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of the ' Resurrection,' in the cathedral ; the ' De-
scent from the Cross,' in the church of St. Andrew ;
and ' St. Norbert receiving the Sacrament,' in the
abbey of St. Michael. Sir Joshua Reynolds com-
mends this picture, and speaks of him as a portrait
painter in the following terms : " De Vos was
particularly excellent in portraits. There is at
Antwerp his own portrait, painted by himself, in
black, leaning on the back of a chair, with a scroll
of blue paper in his hand, so highly finished, in the
broad style of Correggio, that nothing can exceed
F 2



it." He died in 1676. Besides the above works
the following may be noticed :

Berlin. Gallery. The Chastisement of Love.
Rotterdam. Museum. Portrait of a Man. 1640.
Portrait of a Man. 1645.

DE VOS, WILI.EM, the son of Pieter De Vos, the
younger, and nephew and scholar of Marten De
Vos, painted historical subjects in the style of his
instructor, acquiring therein considerable reputa-
tion. He was born probably at Antwerp, and in
1593 entered the Guild of St. Luke, of which he
became dean in 1600. His portrait was painted
and etched by Van Dyck among those of the dis-
tinguished artists of his time.

DEVOSGE, ANATOLE, the son of Franfois De-
vosge, was born at Dijon in 1770, and painted, after
the manner of his master, David, several pictures,
the subjects of which were taken from the Old
Testament, and from mythology and Greek and
Roman history. He succeeded his father as director
of the School of Art at Dijon, where he died in 1850.

DEVOSGE, FRANCOIS, was a French historical
painter, founder of the School of Design, Painting,
and Sculpture at Dijon. He was born at Gray in
1732, and taught by his father, Coustou, and Des-
hays, the painter ; his principal works are, ' The
Nativity,' ' St. Angela,' 'St. Peter, kneeling,' 'The
Assumption of the Virgin,' ' The Martyrdom of
St. Marcel,' &c. He died at Dijon in 1811.

DE VOUW, JOHANNES, was a Dutch landscape
painter, of whom nothing more is known than that
he lived in Rotterdam, and died not later than
1691. He painted landscapes with trees and build-
ings, and also drew maps and plans.

DE VREE, NICOLAAS, a flower painter, born at
Utrecht about the year 1650, was celebrated in
his day for the lightness of his pencil, and the fresh
and natural brilliancy of his colours ; his works,
however, are but little known out of Holland. He
died at Alkmaar in 1702. In the Hermitage at
St. Petersburg is a ' Park,' by him, dated 1677.

DE VRIENT, FRANS, commonly known as FRANS
FLORIS (the name of Floris having been borne by
his great-grandfather, re-assumed by his father,
and used by himself in signing his paintings), was
born at Antwerp about 1517, and, until he was
twenty years of age, studied sculpture under his
uncle Claudius De Vrient. His love of painting
induced him to change the chisel for the palette, and
he became a scholar of Lambert Lombard, from
whose instruction he derived great advantage. He
afterwards visited Italy, where he studied atten-
tively the works of Michelangelo and the antique.
After passing some years at Rome, he returned to
Flanders, with an ample collection of drawings he
had made from the objects most worthy of admira-
tion. His first productions exhibited a grander
and more correct design, and a superior style of
composition to what had before been witnessed by
his countrymen, and he acquired the appellation
of the ' Flemish Raphael.' He was patronized
by the Counts of Hoorn and Egmont, and was
received as a master into the Guild of St. Luke
at Antwerp in 1540. When the Emperor Charles
V. made his entry into Antwerp, in 1549, Floris
was engaged to paint the triumphal arches ; and
he is said to have finished seven figures as large
as life, with different attributes, in one day. On
a similar occasion, when Philip II. visited the
Low Countries, he painted in a few hours a large
picture representing ' Victory,' with several figures
of slaves, and the attributes of War and Peace.

67



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Of this subject he etched a plate, dated 1552. His
death occurred at Antwerp in 1570.

Frans Floris was the founder of a large school.
He usually signed his paintings in full, or with a
monogram composed of three Fs (Frans Floris
Fecit). Among his extant works are the following :

Amsterdam. Museum. The Nine Muses.

n Christ and the Little Children.

