodet, was born
at Dampierre in 1794, and was a painter of history
and portraits, but distinguished himself more in
genre pieces. His pleasing scenes of family life
are spirited and carefully executed. 'The Orphan,'
'The YoungConscript,'and 'TheWounded Student'
are considered his best paintings. He died in
Paris, in 1874.

DETREZ, AMBROISE, who was born in Paris in
1811, studied at Lille, and subsequently became
Director of the Painting School at Valenciennes,
where he died in 1863. In the Lille Museum are
a ' Presentation in the Temple ' and two Landscapes
by him.


painter of Wiirzburg, who in 1619 became a pupil
of Biiler, and was admitted in 1624 into the Brother-
hood of St. Luke. He painted the ' Triumph of
Death ' in the choir of St. Peter's Church at Wiirz-
burg, and a votive picture in the cloister of the

DEUREN, 0. VAN, is only known by his signa-
ture, and the date 1624, on a picture of a ' Hermit '
now in the Dresden Gallery.

DE URER, LUDWIG, a son of Peter F. Deurer, was
born at Mannheim in 1806, and studied at Nurem-
berg, Munich, and Rome. He was an excellent
painter of historical subjects, and painted 'The
Knights of Malta before Jerusalem.' He died in

DEURER, PETER FERDINAND, a painter of history
and portraits, who was born at Mannheim in 1779,
studied art at Diisseldorf and Cassel. For saving
the pictures of the gallery of his native town, during
the siege by the French, he was made director of it
and professor at the Academy. In 1826 he went
to Rome and made a copy of Raphael's ' Burial of
Christ,' which copy is now in the Art Hall at
Carlsruhe. He died at Kissingen in 1844.


DE VADDER, LODEWIJK, was born at Brussels
about 1560. It is not known by whom he was
instructed, but he may be ranked amongst the
ablest landscape painters of his country. From
the grandeur of his style, and the picturesque
beauty of his scenery, it is probable that he
resided some time in Italy, where he appears
to have made the works of Titian the particular
objects of his study, as his best productions bear
a striking resemblance to the landscapes of that
master. The forms of his rocks and trees are
noble and select, and his distances are distinguished
by a vapoury degradation. The pictures of De
Vadder are deservedly esteemed in his native
country, where they are found in the choicest
collections. His merit would have been more
generally known in England, had not his works
been frequently imposed upon the public under
borrowed names. He is said to have died at Brus-
sels about 1623, but his death occurred probably
earlier. A ' Landscape ' by him is in the Darm-
stadt Gallery. There are a few spirited etchings
of landscapes by this artist, executed in the style
of Lucas van Uden.



DEVEMY, Louis, who was born at Lille in 1808,
first practised as an advocate. He adopted art as a
profession in 1845, and established himself in Paris
in 1852. He died there in 1874. A picture of ' Still
Life ' by him is in the Museum of his native city.

the son of the secretary of the Schools of Design
(now enlarged into the Science and Art Depart-
ment), and was an artist of the greatest promise,
who died in 1854 at the very early age of twenty-
six. He was associated with the Pre-Raphaelites ;
a great friend of Rossetti, and nominated for the
place in the B.R.P. left vacant by the resignation
of Collinson. It was Deverell who introduced
Rossetti to Miss Siddal, who was at that time
sitting to him for ' Viola,' and who afterwards
became Mrs. Rossetti. His notable works were :
' A Scene from " Twelfth Night " ' ; ' A Lady with a
Bird-cage,' at one time in the Leathart Collection ;
'A Scene from "As you Like It,'" which Rossetti
finished after the death of the artist ; and ' The
Doctor's Last Visit,' on which Deverell was work-
ing when he died, and which he was only just able
to complete. He was a remarkably good-looking
man, very genial, clever, and popular, and would
have greatly distinguished himself had he lived.







i i

















who was born in Paris in 1805, was a brother of
Achille Deveria ; he frequented the school of
Girodet. Besides several historical pieces, he
painted for the Museum at Versailles, the ceilings
in the Louvre, the Palais Royal, and Notre-Dame
de Lorette. His portraits of Marshals Brissac and
Crevecceur are at Versailles. His own is in the
Uffizi ; and the Louvre possesses his ' Birth of
Henri IV.' (1827). His ' Death of Joan of Arc ' is
in the Museum at Angers. He died at Pau in 1865.

in Paris in 1810, was a painter and lithographer.
He was a pupil of Lafitte and of Girodet. His
subjects were mostly of a religious character, and
painted in a pleasing manner. He died in Paris
in 1857. His best claim to notice, however, rests
upon his successful administration of the depart-
ment of engravings in the Bibliotheque Nationale,
to the direction of which he was appointed in 1849.
Before that date chaos had reigned supreme, and
it was due to his patient labour, as well as to his
refined taste and sound learning, that order by
degrees took its place.


