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at Sea,' in the Berlin Gallery, and his ' Winter
Landscape,' in the Munich Pinakothek, are paintings
worthy of mention.

DAHL, MICHAEL, a Swedish portrait painter,
was born at Stockholm in 1656, and received some
instruction from Ehrenstral, an esteemed Swedish
B 2



artist. At the age of twenty-two he came to
England, but did not at that time remain longer
than a year ; he continued his travels in search of
improvement through France to Italy, where he
studied for some years, and whilst at Rome painted
the portrait of the celebrated Queen Christina of
Sweden. In 1688 he returned to England, where
he found Sir Godfrey Kneller rising to the head of
his profession ; but Dahl possessed sufficient merit
to distinguish himself as no mean competitor.
Queen Anne and Prince George of Denmark both
sat to him. He died in London in 1743. Amongst
his more notable portraits should be mentioned :

Equestrian portrait of Charles XI. of Sweden ( Wind-
sor). Full-length portrait of Queen Anne and her
son (National Portrait Gallery). Portraits of Lady
Anne Harvey, Barbara Lady Longueville, Rachel
Duchess of Devonshire, the Duchess of Ormoiicl,
Anne Countess of Carlisle, Margaret Countess of
Pembroke, Juliana Lady Howe, and Jane Countess
of Portland (all at Petu-orth Park). Mr. Arthur
Vansittart and Anne Lady Coleraine (North Cray
Park, Kent).

DAHLEN, REINER, who was born at Cologne in
1836, was originally brought up as a saddler, but
chose to devote himself to art, and studied at the
Academy of Diisseldorf. He visited England,
North America, and Paris. His works mostly
represent horses, carriages, hunting parties, and
so forth. Although there is a study of nature
exhibited in his paintings, his peculiarly original
style did not meet with much approbation. He
died at Diisseldorf in 1874.

DAHLSTEIN, AUGUSTIN, a German painter who
flourished in the middle of the 18th century, was a
native of Cassel. He visited Sweden and Russia,
and etched a series of 50 plates of the ' Cries of
St. Petersburg and Moscow.'

DAIGREMONT, M., was a French engraver,
who flourished from about 1670 to about 1700.
He engraved some of the plates for Berain's
' Ornemens,' and several views of Versailles.

DAI LIBRI, FRANCESCO, the elder, born at Ve-
rona in 1452, was the son of Stefano dai Libri, an
illuminator of books. He was the father of Giro-
lamo dai Libri, and is known as an illuminator of
choir books for the churches of his native city.

DAI LIBRI, FRANCESCO, the younger, the grand-
son of the above and son of Girolamo dai Libri,
was born in 1500, and lived chiefly at Venice and
at Padua. He was at first a painter of miniatures,
but afterwards a painter in oil and an architect.

DAI LIBRI, GIROLAMO, the son of Francesco
dai Libri, was born at Verona in 1474. He was
brought up by his father to his own profession
of a miniature painter and illuminator of books,
but he soon abandoned its pursuit. His earlier
style inclines to that of Andrea Mantegna. His
first picture, painted when he was only sixteen, is
in the church of Malcesine, on the Lake of Garda,
and represents the ' Deposition from the Cross, with
the Virgin and Saints.' In the Museum of Verona
is a painting representing ' The Virgin, St. Joseph,
St. John the Baptist, and St. Jerome, adoring the
Infant Christ ' ; and at Sant' Anastasia in the
same city, is a ' Madonna and Child with Saints,
which is one of his earliest productions. In 1515
he and Francesco Morone painted the organ shutters
of Santa Maria in Organo, which are now at Mal-
cesine. In 1526 he finished his masterpiece, the
' Virgin and Child enthroned, between Lorenzo
Giustiniani and St. Zeno,' at San Giorgio Maggiore

3



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



in Verona ; and of about the same period is the
' Virgin and Child, with SS. Anne and Joachim and
two donors,' in the church of San Paolo in the
same city. In 1530 were executed the 'Virgin
and Saints,' for the church of the Vittoria Nuova,
and the 'Virgin in Glory, with SS. Andrew and
Peter,' for Sant Andrea ; both pictures are now
in the Gallery of Verona. Girolamo died at Ve-
rona in 1556. Guilio Clovio and his son, Francesco
dai Libri, were his pupils. He never painted in
fresco, and his works are rare out of his native city.
Pictures by him are in the f ollowng collections :

Berlin. Gallery. Virgin and Child, between SS'

Bartholomew and Zeno.

