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PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.




graver, in an open, clear style. There are by him
several plates, some of which are from his own
designs. He occasionally marked his prints with his
name, but more frequently with one of these ciphers,

Among other engrav-
ings by him are the
following:

Jonah in the Sea, swallowed by the Whale ; circular.
Jonah thrown back on the Sea-shore ; the same.
A Dutch Merry-making ; after his own design.
Adam and Eve taking the Forbidden Fruit ; after C.

van Maniler.
Christ appearing to the Magdalen ; . Dolendo, inv. et

fee.

The Holy Family ; after M. Coxae.
St. John preaching in the Wilderness.
Pyramus and Thisbe ; after Crispin van den Broeck.
Jupiter and Ceres ; an allegorical subject ; after B.

Spranyer.
The Assumption of the Virgin.

DOLENDO, ZACHARIAS, was a brother of Bar-
tholomeus Dolendo, whom he surpassed both in
style and in correctness. He was born at Leyden
in 1561, and is said by Huber to have been a
disciple of Jacob De Ghein. There are some por-
traits by this master, which are not inferior in
neatness to those by J. Wierix ; his plates are
frequently marked with this cipher ig\ There are
by him : 4?J.

William, Prince of Orange ; half-length, in armour.

1581.
Andromeda chained to the Rock ; finely drawn ; after

his own design.
Adam and Eve embracing, whilst Eve receives the

Apple from the Serpent ; after B. Spranger.
St. Martin dividing his Cloak with two Beggars ; after

the same.

The Continence of Scipio; after A. Bloemaert.
The Virgin and Infant, with two Angels; after J. De

Ghein.

The Crucifixion ; after the same.
A Set of small Plates of the Gods and Goddesses;

copied from the larger ones by H. Goltzius.

DOLIVAR, JUAN, is said by Huber to have been
born at Saragossa in 1641. He studied engraving
in Paris, and engraved some of the plates of
ornamental and decorative subjects for Berain's
'Ornemens.' He was also employed in the set of
the ' Little Conquests ' of Louis XIV. His works
are inferior to those of Le Pautre and Cbauveau.

DOLLE, WILLIAM, an English engraver, was
born in London about 1600. He was chiefly
employed on portraits for the booksellers. These
are sought after rather on account of their scarcity
than their merit as engravings. Among them are
the following :

Sir Henry Wotton, Provost of Eton.

Mark Frank, Master of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge.

John Cosin, Bishop of Durham.

George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham.

Robert Sanderson, Bishop of Lincoln.

John Milton.

Robert, Earl of Essex.

Samuel Botley, Short-hand Writer.

DOLOBELLA, TOMMASO, a native of Belluno,
who was born about the year 1580, and flourished
about 1630, was according to Ridolfi a scholar of
Antonio Vassilacchi, called Aliense. He excelled in
painting portraits, and was invited to the court of
Poland by Sigismund III., where he painted the
royal family and several of the nobility, and was
favoured with the particular protection of that
monarch. He painted a few historical subjects,
but is more celebrated as a portrait painter. In



the Sala del Senato in the Ducal Palace, Venice,
is a representation by him of 'The Doge and
Procurators adoring the Host.'

DOMENCHIN DE CHAVANNE, PIERRE SALO-
MON, a French landscape painter, who was born in
Paris, in 1672. He was received into the Academy
in 1709, the picture which he painted upon the occa-
sion, ' Les Pasteurs,' being now in the Louvre. He
was an artist of moderate ability, and was employed
in the Gobelins manufactory, where he died in 1744.

DOMENECH, ANTONIO, a painter of Valencia,
who flourished in the latter half of the 16th century
and devoted himself to Scriptural subjects, was a
scholar of Nicolas Borras, whom he assisted in
several of his works, and whose manner he so
closely imitated, that even at Valencia, where the
productions of Borras may be supposed to be
well known, the works of Domenech are attributed
to him.

DOMENICHINO. See ZAMPIEEI.

DOMENICO, FRANCESCO, who was born at Tre-
viso in 1488, studied under Giorgione. His own
portrait, dated 1512, is in the Hermitage at St.
Petersburg.