A "Water Wedding at Middelburg.

Antwerp. Museum. The Fall of Lucifer (painted in

1554 for the altar of the Fencers

in the cathedral of Antwerp; his

best work).

M The Adoration of the Shepherds.

Kyckaert Aertsz, the painter, as

St. Luke.
Berlin. Gallery. Vulcan ensnaring Mars and

Venus. 1547.
J} Venus and Cupid.

Lot and his Daughters.

Brussels. Museum. The Last Judgment {painted for
JYotre-Dame des J'ictoires an.
Sablon at Brussels). 1566.

M ., The Adoration of the Magi. (A

triptych, which was probably his
last tcorAr, and was Jinished by
Hieronymus Francken in 1571.)
Copenhagen. Gallery. Cain ajid Abel.
Dresden. Gallery. Adoration of the Shepherds.
The Emperor Vitellius.

The Laughing Maiden.
., Lot and his Daughters.

., Christ carrying his Cross.

Florence. l'ffi :l - Adam and Eve. 1560.

Hague. Gallery. Venus and Adonis.

Madrid. Gallery. The Deluge.

Two Portraits.

Petersburg. Hermitage. The Three Ages of Man.
Vienna. Gallery. Adam and Eve under the Tree of

Knowledge.
Adam and Eve driven out of

Paradise.
The Holy Family.

As an etcher Frans Floris executed, among other
plates, 'Victory,' and 'Christ washing the Dis-
ciples' Feet ' : both from his own designs. His
two sons, JAN BAPTISTA and FRANS DE VRIENT,
were both painters. The first was assassinated at
Brussels by the Spaniards ; the second, who was
born at Antwerp about 1545, settled at Rome, and
became noted for his easel pictures. They were
both living in 1579.

DE VR1ES, ADRIAAN, a Flemish portrait painter,
was admitted as a master into the Guild of St.
Luke at Antwerp in 1634-35. His works possess
considerable merit, and have been attributed to
Ferdinand Bol, to Van Dyck, and to Rembrandt.
He died subsequently to 1650. In the Dresden
Gallery is a male portrait by him, dated 1639.
In the Rotterdam Museum is his portrait of
Adriaen Adriaensz Vroesen of Rotterdam, dated
1639, and in the Berlin Gallery is a Man's por-
trait ascribed to him.

Some confusion appears to exist between the
works of this artist and those of ABRAHAM DE
VRIES, who was admitted into the Guild of St.
Luke at the Hague in 1644, and died before 1662.

DE VRIES, JAN (or HANS) VREDEMAN, was
born at Leeuwarden, in East Friesland, in 1527.
He was sent, when young, to Amsterdam, where
he became a scholar of Reyer Gerritsz, under whom
he continued five years, and applied himself with
great assiduity to the study of perspective. In
1549 he went to Antwerp, where he was employed,
with others, in painting the triumphal arches which
were erected on the public entry of the Emperor
Charles V. and his son Philip into that city ; on

68



which occasion he proved himself an artist of
considerable ability. He was much employed in
decorating the saloons of the principal mansions
with perspective views, which he designed with
such truth and effect that the illusion was com-
plete. He travelled through Germany and Italy,
and he everywhere met with encouragement and
employment. After his return to Antwerp, the
latter part of his life was principally occupied in
making designs of architectural and other subjects
for the print-sellers, particularly Hieronimus Cock,
who published a great variety of prints from his
designs. We have a book of monuments by him,
entitled ' Csenotaphiorum, tumulorum et mortuorum
monumentorum vari* formse,' published at Ant-
werp in 1563. The plates are etched and finished
with the graver, with considerable intelligence. In
the Vienna Gallery is the ' Interior of a Church' by
him ; and the Bordeaux Museum has a Landscape.

DE VRIES, PAULDS, the eldest son of Jan
Vredeman De Vries, was born at Antwerp in 1554,
and died in 1598. He was specially employed
at Prague in the service of the Emperor.