London. Nat. Gallery. Madonna and Child, with Saint
Anne.

Paris. Louvre. Virgin and Child.



DAIWAILLE, JEAN ADGUSTIN, a Dutch portrait
painter, was born at Cologne in 1786, and went
when young to Amsterdam where he studied under
A. De Lelie, and was director of the Academy
from 1820 to 1826. After that time he resided at
Rotterdam, where he was very successful in
painting portraits, and where he died in 1850.
There is by him one etching, which is scarce.

DAL COLLE, RAFFAELLO, or RAFFAELLINO, called
also RAFFAELLINO DAL BORGO SAN SEPOLCRO, was
born at Borgo San Sepolcro, about the year 1490.
He was first a disciple of Raphael, but after the
death of that master he became the scholar of
Giulio Romano, whom he assisted in his principal
works at Rome, and in the Palazzo del Te, at
Mantua. Of his own compositions, the principal are
two pictures at Borgo San Sepolcro, one of which,
representing the ' Resurrection,' in the choir of the
cathedral, exhibits a grandeur not unworthy of the
great school in which he had been educated. The
figure of Christ is dignified and majestic, and the
terror of the guards of the sepulchre is admirably
expressed. The other is in the church of the Con-
ventuali, and represents the ' Assumption of the
Virgin. 1 It is a graceful and impressive composi-
tion ; and being placed near one of the best pic-
tures of Giorgio Vasari, establishes its merit by its
decided superiority. Raffaellino dal Colle was one
of the artists employed by Raphael in the decora-
tions of the Loggie of the Vatican, and painted
one of the small cupolas in the roof with a portion
of the history of Moses. In Citta di Castello is
an ' Annunciation ' by him, which is a very grace-
ful composition. An ' Entombment,' in the Servi,
is another beautiful picture. A picture of 'The
Virgin attended by St. Sebastian and St. Roch,'
was in the church of San Francesco at Cagli, the
figures and landscape of which much resembled
the manner of Raphael. In one of the chapels of
the Olivet monks at Gubbio there are pictures by
him, in one of which he has introduced a figure of
Virtue, who seems to be a sister to Raphael's Sibyls.
He assisted Bronzino and Vasari in their decor-
ations and cartoons the latter upon the occasion
of the visit of Charles V. to Florence. He had
many scholars who proved able artists, but few
equalled him in grace and high finish ; Cnstofano
Gherardi and Giovanni de' Vecchi are noticeable
amongst them.

DALEN, CORNELIS VAN, a Flemish engraver, was
born at Antwerp about the year 1620. He was
called ' the younger,' to distinguish him from his
futher, who was likewise an engraver, and whose
works it is not easy to distinguish from those
of his son. He was instructed in engraving by



his father, and also by Cornells Visscher, whose
style he followed for some time. His prints occa-
sionally resemble those of A. Blooteling, and at
other times those of Pontius and Bolswert. He
worked entirely with the graver, which he handled
in a bold and free manner, and with considerable
taste. He usually marked his plates with the
initials C. D. We have by him several portraits,
and a few historical subjects.

PORTRAITS.
Catharine de' Medici ; in the back-ground the City of

Amsterdam.

Charles II., King of England; after P. Aason.
James, Duke of York; after S. Luttichuys.
Henry, Duke of Gloucester ; after the same.
William III.
Mary II., his Queen.

Algernon Percy, Earl of Northumberland.
John Maurice, Prince of Nassau ; after G. Flink.
Pietro Aretino, with a book ; after Titian.
Giovanni Boccaccio ; after the same.
Giorgio Barbarelli, called Giorgione ; after the same.
Sebastiano del Piombo ; after Tintoretto. (The four last

are thought by Kramm to be the work of Cornelia

van Dalen, the elder.)