DEVIS, ANTON? T., an English landscape
painter, the brother of Arthur Devis, was born in
1729. He exhibited a few times at the Society of
Arts and at the Royal Academy. During the latter
part of his life he lived at Albury, in Surrey,
where he died in 1817. His works are in the
early manner of water-colour drawings. There is
a Landscape by him, dated 1772, in the South
Kensington Museum.

DEVIS, ARTHUR, was born at Preston in Lanca-
shire, about the year 1711, and was the pupil of
Peter Tillemans. He painted in a variety of
ways, sometimes portraits, but mostly small whole-
lengths and conversation pieces. He was an ex-
hibitor at the Society's Rooms, in the Strand, in
1761, but never joined either the Chartered Society
or the Royal Academy. He died at Brighton in

DEVIS, ARTHUR WILLIAM, a portrait and his-
torical painter, was born in London in 1763, and
received his first instruction in art from his father,
Arthur Devis. He made rapid progress, and ob-
tained, at an earlier age than is usual, a silver medal
from the Royal Academy, and, what was of more
' importance, the good opinion of Sir Joshua Rey-
nolds. In his twentieth year he was appointed
by the East India Company draughtsman to
accompany Captain Wilson in the ' Antelope ' in a
voyage round the world. He afterwards went
to Bengal, where he continued the exercise of
his art, but returned to England in 1795, and
painted for Mr. Alexander Davison some his-
torical pictures. His life was one of vicissitudes
and difficulties, and was terminated by a stroke of
apoplexy in 1822. Devis, as an historical painter,
was equal, if not superior, to any of his day, but
circumstances did not conduce to bring his powers
into action. His picture of the ' Detection of Babing-
ton's Conspiracy ' was painted in competition with
some of the most eminent members of the Royal
Academy, West, Northcote, Copley, Smirke, Wilkie,
and others; and, unquestionably, was the best in
composition, delineation of character, truth of
colour, and management of chiaroscuro. His own
portrait is in the composition. The National Por-
trait Gallery possesses his portrait of Governor
Herbert, painted at Calcutta in 1791.

DE VISCH, MATTHIAS, was born at the village


of Reningen, in 1702. He studied under Joseph
van den Kerkhove at Bruges, became a student of
the Academy, and obtained the first prize in 1721.
He went to Paris in 1723 ; thence to Italy, where
he remained nine years. On his return to Bruges
he painted the picture of ' Hagar and Ishmael in
the Desert ' for the church of St. James, and opened
a school of design ; and he is remembered more
for his zeal in furthering the knowledge of paint-
ing among the youth of Bruges than for any
superior talent shown by him in the practice of it.
He painted the portrait of Maria Theresa for the
city of Bruges, and several for other communities
of Flanders. He collected materials for a history
of painting in Belgium, which he gave to
Descamps, who made use of them for his 'Lives
of the Flemish Painters.' De Visch died in 1765,
it is said from over-exertion in endeavouring to
make the students of his own Academy rival those
of that of Antwerp, upon the restoration of the
former after its destruction by fire in 1755.

graver, was born at Bruges in 1795. He received
his first instruction in drawing in the studio of
Odevaere, after whose ' Narcisse ' he executed in
1820 his first plate. Having obtained from the
King of the Netherlands a pension for four years,
he went to Paris, and there, under the supervision
of Dien, he engraved the ' Battle of Nieuport.'
His chief work was the ' Ascension,' after Rubens,
upon which he was engaged for many years. He
also engraved portraits of Raphael, Rembrandt,
Odevaere (after Diez), and Count Frederic de
Merode. There are likewise many drawings in
black chalk and several lithographic portraits by
him. Besides these he executed in lithography
some of the masterpieces of Flemish art which
adorn his native city Memlinc's ' Shrine of St.
Ursula,' the triptych of the ' Mystic Marriage of
St. Catharine,' the ' Adoration of the Magi,' and the
' Vierge a la pomme.' He died at Bruges in 1850.
DE VLIEGER, SIMON, was born at Rotterdam
about 1600, and acquired a considerable reputation
as a painter of sea-pieces and landscapes, although
it is not known by whom he was instructed. He
had the credit of being the master of Willem van
de Velde, the younger, and, though his merit was
eclipsed by the brilliant talents of his disciple, his
pictures are deservedly placed in the choicest col-
lections. In 1634 he entered the Guild at Delft,
and in 1643 became a citizen of Amsterdam. He
was still living in 1G56, but died probably at Am-
sterdam shortly before 1660. This painter deserves
more notice than has been bestowed on him. His
selections are picturesque, his compositions are not
crowded with unnecessary objects, his execution
is remarkably free, and in the representation of the
effects of a gale, or fresh breeze, he approaches the
grandeur of Ruisdael. Unfortunately his colours,
in many instances, have faded, or vanished alto-
gether, particularly in the sky, so that his pictures
appear cold or murky ; still a master mind and hand
may be discerned. He etched about twenty plates.
The following are some of his principal works :
Amsterdam. Museum. The Regatta. 1655.
Antwerp. Museum. A Calm Sea.
Berlin. Gallery. A Sea-piece.