DE VRIES, ROELOF, was a Dutch landscape
painter, who flourished at Haarlem from about
1643 to about 16G9. Buildings are often seen in
his works. There are by him :

Berlin. Gallery. Three Landscapes.

Frankfort. Stadel Inst. Four Landscapes.

Vienna. Liechtenstein Gall. Landscape.

Czernin Gall. Landscape.

DE VRIES, SALOMON, born at Antwerp in 1556,
was the second son of Jan Vredeman De Vries, by
whom he was instructed. He painted landscapes
ornamented with ruins, which are not badly com-
posed, but their colouring has become dark, pro-
ducing an unpleasant effect, and diminishing their
value. He died at the Hague in 1604. His son,
PIETER DE VRIES, who was born in 1587, was also
a landscape painter.

DE VRIES, SIMON, (or SIMON FRISIUS,) a Dutch
engraver, was apparently of the same family as
Jan Vredeman De Vries. He was born at Leeu-
warden, in 1580, and is regarded as one of the
first who brought etching to perfection. Abraham
Bosse, in his treatise on the art of engraving,
observes, that the first artist to whom he was
indebted for intelligence <vas Simon Frisius, whom
he thinks entitled to great credit, as being one of
the first that handled the point with freedom and
facility. His etchings are bold and masterly ; and
in his hatchings he approaches the neatness and
strength of the graver. The prints of De Vries
are scarce, and are much esteemed. The small
figures which he occasionally introduces into his
landscapes are correctly drawn. He frequently
marked his plates S. F. fecit, but sometimes with
the word fecit only. The following are his prin-
cipal works :

A set of twelve small heads of female Saints and Sibyls ;

after his own designs.

A set of Portraits ; after JTendrik Uondius.
A set of twelve plates of Birds and Butterflies ; after

Marcus Geerarts.
Twenty-five Views and Landscapes ; entitled, Typo-

graphia variarum Megionum ; after Matthys Bril. 1611.
A mountaiuous Landscape on the Sea-coast, with

figures ; after Hendrik Goltzius.
A Landscape, with a Tower ; after the same. 1608.
A Landscape, with the story of Tobit and the Angel ;

after P. Lastman.
A Landscape, with the Flight into Egypt; after H

Hondius.



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



A Landscape, with two pastoral figures ; highly finished
and very scarce.

DE WAAL. See DE WAEL.
DE WAARD, ANTONIE, born at the Hague in
1689, was a scholar of Simon van der Does ; he
afterwards studied in Paris. He is mentioned as
a painter of historical subjects, portraits, land-
scapes, and animals, and also as a decorator o1
the interiors of apartments. Of his life nothing
further is recorded, and his works are scarcely
known out of Holland, but it is said that they are
esteemed there, and obtain high prices. He diec
at the Hague in 1751.

DE WAEL, CORNELIS, (or DE WAAL,) a younger
son of the elder Jan Baptist De Wael, was born a)
Antwerp in 1594. He received his first instruc-
tion in the art from his father ; but he afterwards
accompanied his brother, Lucas De Wael, to Italy,
and resided some time at Genoa, where he painted
some pictures for the churches, but he chiefly
excelled in painting battles, marches, skirmishes
of cavalry, and processions, in which he gained a
distinguished reputation. He was much employed
by the Duke of Arschot, and painted several of
his best pictures for Philip III., King of Spain, by
whom they were held in the highest estimation.
He died at Genoa in 1662. In the Vienna Gallery is
a ' Passage of the Red Sea ' by him, and in the Cassel
Gallery is a ' Venetian Market Crier.' We have by
this artist several very spirited etchings from his
own compositions, among which are the following :

The Blind ; 12 plates.

The Market Sellers ; 16 plates.

Domestic Interiors ; 20 plates.

The Four Seasons.

The Five Senses ; 5 plates.

The Slaves ; 12 plates.

DE WAEL, JAN BAPTIST, (or DE WAAL,) was
born at Antwerp in 1557, and was a disciple of
Frans Francken the elder. He painted historical
subjects in the style of his master, and acquired
sufficient celebrity to be received a member of the
Academy in his native city, where he died in 1633.
Van Dyck painted his portrait. His pictures are
very rare.