DOMENICO, SANO m. See SANO DI PIETRO.

DOMENICO DI BARTOLO. See GHERZO.

DOMENICO DI MICHELINO, who lived in the
15th century, was the pupil of Fra Angelico. He
painted the portrait of Dante from a design by
Baldovinetti,in the Church of Santa Maria dei Fiore
at Florence. The dates of his birth and death are
alike unknown.

DOMENICO DI PACE. See BECCAFUMI.

DOMENICO FIORENTINO. See DEL BARBIERE.

DOMENICO VENEZIANO. See VENEZIANO.

DOMENIQUE, JEAN, was a native of France,
who resided chiefly at Rome, where he died in
1684. He was a scholar of Claude Lorrain, and
was a successful copyist and imitator of the works
of that master.

DOMER, JAQDES, (DOOMER, or DEMER,) a Dutch
artist, was born in 1647, and nourished about 1680.
He is better known by his drawings than by his
pictures in oil. His manner approximates to that
of Rembrandt, and it may be believed that his
dark landscapes have been ascribed to the latter.
His compositions are simple, but strikingly true.

DOMINGO, Luis, a Spanish painter and sculptor,
born at Valencia in 1718, was H scholar of Hipolito
Robira in painting, and of Bautista Balaguer in
sculpture. The Dominican convent at Valencia
possessed several pictures by him, among which
was one of St. Louis Bertran. Domingo died at
Valencia in 1767. His works in sculpture are to
be seen in several churches of that city.

DOMINICI, BERNARDO, a Neapolitan painter
and writer on art, flourished about the year 1740.
He studied landscape painting under Joachim
Franz Beisch, a German artist, who passed some
time at Naples, and attached himself to the clear
and finished style of that master. He also painted
what are called ' bambocciate.' In 1742 and 1743,
he published at Naples, in two volumes, ' Vite de'
Pittori, Scultori, ed Architetti Napolitani.'

DOMINICI, FRANCESCO, a native of Treviso, was
a pupil of Paris Bordone. Ridolfi commends a
work by him in the dome of the Banca della Com-
pagnia della Madonna at Treviso, representing a
' Procession of a Bishop and several Canons,' which
is dated 1572. Dominici also excelled as a portrait
painter, but did not survive his thirty-fifth year.

DONADO, ADHIANO, a Spanish monk of the

79



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



order of Barefooted Carmelites at Cordova, painted
some excellent works for his convent. He died at
a great, age in 1630. The Lille Museum has a
'Flagellation of Christ' by him.

DONALD, JOHN MILNE, a Scotch artist born at
Nairn in 1819. He began the study of art in
Glasgow at a very early age, having from a child
shown great desire to become an artist. In 1840
he went to Paris, and was there for some years, and
then he settled down in London, where for four
years he painted, and his works were very highly
esteemed. Amongst his patrons and constant
admirers was the poet-banker Rogers. After-
wards he returned to his native land, and is never
known to have visited England again, whilst all
his exhibits were confined to Scottish Galleries.
He died in Scotland in 1866, and three of his
finest works, 'A Highland Stream,' 'Bowling Bay,'
and ' Loch Goil,' were exhibited at Glasgow in 1878.
DONALDSON, ANDKEW, a Scotch landscape
painter in water-colours, was born at Comber, near
Belfast. Taken by his father, an operative weaver,
to Glasgow, he met with an accident, which event-
ually led to his devoting himself entirely to art, in
the pursuit of which he visited many parts of the
United Kingdom. He died in 1846 at Glasgow,
where he had obtained a large teaching connection.
In the Glasgow Corporation Galleries there are by
him the ' Old Theatre Royal, Glasgow, after the
fire in 1829,' and a 'Scotch Highland Village.'

DONALDSON, JOHN, was born at Edinburgh in
1737, and distinguished himself as a miniature
painter, both in enamel and water-colours. In the
year 1764, and again in 1768, he obtained the
premium given by the Society of Arts for the best
picture in enamel. He occasionally amused him-
self with the point, and etched several plates of
beggars, after Rembrandt, which possess consider-
able merit. He died in London in 1801.