Dresden. Gallery. Storm at Sea.

Munich. Gallery. Storm at Sea.

Petersburg. Hermitage. The Arrival of the Prince of

Orange at Flushing.
Vienna. Gallery. Calm Sea, with many Ships (a




DE VLIEGHER, SEBAFYN, a Belgian painter, was
born at Eecloo in 1806. He was at first a pupil of
Antoon De Poorter, afterwards of Geirnaert, and
finally a student of the Academy at Ghent. He
painted genre subjects and portraits, and became
director of the Academy at Alost, where he died
in 1848.

DE VOIS, ADRIAAN, or AST, was born at Leyden
in 1641. His father was a celebrated organist, and
was desirous of bringing his son up to the same
profession ; but the latter had so little taste for
music, and so decided a disposition for painting,
that he was induced to place him under the tuition
of Nicolaes Knupfer, a painter of some repute at
Utrecht, with whom he continued two years, when
he returned to Leyden, and there became a disciple
of Abraham van den Tempel. De Vois, however,
did not adopt the manner of either of his instruct-
ors ; he formed an intimacy with Pieter van
Slingeland, who had been a disciple of Gerard
Dou, whose highly-finished style he followed with
the greatest success. Although he occasionally
attempted history on a small scale, his best pro-
ductions are portraits, conversations, and domestic
subjects, which are little inferior to the works
of Metsu or of Mieris. His drawing is very cor-
rect, and his colouring clear and transparent, with
a perfect intelligence of the chiaroscuro. The
pictures of this artist are extremely scarce, as they
were very carefully finished, and therefore few ;
and he is said to have passed several years of his
life in idleness and dissipation, in consequence of
his having married a lady of considerable fortune.
He died at Leyden ; Balkema says in 1698. The
following are some of his principal works :

Amsterdam. Museum.











The Fish Merchant.

The Violin Player.

A Lady.

An Old Woman.

Venus aud Adonis. 1678.

A Man smoking and drinking.

Landscape with Women bathing.


A Man in a grey hat.
A Shepherdess.
Head of an old Man.
Portrait of a Huntsman.
A Drinker.
A Smoker.
Portrait of a Man seated at his



DE VOS. There were several painters of this
name, nearly contemporaries, but of different fami-
lies. As most of them painted landscapes, por-
traits, and animals, their names and works have
been confounded. Among them, in addition to
those in the following- articles, are, a second Pieter,
a second Willem, a Hendrik, and other baptismal
names, but there is very little information to enable
the inquirer to distinguish their works. A race
of painters of the name continues in Holland to
this day.

DE VOS, COKNELIS, was born at Hulst aboul
1585, and became master in the Guild of St. Luke
at Antwerp in 1608, having been mentioned in
1599 in the ' Liggeren ' as a pupil of Remeeus ; he
was dean of the Guild in 1619-20. He painted
historical pictures and portraits, the latter some-
what in the style of Rubens. He died in 1651
He was a friend of Van Dyck, who painted his
portrait. The following are some of his principa,
works :

Antwerp. Museum. Portrait of Abraham Grapheus,
Messenger of the Corporation
of St. Luke. 1620.
v Triptych Adoration of the Magi.

(From the Cathedral, Antwerp.)
Jerlin Gallery. Portrait of a Gentleman and his

Wife. 1629.

Portrait of his Daughter.

Srussels. Museum. Portrait of the Artist and his

Jassel. Gallery. Portrait of a Man.

Portrait of Salomon Cock.

Madrid. Gallery. Venus rising from the Sea
Triumph of Bacchus.

Apollo and the Python.

Munich. Gallery. Family Picture.
Petersburg. Hermitage. Family Picture.
Rotterdam. Museum. An Allegory.
Vienna. Gallery. Baptism of Cloris.

DE VOS, CORNELIS, a painter of accessories in
other artists' productions, was, in 1633-34, received
into the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp, as a master's
ion. He is no relation to the celebrated Cornelis
De Vos.

