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Throne,' which was engraved by Nicolas Arnoult.
He was received at the Academy in 1722, and died
in Paris in 1727. His brothers, JEAN DIED and
JEAN BAPTISTE DIED, were engravers ; the former
was born about 1658, and died in Paris in 1714.

DIEU, JEAN, called DIED DE SAINT-JEAN, father
and son, were French painters who flourished in
the 17th century. Jean Dieu, the elder, was also an
etcher. Jean Dieu, the younger, who was a por-
trait painter, was born about the year 1655, and
died in Paris in 1695.

DIGHTON, DENIS, an English painter of battle
scenes, the son of Dighton the caricaturist, was
born in London in 1792. He studied in the Royal
Academy, but obtained through the Prince of
Wales a commission in the army. Resigning
this, however, and marrying, he settled in London,
and devoted himself to art, exhibiting at the
Royal Academy from 1811 to 1825. Loss of the
royal patronage, together with other causes, affected
his reason, and he retired to Brittany, where he
died at St. Servan in 1827. Amongst his works
are :

Death of Nelson (Bridgevater Collection) .
Defeat of the Turks at Klissura.
Cavalry skirmishing (Smith Kensington).
Battle of Waterloo (Her Majesty's Collection).

His wife was Fruit and Flower Painter to Queen
Adelaide, and exhibited at the Royal Academy
between 1824 and 1835.

DIGHTON, ROBERT, an English portrait painter
and caricaturist, was born in 1752. He exhibited
occasionally at the Free Society of Artists and at
the Royal Academy. In 1799 he brought out a
' Book of Heads,' and thenceforth devoted himself
chiefly to caricature. He died in London in 1814.

DIGHTON, WILLIAM EDWARD, a landscape
painter, was a pupil of William Miiller, and after-
wards of Frederick Goodall. He exhibited Eng-
lish landscape scenery at the British Institution
and Royal Academy from 1844 to 1851, after
which he visited the East, and in 1853 sent to the
Royal Academy two pictures, ' The Ruins of the
Temple of Luxor' and ' Bethany.' Dighton died
at Hampstead in 1853, aged 31. Had he lived, he
would doubtless have made a name in the world of
art. He left behind him many fine works, which
are for the most part in private collections in
Liverpool.

DILLENS, ADOLF, a Belgian genre-painter, was
born at Ghent in 1821, and received instruction
from his elder brother Hendrik Dillens. His first
works were of an historical nature, but he after-
wards devoted himself to pictures illustrating



Zealand peasant life. He died in 1877. Amongst
his best works are :

The Gossip at the Window.

Taking Toll at the Bridge (of this picture he painted
three versions).

Asking in Marriage.

A Fair at West Capelle (at Paris International Ex-
hibition, 1855).

A Ball at Goes (at the same).

The Juggler (at London Intel-national Exhibition, 1862).

Skaters (in Brussels Museum).

Recruiting: Austrian Soldiers halting at a Tavern (in
the same).

DILLENS, HENDRIK, a Belgian genre painter,
was born at Ghent in 1812, and died at Brussels in
1872. He executed several pleasing and spirited
paintings, among the best of which are :

The French Trooper caressing his Child.

The Capture of the Maid of Orleans.

An Old Man giving Counsel to Two Youths.

Consecration of a Church (with over 200 figures).

DILLIS, IGNAZ, a brother and pupil of Johann
Georg von Dillis, was born at Griingiebing in 1772,
and died at Munich in 1808. He etched some
landscapes containing figures and animals, but
abandoned art for the science of forestry.

DILLIS, JOHANN CANTIDS, a Bavarian landscape
painter and etcher, was born at Griingiebing in
1779. He was the youngest brother of Johann
Georg von Dillis, by whom he was instructed, and
with whom he went, in 1805, to Italy, where he
stayed two years. His best pictures are a ' View
in the Environs of Grotta Ferrata,' dated 1809, in
the Schleissheim Gallery, and a ' View of the Alps
near Reselau,' and ' Stone Bridges near the Mills
at Audorf,' in the Leuchtenberg Gallery. He died
at Munich in 1856. He etched twelve plates, among
which may be mentioned, a ' View of the Castle
of Harlaching,' ' A Rocky Country with Mills,' and
' A Farm Cottage hidden in Trees.'