DE WAEL, JAN BAPTIST, (or DE WAAL,) a
younger artist of the name, is stated to have been
either the son or nephew of Cornelis De Wael. We
have by him some slight etchings, among which is
a set of eight prints, representing the ' History of
the Prodigal Son,' from the designs of Cornelis
Be Wael, executed in 1658.

DE WAEL, LUCAS JANSZEN, (or DE WAAL,)
the eon of the elder Jan Baptist De Wael, was
born at Antwerp in 1591, and first instructed in
art by his father ; but, as his genius led him to
landscape, he was afterwards placed under the
tuition of Jan Brueghel. He followed the style
of his preceptor with great success, and, on leaving
that master, he travelled to Italy, and passed some
time at Genoa, where his works were highly
esteemed, and he met with very flattering en-
couragement. Although his pictures occasionally
represent battles and attacks of cavalry, which are
well composed, and touched with great spirit and
animation, bis most esteemed works are his moun-
tainous landscapes and waterfalls, in which the
scenery is extremely picturesque. He died at
Antwerp in 1676.

DE WEDIG, GOTTHARDT, a painter of still-life
subjects, flourished at Cologne about 1630. An
example of his art is in the Darmstadt Gallery.



DE WEERT, ADRIAEN, was born, according to
Descamps, at Brussels about 1536, and studied at
Antwerp under Christiaen van de Queborn, a land-
scape painter little known. He afterwards visited
Italy, where he passed some years, and applied
himself especially to the study of the works of
Parmigiano. On his return to Flanders, he exe-
cuted several pictures in the graceful style of that
master, particularly a series of the 'Life of the
Virgin,' and had acquired great reputation, when the
troubles in the Low Countries obliged him, in 1566,
to quit Brussels and take refuge at Cologne, where
he died soon afterwards. All the notices of this
artist are however unsatisfactory.

DE WEERT, JACOB, who flourished about the year
1605, was probably a native of the Low Countries,
though he chiefly resided in Paris. He was prin-
cipally employed by the booksellers, and engraved
several frontispieces and other book ornaments in
a_neat, though tasteless style. We have also by
him a set of prints from his own designs, repre-
senting the ' Life and Passion of Christ,' published
by Jean Le Clerc, with French verses to each print

DE WETT. See also DUWETT.

DE WETT, JACOB, was a Dutch painter, who
worked at Holyrood Palace between 1674 and 1686,
arid there painted the series of apocryphal portraits
of the Scottish kings.

DE WETTE, FRANS, to whom are assigned, in
Dr. Waagen's edition of Kugler, two pictures in
the Schleissheim Gallery, ' The Three Young Men
in the Fiery Furnace' and ' The Raising of Lazarus,'
may perhaps be identical with Jacob Willemsz
De Wet, who was established at Haarlem in 1636,
was master in the Guild at Alkmaar in 1637, and
was living in that town as late as 1671. He
executed Biblical and mythological scenes in the
manner of Rembrandt, among which are :

The Adulteress before Christ (Augsburg Gallery').
Christ in the Temple. 1635. (Brunswick Museum).
The Burning of Troy.

DE WILDE, FRANS, was a Dutch engraver, who
was born about the year 1680. He resided at
Amsterdam, where he etched a few very small
plates, which are executed with great neatness and
spirit, apparently from his own designs. Among
others are the following:

The Angel appearing to Abraham. 1705.

Venus rising from the Sea.

The Fable of the "Wolf and the Dog ; circular. 1704

A View of the City of Chalons.

A View of a Sea-port.

A Landscape, with figures.

DE WILDE, MARIA, was probably a relation of
Frans De Wilde. She engraved a set of fifty
elates from antique gems, which were published
at Amsterdam in 1703.

DE WILDE, SAMUEL, an English portrait painter,
was born in 1747. He painted both in oil and
water-colour, and exhibited dramatic portraits at
he Royal Academy between 1788 and 1821. He
Jied in 1832. Several of his portraits are at the
Garrick Club, and amongst his other works are :

William Farren.
John Emery.