DE VOS, JAN, lived at Antwerp in the middle of
the 17th century. A portrait of a Man by him is in
the Rotterdam Museum.

DE VOS, LAMBERTUS, a native of Mechlin, who
entered the Guild of St. Luke in that city in 1563,
went to Constantinople, and there executed in 1574
a volume of drawings of ' Oriental Costumes,' which
is preserved in the Library at Bremen.

DE VOS, MARTEN, an eminent Flemish painter,
was born at Antwerp in 1531. He was the son of
Pieter De Vos, an artist of sufficient ability to be
received into the Academy at Antwerp in 1519,
and from whom he received his first instruction in
painting. He had afterwards the advantage of
frequenting the school of Frans Floris, under
whom he studied until he was twenty-three years
of age, when he determined to visit Italy, and
passed some years at Rome, where he improved
his style of design by studying with attention
the works of the great painters of the Roman
school. The charm of Venetian colouring led
him to visit Venice, where he had the good
fortune to win the esteem and friendship of Tin-
toretto, who not only instructed him in the best
principles of colouring, but employed him as a
coadjutor to paint the landscapes in his pictures.
With the aid of such advice and assistance, De
Vos became an admirable colourist, and gained
such reputation, that he was employed in painting
the portraits of several of the illustrious family of
the Medici, as well as some historical subjects
which added to his fame.

After an absence of eight years, De Vos returned
to Flanders, where the celebrity he had acquired
in Italy excited public curiosity, and he was com-
missioned to paint several altar-pieces for the
churches at Antwerp and other cities of the Nether-
lands. He was also much employed as a portrait
painter, and there is an appearance of nature in
his heads which was unequalled at the period at
which he lived. He was received into the Guild
of St. Luke at Antwerp in 1559, and died in his
native city in 1603. The following are some of his
principal works :

Antwerp. Mas. Christ on the Cross.

A Triptych : The Triumph of ~|

Christ. 1590. Formerly

A Triptych : Incredulity of in the

St. Thomas. Cathedral.


Antwerp. Jlfus. Birth of Christ. (From the church of the

Capuchins at Mechlin.}

A Triptych : The Tribute Money, &c.

1601. (From the church of St. Andrew at

A Triptych : St. Luke painting the por-

trait of the Virgin, &c. 1602. (Parts
of the icings are by Otho van Veen and
Marten Pepyn. From the altar of the
Guild of St. Luke in the cathedral.)
Polyptych: St. Francis of Assisi receiv-

ing the Stigmata, &c. (From the church
of the Recollets, A ntwerp.)

Temptation of St. Anthony. 1591. (Form-

erly the centre-piece of a triptych over the
altar of St. A nthony in the cathedral.)
Brussels. Mm. The Wings of a Triptych. (Portraits of

the Donor and his Wife.)
Florence. Uffizi. His own Portrait.


Madrid. Gall. Raising of Lazarus.
Samson and Delilah.

Seville. Mus. The Last Judgment.

The works of Marten De Vos bad considerable
influence on art in his time ; but many of them
were destroyed by the Iconoclasts.

His son, MARTEN DE Vos, who was also a painter,
was born at Antwerp in 1576. He was admitted
into the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp in 1607, and
died in 1613.

DE VOS, PAULUS, the brother of Cornells De
Vos, was born at Hulst, about the year 1600, and
studied under Remeeus. From the subjects and
style of his pictures, it is probable that he was a
disciple of Frans Snyders. He painted animals and
hunting scenes with great ability, and his works
are little, if at all, inferior to those of that dis-
tinguished artist. His animals, particularly his
dogs, are drawn with correctness and spirit, and
his colouring is clear and harmonious. He died
in 1654. There are in the Madrid Gallery no less
than fifteen of his works, and in the Hermitage
at St. Petersburg there are five.

DE VOS, PIETER, the elder, a Flemish painter,
went to Antwerp from Holland, but whether from
Gouda or Leyden is uncertain. His name occurs
in the archives of the Guild of St. Luke in 1519,
and he was dean of the Guild in 1536. He is
believed to have died in 1566. He was the father
of Marten De Vos.

DE VOS, PIETER, the younger, the brother of
Marten De Vos, was a native of Antwerp. He
entered the Guild of St. Luke in 1554, and is
said to have been still living in 1590. He
painted historical subjects, but his works are little

DE VOS, SIMON, was born at Antwerp in 1603,
and entered the Guild of St. Luke in 1620. He
had the advantage of studying in the school of
Rubens, under whom he became a very eminent
painter of history and portraits. There are some
altar-pieces by him in the churches at Antwerp,
which have been sometimes mistaken for the works
of his illustrious instructor. Such are his picture

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