DONATO, of Pavia, flourished at the close of the

fifteenth century, and is the author of a ' Christ

crucified, between the Virgin and St. John,' in the

hospital of Savona ; also of a ' Virgin in Glory

with Saints' (signed in 1507), in the Louvre at Paris.

DONATO VENEZIANO. See VENEZIANO.

DONAUER, LORENZ, was an obscure German

engraver, by whom there is only known a work

representing 'St. Anthony,' after Albrecht Diirer,

which he executed about the year 1539.

DONDDCCI, GIOVANNI ANDREA, called IL MAS-
TELLETTA, was born at Bologna in 1575. He
was at first a scholar of the Carracci, but did not
long remain under their tuition. His impetuous
disposition disdaining the control of academic pre-
cision, he attempted to establish a new style,
founded on a spirited and graceful design, in
imitation of the works of Parmigiano and Tiarini,
which he particularly admired, and a promptness
of execution which was natural to him. The novel
manner of Donducci was not without its admirers ;
and he was employed in a great number of works
for the public edifices at Bologna, where are his
principal works. He also painted landscapes, which
were entirely in the style of the Carracci, and were
much esteemed, particularly at Rome. Annibale
advised him to establish himself in that city, and
to devote himself to those subjects ; a counsel by
no means agreeable to Donducci. His most admired
performance is his ' St. Irene drawing the Arrow
from the Breast of St. Sebastian," at the church of
the Celestines. He died at Bologna in 1655. The
following of his works are also preserved :
80



Bologna. & Domenico



S. Salvatore.
S. Francesco.
/ Mendicanti.
S. Paolo.



Florence.
Modena.



Paris.



Fwacoteca.
Vffiii.
Museum.



Louvre.



St. Dominic restoring to life the
Man killed by the furious
Horse.

The Storm.

The Resurrection of Christ.

The Last Supper.

The Flight into Egypt.

Christ iu the Garden.

Christ bearing the Cross.

Christ surrounded by Angels.

Charity.

Abraham and the Three Angels.

Elias sleeping.

Portrait of a Painter.

Finding of Moses.

St. John baptizing.

Christ and the Virgin appearing
to St. Francis of Assisi.

DONELLI, CARLO, called CARLO VIMERCATI, who
was born at Milan in 1660, was a scholar of the
Procaccini. He exhibited but few of his pictures
at Milan ; he painted more at Codogno, and in his
best manner. He died in 1715.

DONGEN, DIONYS VAN, born at Dort in 1748,
was a scholar of J. Xavery, at the Hague. He
painted landscapes and cattle in the manner of
his master for some time ; but having removed
with his parents to Rotterdam, he studied the
works of Paul Potter, Cuyp, Wynants, and other
masters, which, with a constant attention to nature,
caused a sensible alteration in his style. His
works found ready purchasers among the English,
French, and Germans, as well as among his own
countrymen. He died at Rotterdam in 1819. In
the Stadel Gallery at Frankfort is a 'Cattle-piece'
by him.

DONI, ADONB, (or DONO DEI DONI,) who was
born at Assisi, early in the 16th century, is said to
have been a disciple of Pietro Perugino. His style
retained but little of the Gothic manner of that
master, and in his later years he abandoned the
style of the school of Raphael, and adopted that of
Michelangelo. He worked chiefly at Assisi, and
after that city most at Fuligno, but all trace of
his work at the latter place has disappeared. He
also painted in Perugia, and throughout Umbria.
In the church of San Francesco, at Perugia, is a
picture by this master of the ' Last Judgment ; '
and one of the 'Adoration of the Kings' is in
San Pietro in the same city. There are in the
Lower Church of the Franciscan Convent at
Assisi frescoes by him representing the ' Preach-
ing and Martyrdom of St. Stephen,' and in the
small refectory is the ' Last Supper,' painted in
1573, which was probably his last work. Doni
died at Assisi in 1575. Vasari is wrong in stating
that he was a nephew of Taddeo Bartoli. In the
Berlin Gallery there is by him a ' Madonna with the
Infant Jesus,' who is represented as reaching after
a book which is in the Virgin's hand.