Anna Maria Scum-man, painter ; after C. Janssens.
Old Parr, aged 152 years.

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS.
The Adoration of the Shepherds.
The Virgin, with the Infant Jesus.
The Four Fathers of the Church ; after Rubens ; in the

style of Pontius.
Nature adorned by the Graces ; after the same ; in the

manner of Bolswert.

A Shepherd and Shepherdess ; after Casteleyn.
The Virgin suckling the Infant Saviour ; after G. Flink.
Venus and Cupid ; after the same.
The Four Elements, represented by Children ; after A.

Diepenbeck.
The Concert; after Giorgione; for the 'Cabinet de

Reynst.'
The Monument of Admiral Cornells Tromp.

DALENS, DIRK, a Dutch landscape painter, was
born at Amsterdam in 1659. He was the son of
Willem Dalens, an artist of little celebrity, who
taught him the first lessons in the art. The prin-
cipal works of Dalens are large landscapes, painted
with a free and firm touch, and very agreeably
coloured, which decorate the saloons of some of
the principal houses in Amsterdam. He also painted
some cabinet pictures of landscapes, with figures,
which are deemed worthy of being placed in the
best collections in Holland. He died in 1688.

DALENS, DIRK, called ' the younger,' the post-
humous son of the preceding, was born at Amster-
dam in 1688. He was instructed by Theodoor van
Pee, and became a painter of landscapes with cattle
and figures, enriched with ruins, in the manner of
Pynacker, which are executed with great ability.
He died in 1753.

DA' LIBRL See DAI LIBRI.

DALIPHARD, EDOUARD, a French landscape
painter, was born at Rouen in 1833. He studied
under Gustave Morin, the Director of the Rouen
Museum, and spent a considerable time in the East,
where he made a good collection of water-colour
sketches. His works appeared at the Salon from
1864 to 1876, and he also contributed to the French
journal, ' L'Art.' He died at Rouen after a long
and painful illness in 1877. Amongst his best pro-
ductions are :

The Sun appearing after a Storm. 1868.

Souvenir of the Forest of Eu. 1873.

The flooded Farm, Poissy. 1873.

Melancholy. 1875.



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



DALL, NICHOLAS THOMAS, was a native of Den-
mark, who settled in London as a landscape painter,
about the year 1760. He painted some excellent
scenes for Covent Garden Theatre, and his engage-
ments in that branch of art prevented him from
painting many pictures. In 1768 he obtained the
first premium given by the Society for the En-
couragement of Arts for the best landscape. He
was chosen an Associate of the lioyal Academy in
1771, and died in London in 1777. '

DALL' ACQUA, CRISTOFORO, who was born at
Vicenza in 1734, engraved, principally for the
booksellers, plates of various subjects, portraits,
history, genre, landscapes, and architecture.
Among his works may be noticed a portrait of
Frederick tlie Great, King of Prussia, and an
allegory of ' Merit crowned by Apollo,' after
Andrea Sacchi, as well as numerous plates after
the works of Cipriani, Houel, Joseph Vernet, and
others. He died at Vicenza in 1787.

DALLAMANO, GIUSEPPE, born at Modena in
1679, is a remarkable instance of the progress that
ntutored genius has sometimes made in the art
without the help of a master. Dallamano is stated
by Lanzi to have been hardly removed from an
idiot ; ignorant even of the alphabet, and unaided by
professional instruction, he nevertheless reached an
excellence in painting architectural views which
surprised the most intelligent judges. His best
works are in the royal palace at Turin. He died
in 1758.

DALL' AQUILA, POMPEO, is stated in the ' Abe-
cedario Pittorico ' of Orlandi, to have been a good
historical painter, both in oil and in fresco. He
flourished in the latter part of the 16th century.
There is a fine picture by him in the church of
Santo Spirito in Sassia at Rome, representing the
'Descent from the Cross,' which was engraved by
Orazio de Santis in 1572. Several considerable
works by him in fresco are to be seen at Aquila,
where he was born.

DALL' ARGENTO, ANTONIO. See ALEOTTI.

