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Andromeda. 1868.

The Triumph of Christianity over Paganism. 1868.

Christian Martyrs. 1871.

Christ leaving the Prajtorium. 1867-72.

The Massacre of the Innocents. 1869-72.

The Night of the Crucifixion. 1872-73.

The Dream of Pilate's Wife. 1873-74.

Christ's Entry into Jerusalem. 1876.

Ecce Homo ! 1877.

The Ascension. 1879.

Moses before Pharaoh. 1878-30.

A Day Dream. 1882.

The Vale of Tears. 1832. R.E-G.

trian landscape painter, was born in 1741, and died
in 1765. A ' Forest Party ' by him is in the Vienna

DORIGNY, Louis, a French historical painter
and engraver, was a son of Michel Dorigny, and
was born in Paris in 1654. His father died when
he was only ten years of age, and he was placed
under the tuition of Charles Le Brun. On leaving
that master he studied for four years at Rome,
visited Gubbio and Foligno, and from thence went
to Venice, where he resided for ten years, and
executed many decorative paintings. He then
went to Verona, where he passed the rest of his
life, and gave proof of his ability as a painter
both in oil and in fresco. In 1704 he visited Paris
and became a candidate for admission into the
Academy, but was excluded through the influence
of the architect Mansard. In 1711 he was sum-
moned to Vienna by Prince Eugene, in whose
palace he painted the ceilings of the grand stair-
case and of some other apartments. He died at
Verona in 1742. His ' Susannah and the Elders '
is in the Bordeaux Museum. He executed some
etchings in a free, painter-like style, among which
are the following:

A set of thirty-two vignettes, with the title, from his

own designs, for an Italian edition of the ' Pensees

Chretiennes ' of Pere Bouhours.
Six subjects from Ovid's Metamorphoses.
Five Emblems of Horace ; the designs for three of these

are in the Louvre.

A View of the Amphitheatre at Verona.
The Descent of the Saracens at the Port of Ostia ; after



DORIGNY, MICHEL, a French painter and en-
graver, was born at St. Quentin in 1617, and was
brought up under Simon Vouet, whose daughter
he married. He painted historical subjects in the
style of his master ; and some of his pictures are in
the chateau of Vincennes. His ' Flora and Zephyr '
is now in the Louvre, and an 'Allegory' by him
is in the Madrid Gallery. He is, however, better
known as the engraver of several plates etched in
a bold, spirited style, but with a considerable
degree of harshness in the effect which is very
disagreeable. Dorigny died in Paris in 1665. The
following are his principal plates, all of which are
after the pictures of Simon Vouet :

The Holy Family. 1649.

The Nativity.

The Adoration of the Magi ; in four sheets, in the

manner of a frieze.
Jupiter giving Apollo the conduct of the Chariot of the


Apollo killing the Python.
Peace descending on the Earth.
Venus at her Toilet.
Venus, Cupid, and Hope, plucking Feathers from the

Wings of Time.
Mercury and the Graces.
Iris cutting the hair of Dido.
The Eape of Europa.

He also engraved from his own designs :

A set of Six Bacchanalian subjects.
A Caricature of the architect Mansard, entitled ' La

DORIGNY, Sir NICOLAS, a French engraver, was
the youngest son of Michel Dorigny, and was born
in Paris in 1658. He was brought up to the bar, and
followed that profession until he was thirty years of
age, when, in consequence of deafness, he turned
his thoughts to the arts, and visited Italy, where
he remained twenty-eight years. His first plates
were executed with the point ; and if we were to
judge of his talent by his early prints, his reputa-
tion would be very short of that which he acquired
by a union of the point and the graver in his later
productions. He took for his model the admirable
works of Gerard Audran ; and although he by no
means equalled that celebrated artist, either in the
style of hia drawing, or in the picturesque effect
of his light and shade, his prints will always be
esteemed both for their merit as engravings and
for the importance of the subjects of which he
made choice. In 1711 he was invited to England
by Queen Anne to engrave the Cartoons of Raphael
at Hampton Court, which hs finished in 1719,
and in the following year he was knighted by King
George I. Whilst he was in England he painted
some portraits of the nobility, but with no great
success. He returned to France in 1725, and was
received into the Academy in the same year. He
exhibited some pictures of sacred subjects at the
Salon from 1739 to 1743, and died in Paris in 1746.
The following are his principal prints :

Nine plates of the Seven Planets, and the Creation of
the Sun and Moon ; after the paintings by Raphael
in the Chigi Chapel in La Madonna del Popolo.

The Cartoons at Hampton Court ; after the same ; eight
plates, including the title.

The Transfiguration ; after the same.

The History of Cupid and Psyche, and the Triumph
of Galatea, twelve plates, including the title ; after
the paintings from the designs of Raphael, in the

The Descent from the Cross ; after Danielle da Volterra.

St. Peter and St. John healing the Lame Man at the
Gate of the Temple ; after L. Ciaoli.

G 2

The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian ; after Domenichiito,

The Martyrdom of St. Petrouilla ; after Guercino.