DONNE, W., a Dutch engraver, flourished about
the year 1680. Among other prints, he engraved
a plate representing ' Venus and Cupid,' in a land-
scape, with other figures in the distance, after A.
Elsheimer. It is etched in a slight, poor style.

DONNEKER. See DE NECKER.

DONNET, S. This artist is mentioned by Strutt
as the engraver of a very indifferent print repre-
senting a ' Man seated, reading a book.'

DONNINI, GIROLAMO, was born at Correggio in
1681, and studied first at Modena under Francesco
Stringa, afterwards under Giovanni Giuseppe dal
Sole at Bologna, and ultimately at Forli, under
Carlo Cignani. He was chiefly employed in easel



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PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



pictures, although he occasionally painted larger
works for churches. In the Madonna di Galiera, at
Bologna, is an altar-piece representing 'St. Anthony
of Padua.' There are some of his works in the
churches of the Romagna, and at Turin, which are
not unworthy of a scholar of Cignani. In the
Modena Gallery are two pictures by him of the
' Birth of Christ.'

DONO, PAOLO DI, called PAOLO UCCELLO, from
his love of painting birds, was born at Florence in
1397, and in early youth was apprenticed to Lorenzo
Ghiberti, the founder of the famous bronze gates
of the Baptistery of that city. It is doubtful from
whom he learned to paint, or from whom he acquired
the laws of perspective for which he became so
famous, although it is known that Manetti taught
him geometry. Vasari says that he wasted so
much of his time over the study of perspective
" that he became more needy than famous." Four
paintings of battle-scenes executed by him for
the Bartolini family, at Gualfonda, near Florence,
are wonderful specimens of this artist's thorough
knowledge of foreshortening and perspective.
Of these designs one is in the National Gallery,
another is in the Uffizi, a third is in the Louvre,
and the fourth is still in private hands in Flor-
ence. The Louvre also possesses a panel by
this artist which contains the portraits of Giotto,
Donatello, Brunelleschi, Giovanni Manetti, and
himself, as the representatives of painting, sculp-
ture, architecture, mathematics, and perspective.
It is certain that he lived in Florence nearly all
his life, although during some short period in it
he may have been at Padua, since Morelli states
that the frescoes of the palace of the Vitaliani
were executed by him. About the year 1436 he
painted in the cathedral at Florence the colossal
equestrian portrait of Sir John Hawkwood, the
adventurer and soldier. This chiaroscuro painting,
which is in terra verde, displays a wonderful power
of foreshortening and proportion, and is intended
to imitate a stone statue seen aloft standing out
from the wall of the church. His masterpieces are
the series of frescoes imitating bas-reliefs painted
from about 1446 to 1448 in the cloisters of Santa
Maria Novella. These paintings represent the
' Creation of Animals,' the ' Creation of Man,' the
'Temptation of Eve,' the 'Expulsion from Eden,'
' Adam und Eve labouring by the sweat of their
brow,' the 'Sacrifice and Death of Abel,' the
' Building of the Ark,' the ' Entry of the Animals,'
the 'Deluge,' 'Noah's Sacrifice,' and the 'Inebriety
of Noah.' Genuine paintings by this master are
very rare, although records prove that he executed
several altar-pieces for churches in Florence and
in Urbino. Paolo died at Florence in 1475. The
Scolopi College, near the church of Sant' Agata, at
Urbino, possesses a predella with six subjects relat-
ing to the theft of a pax, which Messrs. Crowe and
Cavalcaselle consider to be a genuine production by
Paolo Uccello. His principal paintings are :

Florence. Cathedral. Equestrian Statue of Sir John
Hawkwood (Captain-General of
the Florentines, known in Italy
as Giovanni AcutoJ. Fresco exe-
cuted in terra verde.
{Subjects from the Book of Genesis :
the Creation, the Fall, the Deluge,
Noah's Sacrifice, be. Frescoes
in terra verde in the cloister ; most
of them in part destroyed.
,, Uffid. Battle-piece.

VOL. ii. Q



London. Nat. Gall. The Battle.

Paris. Louvre. Bust portraits of Giotto, Dona-

tello, Brunelleschi, Giovanni
Manetti, and himself.
Battle-piece.