DALL' ARZERE, STEFANO, who, according to
Ridolfi and others, was a native of Padua, painted
numerous altar-pieces for the churches and con-
vents of that city. In the Chiesa degli Eremitani,
he painted some subjects from the Old Testament,
and two pictures of ' St. Peter ' and ' St. Paul,' and
in the church of the Servite monastery the prin-
cipal altar-piece is by him. He flourished in the
16th century.

DALLE FACCIATE, BERNARDINO. See BARBA-

TELLI.

DALLE GROTTESCHE, BERNARDINO. See
BARBATELLI.

DALLE MADONNE, LIPPO. See SCANNABECCHI.

DALLEMAGNE, VIRGINIE POLYXENE AUGUSTINE
PHILIPPE, a French miniature painter, whose maiden
name was Decagny, was a native of Beauvais. She
was a pupil of Madame de Mirbel, and showed
much talent in the execution of portraits in minia-
ture and in crayons. She married Adolphe Dalle-
magne, a landscape painter, and died at Corbeil in
1875.

DALLE MUSE, BERNARDINO. See BARBATELLI.

DALLE NINFE, CESARE, who flourished frum
about 1590 to 1600, was a Venetian, whom we find
mentioned by Zanetti among the imitators of Tinto-
retto. He possessed the readiness of invention, and
the facility of hand, for which that painter was re-
markable, and was an excellent colourist, though
deficient in drawing.



DALLE NOTTI, GERARDO. See HONTHORST.
DALLE PROSPECTIVE, AGOSTINO. See AGOS-
TINO.

DALLE PROSPETTIVE, MIRANDOLESE. See
PALTRONIERI.

DALLE TESTE, IL BORGOGNONE. See GIAC-
CHINETTI GONZALEZ.

DALLEVIA, A., was an Italian engraver, who
resided at Venice about the year 1686. Among
other prints, he engraved a set of plates represent-
ing triumphal processions, entitled, 'Giiiochi
Festivi e Militari,' and published at Venice in 1686.
They are executed in a coarse, indifferent style.

DALLIKER, JOHANN RUDOLPH, a Swiss portrait
painter, was born at Zurich in 1694. He visited
successively Magdeburg, Brunswick, Cassel, Leipsic,
Berne, and Paris, where he made the acquaintance
of Largilliere and Rigaud. He resided at St. Gall,
but died at Schaffhausen in 1769. Most of the
celebrated persons of his country sat to him.

DALLINGER, FRANZ THEODOR, an Austrian
painter of landscapes, fruit, and animals, was born
at Linz in 1710, and died at Prague in 1771.

DALLINGER VON DALLING, ALEXANDER JO-
HANN, a son of Johann Dallinger von Calling, the
elder, was born at Vienna in 1783. He studied
under his father, and became a landscape and
animal painter, as well as an engraver and a
restorer of old pictures. In the Belvedere, at
Vienna, there is a picture by him representing ' A
Herdsman driving Cows across a Brook.' He died
at Vienna in 1844.

DALLINGER VON DALLING, JOHANN, an
Austrian painter, was born at Vienna in 1741, and
distinguished himself as director of the Liech-
tenstein Gallery. He painted animals, historical
subjects, and large altar-pieces, most of which are
in Russia and Poland. He died in 1806.

DALLINGER VON DALLING, JOHANN, a son
of the preceding, was born in Vienna in 1782, and
painted landscapes and animals in the old Dutch
style, as well as portraits and conversation-pieces.
Some of his works are in the Belvedere and
Liechtenstein Galleries. He died at Vienna in
1868.

DALLWIG, HEINRICH, a landscape painter, was
born at Cassel in 1811, and died at Munich in 1857.
He had been settled in the latter city since 1839,
but undertook frequent tours in search of scenery
for his brush.

DALMASIO, LIPPO DI. See SCANNABECCHI.
DALMATIA, IL FEDERIGHETTO DI. See BF.N-
COVIOH.

DALMAU, LODOVICO. A 'Virgin and Child ' by
this artist is in the church of San Miguel at Barce-
lona ; it is painted in the style of Van Eyck, and
dated 1445.