DILLIS, JOHANN GEORG VON, a Bavarian painter,
was born at Griingiebing in 1759, and studied at
the Academy of Munich and under Oefele. He
afterwards paid frequent visits to Switzerland,
Italy, Sicily, France, and Spain. He painted por-
traits and landscapes, but his engagements as
director of several picture galleries in Germany
occupied the greater part of his time, so that his
works are not numerous. He died at Munich in
1841. In the Modern Gallery of that city there
are by him a ' Landscape at Grotta Ferrata,' and a
1 View of the Tegernsee,' and in the Schleissheim
Gallery is an ' Autumnal Picnic.' He also etched
52 landscapes.

DINGLINGER, SOPHIE FRIEDERIKE, who was
born in 1736 at Dresden, and died in the same city
in 1791, practised as a miniature painter. The
Dresden Gallery possesses seven portraits by her
of members of the Dinglinger family amongst
them her own.

DIOLAI, GIOVANNI FRANCESCO. See SURCHI.

DIONIS10 FIAMMINGO. See CALVAERT.

DIONYSIUS, of Colophon, who flourished about
the middle of the 5th century B. a, was a con-
temporary of Polygnotus, whom he in part imitated
and almost rivalled. The subjects which he chose
to treat were less important ; but, according to
jElian, "his works exhibited the same expressive
character, the same choice of attitudes, a similar
attention to propriety, and the same elegant arrange-
ment of his draperies : but he represented the
objects in a smaller proportion." By these expres-



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



sions ^Elian has been supposed to explain more
clearly a passage in the ' Poetics ' of Aristotle ; and
it has been thought to result from his suggestion,
that Polygnotus designed his figures larger than
life, Dionysius the size of life, and Pauson smaller
than life. Winckelmann, however, interprets this
in another manner. According to that writer,
Polygnotus painted his figures better, that is to say,
he stamped them with grandeur above the scale
and conformation of man, and as he usually chose
his subjects from mythology, or from heroic his-
tory, his figures resembled heroes, and represented
nature in the most perfect form of ideal beauty.
Pauson gave to his figures a more common and
familiar air. In the opinion of Winckelmann,
Aristotle meant to say that the pictures of Poly-
gnotus were in painting what tragedy is in poetry,
and that the figures of Pauson resembled the
characters in a comedy, which are represented
more than ordinarily ridiculous, to render the effect
more ludicrous. Dionysius, whom Pliny places
amongst the most famous painters, held a sober
medium between Polygnotus and Pauson, and may
be said to have been, with respect to Polygnotus,
what Euripides was to Sophocles ; the latter repre-
sented his heroines as they ought to be, the former
as they were. This characteristic procured for
Dionysius the appellation of avOfjwirofpa<t>of, or the
' painter of mankind.'

DIOTISALVI, (or DIETISALVI,) was a contem-
porary of Duccio, who from 1259 painted miniatures
at Siena, some of which are still preserved in the
Academy of that city. He also produced some
larger pictures, among which is a ' Madonna ' in
the church of the Servi, dated 1281.

DIOTTI, GIUSEPPE, who was born at Casal
Maggiore in 1779, was instructed in the Academy
at Parma, and later by Cumuceini at Rome. He
painted in fresco as well as in oil, distinguishing
himself as a painter of historical subjects, and
became a professor in the Academy at Carrara,
and also in that at Bergamo, where he died in 1846.
In the Belvedere at Vienna is a picture by him
representing 'The Kiss of Judas,' and in the
Milan Gallery is the ' Congress of Pontida.' Other
noteworthy works by him are, ' Leonardo da Vinci
and Lodovico Sforza,' and 'Tobias receiving his
Sight.' His own portrait, dated 1821, is in the
Uffizi.

DIRCKS, AUGUST, a German painter of genre
pieces and a lithographer, was born at Emden in
East Friesland in 1806, and studied at the Academy
of Diisseldorf . ' The Decorated Schoolmaster,' a
creditable work by him, is in the Gallery of that
town. He died at Diisseldorf in 1871.