Urbino. Scolopi College. Legend of the Theft of a Pax.

DONOSO, JOSEF XIMENEZ. See XIMENEZ DONOSO.

DONVE, JEAN FRANCOIS, a French painter, was
born at Saint-Amand in 1736. He was a pupil of
Louis Watteau, and of Greuze, and so closely
imitated the style of the latter that many of his
pictures have been sold as those of his master. The
Museum of Lille has three portraits by him, one
being that of Sauvage, the enamel painter, and the
other two portraits of himself. He died at Lille
in 1799.

DONZELLO, PIERO and IPPOLITO, (or DEL DON-
ZELLO,) were two brothers, the sons by different
mothers of Francesco d' Antonio di Jacopo, bailiff
(' donzello') of the Signoria of Florence, and were
both born in that city Piero in 1451, and Ippolito
in 1455. The teacher of Piero is unknown. Ip-
polito was the pupil of Neri di Bicci from 1469
to 1471, and the brothers were companions in the
' Studio ' at Florence up to 1480. In 1481, or soon
after, they went to Naples to decorate the palace
of Poggio Reale. which was then being built for
Alfonso I., from the designs of Giuliano da Majano,
and it is not unlikely that Ippolito died in that
city. Piero died at Florence in 1509 ; but the
death of Ippolito is not registered. They both
assisted Antonio Solario, called II Zingaro, in the
frescoes in the cloisters of the monastery of San
Severino at Naples, and in the Museum of that city
may be seen two ' Crucifixions,' a 'Virgin and Child
with Saints," and other paintings assigned to them.

DOO, GEORGE THOMAS, an English engraver,
was born in January 1800. He studied under
Charles Heath, and published his first plate, a
portrait of the Duke of York, after Lawrence, in
1824. In 1825 he visited Paris, and spent some
time in the ateliers of the French engravers. On
his return to London he opened a school in the
Savoy, for study both from life and from the
antique. He also lectured upon painting. In 1836
he was appointed engraver in ordinary to William
IV., and ID 1842 to Queen Victoria. In 1856 he was
elected an Associate of the Royal Academy, and in
1857 a full member. In 1861 Doo became President
of the Artis's' Annuity Fund, and in 1863 he was
a witness before the Royal Academy Commission
at Westminster. He died at Sutton, Surrey,
November 13, 1886. Among his best plates are :

The Infant Christ ; after Raphael. EcceHomo; after
Correyyio. The Combat ; after Etty. John Knox
preaching ; after Wilkif. Pilgrims in sight of Kome ;
after Eastlakf. The Raising of Lazarus ; after Seb.
del Piombo. St. Augustine and St. Monic-a ; after
A ry Schrjfcr. Yorick and the Grisette ; after Newton.
Gevartius (Cornelius van derGeest); after I'antlyck.
The Calmady Children; after Lawrence. Six plates
for the ' Elgin Marbles,' published by the trustees
of the British Museum. Several plates in Jones's
' N tional Gallery.'

DOOMER, JAQDES. See DOMER.

DOOMS, CASPAR, an engraver in mezzotint,
worked at Prague from 1644 to 1675, and after-
waids at Vienna and Mayence. His best known
plate is an ' Ecce Homo,' after Alurecht Diirer,
now very rare.

DOOliNIK, JAN VAN, a painter of Leyden, is
said to have produced pictures in the manner of

81



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Wouwerman. He also painted historical subjects
and portraits. It is not known exactly at what
period he lived.

DOORT, P. VAN, was a Dutch engraver, who
worked entirely with the graver, and was a humble
imitator of the style of Cornelis Cort. Among
other prints by him, is one after Bernardino Pas-
sari, representing the ' Holy Family,' in which St.
Elizabeth is presenting an apple to the Infant Christ.

DORBAY, , a French engraver, flourished to-
wards the end of the 17th century. He en-
graved, among other plates, some views of the
Koyal Palaces in France.

DORCY, PIEBKE JOSEPH DEDREUX. See DED-

REUX-DORCY.