DAL PERON, SIMONE. See CUSIGHE.
DAL POZZO, ISABELLA. In the ' Nuova Guida
di Torino, 'this lady is mentioned as having painted
a picture in the church of San Francesco at Turin,
representing the ' Virgin and Child, with St. Blaise
and other Saints,' which is signed, and dated 1666.
According to Lanzi, few of her contemporaries in
that city could have produced a more creditable
performance.

DAL SOLE, GIOVANNI ANTONIO MARIA, was born
at Bologna in 1606, and was brought up in the
school of Francesco Albani. He excelled in paint-
ing landscapes, which he decorated with groups of
figures, gracefully designed in the style of Albani.
He always worked with his left hand, and thus

5



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



acquired the appellation of ' II Monchino dai
Paesi.' He died in 1684.

DAL SOLE, GIOVANNI GIUSEPPE, the son of
Antonio dal Sole, was bom at Bologna in 1654,
and was instructed in the first principles of design
by his father, but he afterwards became a disciple
of Domenico Maria Canuti, and ultimately studied
under Lorenzo Pasinelli. Following the example
of his last instructor, he based his system of colour-
ing upon the study of the works of the best masters
of the Venetian School. He imitated the agree-
able style of Pasinelli with great success, and his
compositions are embellished with landscape and
architecture, which he introduced with admirable
taste. In many particulars, as in the hair and
plumes of the angels, and in the accessories, such
as veils, bracelets, crowns, and armour, he dis-
plays exquisite grace. He seems to have been
inclined to treat lofty themes, and was more ob-
servant of costume, more methodical in compo-
sition, and better informed in architecture and
landscape, than his master, Pasinelli. In these,
indeed, he is almost unique. The most beautiful
specimens, perhaps, are to be seen at the Casa
Zappi in Imola, representing Evening, Night, and
Morning, all harmonized with the sober tints be-
longing to the subjects. There are several of the
works of this eminent artist in the public edifices
at Bologna. Among the most esteemed are ' The
Incredulity of St. Thomas,' in the church of La
Madonna di Galiera ; ' The Annunciation,' in San
Gabrielle ; and some frescoes in San Biagio. which
are accounted his finest works. For the Giusti
family at Verona he executed several Scriptural
and mythological subjects, truly beautiful. One,
of ' Bacchus and Ariadne,' which occupied but a
week of his time, was pronounced by artists ex-
cellent ; yet he cancelled almost the whole, to
remodel it according to his own idea, declaring
that it was enough to have shown his rapidity of
hand to satisfy others, but that it became his duty,
by additional accuracy, to satisfy himself also.
For executing his altar-pieces, which are few and
valuable, as well as his pictures for private col-
lections, which are very numerous, he demanded
high remuneration, persevering in his determination
to paint only with care. In his works two manners
are observable ; the second partakes of that of
Guide. A large portion of his pictures nearly
approach the style of that master ; so that the
surname of ' The Modern Guido,' conferred on him
by so many, has not been granted as a favour, but
as his desert. Bartsch describes three etchings by
him ; an allegorical representation of Envy, a
Group of Angels, after a design for a ceiling by
Pasinelli, and another of Olympus, after the same.
Gori mentions one of St. Francis Xavier confuting,
or rather confounding, by his holy doctrine, the
satraps of Japan, also after Pasinelli. Several
portraits were etched by him in 1674, which were
intended for the ' Felsina Pittrice,' but are not found
in that work. He died at Bologna in 1719.

DALTON, RICHARD, an engraver and draughts-
man, was born in Cumberland about 1720. After
passing some time in Italy and Greece, he became
librarian to the Prince of Wales, then keeper of
the royal drawings and medals, and finally, in
1778, surveyor of the royal pictures. He made
some engravings from the Holbein drawings, and
after antique statues. He also published ' Manners
and Customs of the Present Inhabitants of Egypt,'
1781. His name is to be found in connection with

6



some of the art societies which preceded the Royal
Academy. He died at St. James's Palace in 1791.

DAM, ANTHONY VAN, born at Middelburg,
painted marine snbjects of large dimensions. He
flourished in the latter half of the last century.