Harley as Kent iu ' King Lear.' 1794. (South Kensing-
ton Museum.)

DE WINT, PETER, a .water-colour painter, was
torn at Stone, in Staffordshire, in 1784. He was
escended from a Dutch family which had settled
n America. Although intended for his father's
jrofession that of a physician he preferred

69



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



to follow art, and studied under John Raphael
Smith, the engraver, in whose studio he became
friendly with Hilton, the historical painter, and
brother of his future wife. In 1807 he entered
the schools of the Royal Academy, where he occa-
sionally exhibited up to 1828. He joined the
Water-Colour Society as an Associate in 1810,
becoming a full member in 1812, and it was here
that most of his works appeared. He rarely quitted
his native country, which furnished the subjects of
thegreater portion of his works, and the level country
of Lincolnshire had a great charm for him. He
occasionally painted in oils, and four specimens
of his work in this medium, besides a large col-
lection of his water-colour drawings, are in the
South Kensington Museum. He died in London
in 1849, and was buried at the Savoy Chapel.

Twenty-three drawings by De Wint were be-
queathed to the National" Gallery by Mr. Henderson
in 1880, and among them are :

Lincoln Cathedral.
Bray on the Thames.
1 1 ii ins of Lincoln Castle.
Harvest Time, Lancashire.

The water-colour drawings in the South Ken-
sington Museum include:

Thornbury Castle.

Gateway at Lincoln.

The Cricketers.

Nottingham.

Walton-on-Thames.

Hay Harvest.

Mountain Tarn.

Ferry on the Severn. 1840.

Haddon Hall. 1839.

Shap Fells, Westmoreland.

Wilsford, Lincolnshire.

Rick Making, near Lincoln.

Tutbury Castle.

View near Salt Hill, Bucks.

Lincoln Cathedral.

Torksey Castle.

Cowes Castle.

DE WINTER, JlLLIS, was born at Leeuwarden
in 1650, and was a scholar of Richard Brakenburg,
whose style he imitated with considerable success.
He painted subjects similar to those of his master,
representing Dutch boors regaling, and the recrea-
tions of the cabaret. His pictures are little known,
except in Holland, and even there are not held in
much estimation. He died at Amsterdam in 1720.

DE WIT, JAKOB, was born at Amsterdam in
1695, and when fourteen years of age was placed
under the tuition of Albert van Spiers, an historical
painter of some eminence, under whom he studied
three years. The desire of contemplating the pro-
ductions of Rubens and Van Dyck, and the other
distinguished masters of the Flemish school, which
embellished the public edifices at Antwerp, in-
duced him to visit that city, where he became a
scholar of Jacob van Hal, a painter of little
celebrity, under whom he did not continue longer
than two years, when he devoted himself entirely
to the study of the works of Rubens and Van
Dyck. In 1712 and 1713 he made drawings from
the paintings by Rubens in the four ceilings of the
Jesuits' church, in thirty-six compartments, which
were destroyed by lightning in 1718, and we are
indebted to De Wit "for the preservation of these
admirable compositions, which were afterwards
engraved from his copies by Jan Punt. He was
principally employed in painting ceilings, and the
decorations of splendid apartments, consisting of

70



emblematical and allegorical subjects, which he
composed with great ingenuity. He was particu-
larly successful in the representation of children,
whom he was fond of introducing into his pic-
tures, generally at their play, and painted in
chiaroscuro.

In 1736 he was employed by the magistrates of
Amsterdam in the embellishment of their great
Council -chamber with subjects from the Old Testa-
ment. He likewise painted several altar-pieces
for the catholic churches in Holland, which are
very creditable performances, and are held in con-
siderable estimation. He died at Amsterdam in
1754. In the Cassel Gallery are four pictures
of the ' Four Seasons ' (represented by Children)
signed and dated 1751 and 1752, and also two
decorative subjects of children. In the Dresden
Gallery is a painting (in imitation of bas-relief) of
' Children with the attributes of the chase,' dated
1753. The Rotterdam Museum possesses two pic-
tures by him, ' Minerva and four Children ' and
' Faith, Hope, and Charity,' in grisaille, dated
1743.