DORlil, Louis CHRISTOPHE GUSTAVE PAUL, a
French historical painter and illustrator of books,
was born at Strassburg in 1833. His name was
originally DORER, a not unfrequent German name,
which he modified into the French equivalent by
which he became so widely known. In 1848, when
but fifteen years of age, he began to exhibit at the
Salon landscape sketches in pen and ink which
showed considerable ability, and in the same year
he became one of the regular contributors to the
' Journal pour rire.' He also contributed a large
number of designs to the 'Journal pour tous.'
His earliest exhibited works were the ' Battle of
the Alma,' in the Salon of 1855, and the ' Battle of
Inkermann,' in the Salon of 1857, but his best pic-
ture, and that which first brought him into notice
as a painter, was ' Paolo and Francesca da Rimini,'
exhibited in 1863. This was followed, among
others, by ' The Titans,' a drawing heightened
with white, in 1866, and ' The Neophyte ' in 1868.
Dora's ambition was to win fame as an historical
painter, but in this he failed. Although gifted with
marvellous fertility of imagination and wonderful
facility of execution, he nevertheless possessed
grave defects. Nowhere are his faults of composi-
tion and drawing more manifest than on the enor-
mous canvases exhibited in the Dor^ Gallery in
London. ' Christ leaving the Prjetorium ' (1867-72)
and 'Christ's Entry into Jerusalem' (1876), each
measuring twenty feet in height and thirty feet in
length, are works to which he devoted his utmost
energy, but which add nothing to his reputation.
Besides these his most ambitious works were his
' Ecce Homo ! ' (1877), and ' Moses before Pharaoh '
(1878-80). His ' Tobit and the Angel,' painted in
1865, is in the Luxembourg Gallery.

It is, however, as a designer of illustrations for
books that the wonderful versatility of his genius
becomes most apparent. The designs for the
'Contes drolatiques ' of Balzac, published in 1856,
are masterpieces of caricature, which breathe the
true medieval spirit. They were preceded by
the illustrations to ' Rabelais,' issued in 1854, among
which that of the ' Monks of Seville ' is inimitable
in its humour, and by those to the ' Legend of the
Wandering Jew,' issued in 1856. The ' Contes
drolatiques ' and ' Rabelais ' are unsurpassed even
by the designs for Dante's ' Inferno,' terrible as
are the latter in their weird imagination. These
were published in 1861, accompanied by a blank-
verse translation of the text by W. M. Rossetti,
and were followed in the same year by the illustra-
tions to the ' Contes ' of Perrault, and in 1863 by a
series of designs for ' Don Quixote,' which are care-
ful studies of Spanish life. The ' Purgatorio ' and
' Paradiso ' of Dante, completing the ' Divina Corn-
media,' were not published until 1868. The designs

82



for the ' Bible ' (1865-66), Milton's 'Paradise Lost*
(1866), Tennyson's 'Idyls of the King' (1867-68),
La Fontaine's 'Fables' (1867), Hood's 'Poems'
(1870), Baron Davillier's 'Espagne' (1873), Cole-
ridge's 'Ancient Mariner' (1876), Louis Enault's
1 Londres ' (1877), the ' Orlando Furioso ' of Ariosto
(1879), and Poe's ' Raven ' (1883) the last work
on which he was engaged marked the grades in a
constantly descending scale of genius and of power.

Dore's reputation as an artist does not rest ex-
clusively on his paintings and designs. He pos-
sessed also considerable ability as a sculptor, and
was engaged upon the monument to the elder
Dumas when death struck him down. A colossal
vase decorated with groups of figures was sent by
him to the Exposition Universelle at Paris in 1878.

Gustave Dor6 died in Paris in 1883. He left
unfinished a series of illustrations to Shakespeare,
and unaccomplished the intention to execute a
statue of the great dramatist. The following are
his most important pictures:

The Battle of the Alma. (Salon, 1855.)

The Battle of Inkermann. (Salon, 1857.)

Paolo and Francesca da Rimini. (Salon, 1863.)

Tobit and the Angel. 1865. (Luxembourg Gallery.)

The Neophyte. (Salon, 1868.)

The Mountebank's Family. (Salon, 1868.)



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