DIRICKSEN, DlRlCK,a German engraver, worked
at Hamburg in the earlier part of the 17th century,
and was still living in 1647. He was principally
employed by the booksellers, and engraved some
portraits in a neat style, resembling that of the Van
de Passes.

DISCEPOLI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, was born at
Lugano in 1590. He was usually called ' Lo Zoppo
di Lugano,' from his being a cripple. Although
he was for some time a scholar of Camillo Pro-
caccini, he did not adopt the style of that master.
Lanzi states that he was one of the best and
most chaste colourists of his time. Several of his
works are in the churches at Milan ; his pic-
ture of ' Purgatory ' in San Carlo is particularly
esteemed. In the Brera is an 'Adoration of the
Magi 'from San Marcellinoin Milan. Lugano and



Como also possess some of his works ; in the
church of Santa Teresa, in the latter place, is a
picture of that Saint, which is much admired.
He died in 1660.

DISTELI, MARTIN, was born at Olten, in Switzer-
land, in 1802. In early life he studied art, intend-
ing to become a painter, but afterwards gained
some celebrity by drawing caricatures, which
were published in the ' Distelikalender.' His Swiss
battle-pieces indicate a strong patriotic feeling.
He died at Solothurn in 1844.

D1TMAR. HENRIK, (or DITTMARZ,) was a German
portrait painter who flourished in Hamburg and in
Denmark in the latter half of the seventeenth cen-
tury. In the Copenhagen gallery there is by him
a ' Hermit in his Cell,' dated 1665. He died in
Denmark late in 1677 or early in 1678.

DITMAR, JAN, (or DITHER,) a Flemish engraver,
was born in the Netherlands about 1538, and was
admitted into the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp in
1574. He engraved some plates after Martin De
Vos, and other Flemish masters, among which is
a print after Michiel Coxcie, representing ' Christ
seated in the Clouds, surrounded by Angels holding
the Instruments of the Passion and the Symbols
of the Four Evangelists,' dated 1574.

DITTENBERGER, JOHANN GDSTAV, an historical
and portrait painter, was born at Neuenweg, in
Baden, in 1799. He was at first a pupil of Rott-
mann and Roux at Heidelberg, but in 1821 he
entered the Munich Academy. After this he worked
for a while in the studio of Baron Gros at Paris,
and then removed to Rome. He returned to
Vienna in 1831, and died in 1879. He executed a
number of church pictures, among which we find
' The Annunciation,' ' St. Andrew converting the
Russians,' ' St. Severinus blessing the Land of
Austria,' 'The Angelic Salutation' (for Olmiitz
Cathedral), and two allegorical pictures of ' Ger-
many ' and ' Schleswig-Holstein ' (1850). He also
etched a number of illustrations to Schiller's poems.
He frequently marked his works with the annexed

monogram :

DITTERLEIN. See DIETTERLIN.

DITTMARZ, HENRIK. See DITMAR.

DIXON, JOHN, an English miniature, crayon, and
water-colour painter, was a pupil of Lely. He ex-
celled in nymphs, satyrs, cupids, &c. He was under
William III. keeper of the King's picture closet,
but in his later years he became impoverished,
and retired to Bungay, where he died in 1715.

DIXON, JOHN, an engraver in mezzotint, was born
at Dublin about 1740, and died in London in 1780.
He studied under West in his native city, and be-
came in 1766 a member of the Incorporated Society
of Artists. There are several fine portraits engraved
by him after Sir Joshua Reynolds and other masters.

DIXON, NATHANIEL. Nothing whatever is
known as to this artist, although he has been
called by some writers the brother of John Dixon.
No one can identify the works of John Dixon,
unless they are those signed with a D only, which
are usually attributed to Nathaniel Dixon ; but
miniatures signed N. D. are frequently to be
found, and two contemporary letters in the Wei-
beck Collection mention casually " Nathaniel Dixon
the limner." Several of his portraits, one very
large in size, are at Montagu House ; there are
also some at Ham, and a few very important ones
in the Madresfield Collection, whflst one beauty is



NATHANIEL DIXON




THE DUKE OF GKAKTON AS A BOY



u House Collation



WILLIAM DOBSON




Hanfstfingl photo



\ \\itu<iia! dil/cry, London



PORTRAIT OF KNDVM1ON PORTER



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



to be found at Goodwood. His work is strong,
well planned, and well coloured, and allied to the
masterful portraits of Cooper. He flourished during
the reigns of James II. and William III. g^, W.