DAM, WOUTER, born at Dort in 1726, was a
scholar of Aart Schouman, whose manner he fol-
lowed for some time, but ultimately became an
imitator and copyist of Cuyp and Bakhuisen. He
died at Dort in 1785 or 1786.

DAM A ME DEMARTRAIS, MICHEL FRANCIS,
a French painter and engraver, was born in Paris
in 1763. After having studied in the school of
David, he went to Russia, where he resided for
some years. On his return to France he engraved
and published ' Vues des principales villes de
Russie, costumes et usages des habitants de cet
empire,' 1813-14; 'Collection de Costumes du
royaume de Naples,' 1818 : ' Paris et ses alentours,'
1819. His most important picture was 'The Great
Sanhedrim of the Jews of France and Italy,' ex-
hibited at the Salon of 1810. He died in Paris in
1827.

DAMBRUN, JEAN', a French line-engraver, was
born in Paris in 1741. He was one of the small
band of artists to whom are due the vignettes which
adorn many of the books issued towards the close
of the last century which have of late become of
such fabulous value. His best works are ' La
Partie de Wisch,' after Moreau, for the ' Monument
de Costume,' and ' Le Calendrier des Vieillards,'
after Fragonard, for the ' Contes ' of La Fontaine.
He also engraved with much delicacy QueVerdo's
illustrations to the remarkable series of Almanacs
which appeared in Paris just before the outbreak
of the French Revolution. There is no record of
Dambrun after 1808.

DAME. GILES LA. See LA DAME.

DAMERY, JACOB, the brother of Walter Damery,
was a good painter of flowers, of fruit, and
especially of vases. He was born at Lige in
1619, but went to Rome when young, and remained
there until his death, which occurred in 1685. He
executed some etchings, among them a series of
twelve vases, dated 1657.

DAMERY, SIMON, a Flemish historical painter,
was born at Liege in 1604. He was a pupil of
Jean Taulier, who married his sister, but while yet
very young he ran away from his master and went
to Italy. He afterwards settled at Milan, where he
died of the plague in 1640.

DAMERY, WALTER, the brother of Jacob Damery,
was born at Liege in 1614. He learned the rudi-
ments of art in his native city, but in 1636 ha
came to England, and remained here several years,
during which he painted a large number of por-
traits. He afterwards went to France and then to
Italy, where he became a scholar of Pietro da Cor-
tona. Subsequently he returned to Paris, where he
painted for the Carmelite church his masterpiece,
'The Ascension of Elijah.' His productions are
distinguished for their beautiful backgrounds and
also for the nude figures of the children, in the
depicting of which he exhibited great skill. He
died at Liege in 1678.

DAMIANI, FELICE, was a native of Gubbio, who
flourished from the year 1584 until 1606. He is by
some supposed to have been educated in the
Venetian school, and his picture of the ' Circum-
cision,' in San Domenico, partakes of that style :
but in general his works evince more of the Roman
taste, which he probably acquired under Benedetto



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Nucci. One of his best works is ' The Decolla-
tion of St. Paul,' at the Castel Nuovo in Recanati;
the expression in the head of the martyr is admir-
able, the drawing correct, and the colouring brilliant
and harmonious. It is dated 1584. About twelve
years afterwards he decorated two chapels in the
church of La Madonna de' Lumi, at San Severino,
with pictures representing the Life of the Virgin
and the Infancy of Christ. But his most admired
production is the ' Baptism of St. Augustine,'
painted in 1594 for the church dedicated to that
saint at Gubbio ; a grand composition of many
figures, finely grouped, with an admirable expres-
sion of piety in the heads, and enriched with noble
architecture. He was still living in 1616.

DAMINI, GIORGIO, a brother of Pietro Damini,
was an excellent painter of portraits, and of his-
torical subjects of a small size. Like his brother, he
was carried ofE by the plague at Venice in 1631.

DAMINI, PIETRO, was born at Castelfranco in
1592, and, according to Ridolfi, was a scholar of
Giovanni Battista Novelli, who had been educated
in the school of Palma. Such was the extraordinary
expectation occasioned by the early display of his



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