DE WITTE. There are several other artists
of this name, in addition to those cited below, such
as FRANS, and ANTHONIE, who were painters ; and
others who were engravers : but the accounts are
much confused.

DE WITTE, COKNELIS, (or DE WIT,) a landscape
painter of the 16th century, was a brother of Pieter
De Witte, called Pietro Candido.

DE WITTE, EMANUEL, was born at Alkmaar in
1607, and was a scholar of Evert van Aelst, a
painter of still-life. He did not, however, adopt
the style of his instructor, but for some time
applied himself to portrait painting. Not meeting
with the encouragement he expected, he studied
perspective and architecture, and became one of
the most eminent artists of his country in painting
interior views of churches and temples, which he
embellished with figures correctly drawn, and
touched with great spirit. His best pictures
represent the interiors of churches at Amsterdam,
with groups of figures, habited in the dresses of
the time. He died at Amsterdam in 1692. The
following works are by him :

Amsterdam. Museum. Interior of a Church.

Museum. Interior of a Church. 1667.
Interior of the Nieuwekerk, Am-

sterdam.

Interior of the Synagogue, Am-

sterdam. 1680.
Interior of the Church at Delft.
Interior of a Church. 1685.
The Fish Merchant. 1672.



Berlin.



Brussels.
Rotterdam.



Museum,



Museum.



DE WITTE, GASPAB, was born at Antwerp in
1618. He visited Italy, where he remained several
years, and on his return acquired considerable re-
putation in painting small landscapes very highly
finished, in which he generally introduced archi-
tectural ruins, of which he had made sketches
during his residence in Italy. He died at Ant-
werp in 1680 or 1681. In the Antwerp Museum
are two Landscapes by him one with a ' Fortune-
telling 'for subject, dated 1667, and another with
'Christ healing the Blind Man,' dated 1671. In
the Vienna Gallery is a ' Landscape with Ruins of
an Aqueduct.'

DE WITTE, LIEVEN, known also as LIVIENO
DA ANVEESA, was a painter and architect, who
practised at Ghent in the 15th century. He de-
voted himself to buildings and other perspective



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



subjects, but also produced historical pictures. The
windows of the cathedral of St. Bavon in Ghent
were painted from his designs, and he is said to
have worked at the miniatures in the Grimani
Breviary now in the library of St. Mark at Venice.

DE WITTE, PIETEK, called PIETER CANDID, or
PIETRO CANDIDO, was born at Bruges in 1548. It
is not known under whom he studied, but he
travelled to Italy when he was young, and there
formed an intimacy with Giorgio Vasari, whom
he assisted in the works upon which he was
employed in the Vatican. He painted with equal
success in oil and in fresco, and was employed
by the Grand-Duke of Tuscany in several con-
siderable works in the palace at Florence, and
designed some cartoons for tapestry. Maximilian,
Elector of Bavaria, invited him to Munich, where
he passed the remainder of his life. Jan Sadeler
has engraved several prints from the works of
this master, among which are the ' Annunciation,'
' Christ with the Disciples at Einmaus,' the ' Holy
Women at the Tomb of the Saviour,' and the
'Last Supper.' He died at Munich in 1628. In
the Vienna Gallery are the ' Death of St. Ursula,'
and a ' Holy Family and St. Stephen,' by him.

DE WITTE, PIETER, who was well known in
Rome as PETRUS ALBUS, was born at Antwerp in
1620, and died at Rome in 1669. He painted
landscapes in the style of Claude Lorrain.

DEYNUM, J. B. VAN, a Flemish painter, was
born at Antwerp in 1620, and died in 1669. He
excelled in painting historical subjects and land-
scapes in distemper, and was an eminent miniature
portrait painter.

DEYSTER, LODEWYK DE. See DE DEYSTER.

DE' ZAGANELLI, FRANCESCO. See DEI ZAGA-

NELLI.

DEZALLIER D'ARGENVILLE, ANTOINE JO-
SEPH. See DESALLIER D'ARGENVILLE.



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