DIXON, ROBERT, a landscape painter, was born
in 1780. He published, in 1810-11, thirty-six views
of ' Norfolk Scenery.' Some of his works appeared
at the Norwich Exhibitions. At the South Ken-
sington Museum is a ' Farm Yard ' by him in water-
colours. He died in 1815.

DIZIANI, GASPARO, an Italian caricaturist, was
a pupil of Bastiano Ricci. He died at Venice in
1767. In the Dresden Gallery is a ' Painter painting
a portrait from life,' by him.

DOBIASCHOFSKY, FKANZ, was born at Vienna
in 1818, and was instructed by Fiihrich and Kuppel-
wieser. He excelled in painting historical subjects
and portraits, which have been praised for their
good design and poetic feeling. He was a pro-
fessor at the Academy at Vienna, where he died
in 1867. Among his best works maybe mentioned
two in the Belvedere at Vienna, viz., ' A young Man
and Woman in a Garden,' and ' Cimburgis saved
from the bear by Duke Ernest Ironside' (1850)

DOBROVOLSKY, VASILY STEFANOVITCH, a
Russian painter, was born in 1786. He was a
member of the Academy of Arts, and one of the
founders of the School for Painting and Sculpture
at Moscow, in which city he died in 1855.

DOBSON, WILLIAM, a portrait painter, was
born in London in 1610. He was placed as an
apprentice to Robert Peake, a portrait painter
and picture dealer, who was afterwards knighted
by Charles I. From this master's instruction he
was not likely to profit much, but he procured him
the means of copying some pictures by Titian and
Van Dyck, by which he acquired an excellent prin-
ciple of colouring, and great freedom of hand.
On leaving his master, Dobson appears to have
lived in indigence and obscurity, until Van Dyck,
passing a shop on Snow Hill, perceived a picture
exposed in the window for sale, which had suffi-
cient merit to excite his curiosity to discover the
painter, whom he found at work in a miserable
garret. The well-known liberality of Van Dyck
soon released him from his wretched situation ; he
afterwards introduced him to the king, and- zeal-
ously recommended him to his Majesty's protection.
On the death of Van Dyck, Dobson was appointed
serjeant-painter to the king, whom he accompanied
to Oxford, where he painted his portrait, as well as
those of Prince Rupert and several of the nobility.
The melancholy fate of the king was followed by
the overthrow of the arts and elegance, and Dobson,
who was imprudent and extravagant, became in-
volved in debt, and was thrown into prison. He
was released by a patron, but not long afterwards
he died_ in London in 1646. Of the painters
of his time, Dobson appears to have approached
nearest to the excellence of Van Dyck." His por-
traits are faithful transcripts of nature, and although
he was not equally successful in his historical pic-
tures, the few which he painted are not without
considerable merit. One of his best works in his-
tory is ' The Decollation of St. John,' at Wilton.
King Charles I. styled Dobson the ' English Tinto-
retto,' but very absurdly, as his manner of paint
ing bears no resemblance to that of the Venetian
master. There are in the National Portrait Gallery
paintings by Dobson of Himself, Sir Harry Vane
the younger, Francis Quarles the poet, and Endy-
mion Porter ; and at Hampton Court there are a



picture of Himself and his Wife, and portraits of
two Gentlemen.

DOBSON, WILLIAM CHARLES THOMAS, was born
at Hamburg in 1817. His father was an English
merchant in that city, and came to London in
1825. Dobson in 1836 entered the Royal Academy
Schools, and in 1843 received an appointment at
the Government School of Design, then at Somerset
House. In 1843 he became "headmaster of the
School of Design at Birmingham, but resigned the
post in 1845 and went to Italy. From there he
went to Germany, where he remained several
years. On his return he exhibited pictures on
scriptural and other subjects, at first in oil, and
afterwards in water-colour ; the principal of which
were: 'Tobias and the Angel' (1853), 'TheCharitv
of Dorcas' (1854), 'The Almsdeeds of Dorcas'
(1855), ' The Prosperous Days of Job ' (1856), 'The
Child Jesus going to Nazareth with His Parents,'
and 'Reading the Psalms' (1857), 'The Holy
Innocents' (1858), 'The Good Shepherd' (1865),
and ' St. Paul at Philippi,' deposited in the Diploma
Gallery (1873) ; and among secular subjects, 'The
Picture Book' (International Exhibition, 1862),
'A Venetian Girl' (1879),' Mignon' and 'lone'
(1880). His water-colour drawings included 'The
Young Nurse,"The Camellia' (1873), and 'Nursery
Tales ' (1874). Dobson was elected Associate of
the Royal Academy in 1867, and an Academician
in 1872. In 1870 he was elected Associate of the
Royal Water-Colour Society, of which, in 1875, he
became a full member. He died at Ventnor in 1898.

DOCENO. See GHERARDI, CRISTOFANO.

DOCHARTY, JAMES, a Scotch landscape painter,
was born at Bonhill, near Dumbarton, in 1829. He
was at first engaged with his father in calico
manufacture, and did not turn to art till 1862.
His works appeared at the Edinburgh Academy,
the Glasgow Institution, and the Royal Academy.
In 1876 failing health caused him to visit the
Continent and the East, but he died on his return
to Glasgow in 1878. He was elected an Associate
of the Royal Scottish Academy in 1877. Amongst
his best works are :

The Haunt of the Red Deer. 1809.

The Head of Loch Lomoiid. 1873.

Glencoe. 1874.

The Eirer Achray. 1876.

A Good Fishing Day. 1877.

DODD, DANIEL, was an English miniature and
subject painter in the latter half of the 18th
century. He was a member of the Free Society
of Artists in 1763, where he exhibited. His chief
works are :

The Royal Procession to St. Paul's.
Representation of the Royal Academy.

DODD, ROBERT, a marine painter, flourished in
the latter part of the 18th century. His pictures
are chiefly illustrative of the doings of the British
navy. He also represented storms at sea very
successfully. Redgrave has been unable to trace
his name later than 1809 in the books of the Royal
Academy. Among his -works are :

Admiral Parker's Victory. 1781.

The Loss of the ' Centaur.' 17S5.

Lord Rodney's Victory. 1785.

The British Fleet at Spithead escaping from the burning

' Boyle.' 1796.
Commencement of the Battle of Trafalgar. 1806.

DODGSON, GEORGE HAYDOCK, who was born at
Liverpool in 1811, was at first apprenticed to

77



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



George Stephenson, the engineer. His duties in
that capacity increased an innate love of art,
and in 1836 was published a volume, illustrated
by him, descriptive of the scenery of the Whitby
and Pickering Railway. Giving up engineering,
Dodgson went to London, where he was for gome
time employed by architects and several illus-
trated newspapers to make drawings. After a
connection of some years with the New Society
of Painters in Water-Colours, he was elected in
1848 an Associate-Exhibitor of the Society of
Painters in Water-Colours, and became a full
member four years later. His contributions to
that society were usually landscapes. He was
especially fond of painting beech trees. Dodgson
died in London in 1880.
DOERBECK, FRANZ BURCHARD. See BURCHARD

DOERBECK.

DOERR, OTTO ERICH FRIEDRIOH AUGUST, was
born at Ludwigslust in Mecklenburg-Schwerin in
1831, and died at Dresden in 1868. In the Dresden
Gallery is the ' Interior of a Parisian Studio ' by him.

DOES. See VAN DER DOES.

DOESBURGH, F., a Dutch engraver, flourished
from about 1680 to 1714. He engraved a plate
representing 'Admiral van Tromp engaging the
English Fleet.' We have also by him several
prints of the old Roman customs ; they are etched
and finished with the graver in a very indifferent
style.

DOETECUM. See DUETECUM.

DOFIN. See DAUPHIN.

DOIX, FRANQOIS JOSEPH ALOYSE, a French land-
scape painter, was born in Paris in 1777. The
Museum of Tours possesses some works by this
artist, the date of whose death is unknown.

DOLCE, Luzio, (or DOLCI,) of Castel Durante in
the state of Urbino, who flourished in 1589, is
commended for his altar-pieces and other pictures
in the churches there. It is said that he was
employed by the Duke of Urbino to paint at the
Imperiale. He executed many works at Rome, as
well as at Castel Durante, and resided in the
former city for some time. There are few par-
ticulars recorded of him, though he is often
mentioned with high commendation.

DOLCI, AGNESE, was the daughter of Carlo
Dolci, and arrived at some degree of excellence in
copying the works of her father. She also painted
some pictures of her own composition, but never
approached the merit of Carlo. She died in 1686.
Among her own works are :



Modena. Gallery.
Paris. Louvre.



Siena.



The Virgin adoring the Infant Jesus.
The Consecration of the Bread and

Wine.
Institute. Virgin and Child, with St. Joseph.



DOLCI, CARLO, or CARLINO, who was born at
Florence in 1616, was a scholar of Jacopo Vignali.
Without the possession of much genius or inven-
tion, he excited considerable interest by a number
of pleasing and highly-finished pictures, chiefly
confined to devout subjects, and most frequently
representing heads of our Saviour, and of the
Virgin. These are not so much admired for par-
ticular beauty of character, as for a soft and
tranquil expression of devotion in the patient suf-
fering of Christ, the plaintive sorrow of the Mater
Dolorosa, or the compunction of a Saint in peni-
tence. Subjects of that description he treated
with great delicacy and tenderness. The general
tone of his colouring is well appropriated to the
character of his subjects, nothing is harsh or
78



obstrusive, all is modest, placid, and harmonious.
He generally painted in a small size, though there
are at Florence some pictures by him as large as
life. His small pictures of heads of the Madonna
are more numerous, and are highly valued by the
admirers of polished and laborious finishing. He
died at Florence in 1686. There are many repe-
titions of his small pictures by his pupils, Loma
and Mancini, and his daughter Agnese. Many of
his pictures are in England. The following are
some of his best works :



Berlin.



Gallei'y. St. John the Evangelist,



Cassel. Gallery.

Copenhagen. Gallery.



Darmstadt.
Dresden.



Dulwich.


Florence.



Gallery.
Gallery.



College.


Pitti Pal.



Corsini Pal.
Uffizi.



Glasgow. Gallery.

London. National Gall.
Munich. Gallery.



Petersburg. Hermitage,



Rome.
Vienna.



Corsini Pal.
Gallery.



f Christ breaking the Bread.

St. Cecilia.

Christ.

The Madonna.

St. Dorothea and an Angel.
The Daughter of Herodias with
the Head of St. John the
Baptist.

St. Cecilia (painted for the Grand-
Duke Cosmo III.).

Christ blessing the Bread and
Wine.

St. Catharine of Siena.

St. Veronica.

His own Portrait when young.

Sleeping St. John.

Madonna and Child.

The Duchess Vittoria della
Rovere.

Diogenes.

St. Peter weeping.

St. Rosa. 1668.

Moses.

St. John the Evangelist.

St. Margaret. 1664.

St. Andrew before the Cross.
1646.

St. Charles Borromeo.

St. Francis Xavier.

St. Nicholas of Tolentino.

Christ in the Garden.

Ecce Homo.

St. Casimir of Poland.

St. Dominic.

Vision of St. John the Evan-
gelist.

St. Sebastian.

Madonna and Child, with St.
Salome.

St. Mary Magdalen.

St. Galla Placidia. 1675.

His own Portrait. 1674.

St. Lucia.

The Saviour seated, with Saints.

St. Peter.

St. Simon.

Adoration of the Magi.

Madonna and Child.

Virgin and Child.

Madonna & Child with Flowers.

Virgin with a Lamb.

Penitent Magdalen.

Infant Christ.

St. Agnes.

Ecce Homo.

Mater Dolorosa.

Magdalen.

St. Anthony.

St. Catharine.

St. Cecilia.

St. Apollonia.

Madonna and Child.

Sincerity.

Mater Dolorosa.



DOLENDO, BARTHOLOMEUS, a Dutch engraver,
was born at Leyden about the year 1560, and is
presumed to have been instructed in engraving by



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