St. Francis kneeling before the Virgin and Child ; after

A . Carracci,

St. Catharine in Meditation ; after Carlo Cignani.
St. Peter walking on the Sea ; after Lanfranco.
The Virgin and Child, with St. Charles Borromeo and

St. Liborius ; after B. Lamberti.
The Trinity ; after Guido Reni.
The Birth of the Virgin ; after Carlo Maratti.
The Adoration of the Magi ; after the same.
The Virgin and Child, with St. Charles Borromeo and St.

Ignatius ; after the same.
Eight plates of the paintings in the Cupola of St. Agnes ;

after Giro Ferri.

DORN, JOSEPH, was bom at Gratz-Sambach,
near Pommersfelden in 1759, and studied in the
galleries of Munich, Vienna, and Diisseldorf. He
copied to deception the cabinet pictures of Frans
van Mieris, Gerard Dou, Terborch, Van der Werff,
and others, and was particularly celebrated for
his skill in restoring old paintings. He died at
Bumberg in 1841. His wife, ROSALIE DORN, ex-
celled in portrait painting ; she was the daughter
of the historical painter Treu.

DORNER, JOHANN JAKOB, the elder, who was
born at Ehrenstetten, near Freiburg in Breisgau, in
1741, was at first a pupil of Rosch at Freiburg and
of Ignaz Bauer at Augsburg. He afterwards visited
Italy, the Netherlands, and Paris ; and excelled as a
painter of historical and genre subjects. He was a
professor and director of the Gallery at Munich in
1770, and died in that city in 1813. In the Darm-
stadt Gallery is a picture of ' Two Soldiers and a
Maiden ' by him ; and in the Pinakothek at Munich,
a ' Linen Draper,' which is a portrait of his wife,
dated 1775.

DORNER, JOHANN JAKOB, a Bavarian landscape
painter, the son of Johann Jakob Dorner the elder,
was born at Munich in 1775. He was instructed
in art by his father and by Mannlich, but he
afterwards studied the works of Claude Lorrain
and Karel Du Jardin. He travelled by himself
through the picturesque regions of Bavaria, Switz-
erland, and France. His works are distinguished
for spirited composition and taste in their execu-
tion. In 1803 he became Restorer, and in 1808
Inspector of the Royal Gallery at Munich, and
was subsequently elected a member of the Aca-
demies of Hanau, Vienna, Berlin, and Munich.
He died at Munich in 1852. The following works
by him are in public collections :

Berlin. Gallery. A Forest Eoad. 1817.

Cassel. Gallery. Two "Waterfalls.

Munich, finakothek. View of the Walchensee, in the

Mountains of Upper Bavaria.
Waterfall, with a Huntsman.

Landscape and Mill near Pasing.
Landscape in the Tyrol during a
Thunderstorm .

DORNER, JOHANN KONBAD, an Austrian painter,
was born at Egg, near Bregenz, in 1810, and
studied historical painting under Cornelius. In
1835 he went to St. Petersburg, and there painted
many portraits and altarpieces. He afterwards
returned to Munich, and in 1860 went to Rome,
where he died in 1866. He executed his best
works whilst in Rome ; they are mostly of a re-
ligious character. A ' Madonna and Child, with
St. John,' and the 'Infant Christ' are in the
Pinakothek at Munich.

DORRELL, EDMUND, an English water-colour
landscape painter, was bom at Warwick in 1778.



He exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1807 to
1828, and at the Water-Colour Society from 1809 to
1818. He died in London in 1857. There are by
him at the South Kensington Museum :

On the Thames.

Landscape, with cottage, church, figures, &c.

Fisherman and Boats, Mount Edgcumbe.

Crowhurst, near Hastings.

View from Box Hill.

DORSTE, I. V. This signature appears on a
profile portrait of a Man, in the Dresden Gallery,
which by Vosmaer is ascribed to Geraert Drost.

DOSSI, BATTISTA, was an Italian painter of
landscapes and caricatures, who was a scholar
of Lorenzo Costa, and worked mostly in conjunc-
tion with his brother Giovanni. In the Costabili
Gallery at Ferrara are four landscapes by him ;
and in San Pietro at Modena are other works by
him. He also executed two fantastic landscapes
which are in the Palazzo Borghese at Rome, and
assisted Raphael for a short time in 1520. He
died in 1548. The Dffizi, Florence, has a ' Female
Saint' by him.

DOSSI, GIOVANNI, commonly called Dosso DOSSI,
and sometimes GIOVANNI DI Nicol,6 DI LUTERO,
appears to have been born about the year 1479 in
the vicinity of Ferrara. His surname is supposed
to have been derived from the village of Dosso, in
the province of Ferrara. He was in 1512 a disciple
of Lorenzo Costa in Mantua. He afterwards, with
his brother Battista, visited Rome and Venice, and
they there passed eleven years, study ing the works of
Giorgione and Titian, till they formed a style which
may be called their own, and which, although not
totally divested of the Gothic, is distinguished by
originality of in vention, and great harmony of colour.
Giovanni excelled in painting figures, in which Bat-
tista was less successful ; but Battista distinguished
himself as a painter of landscape, in which Lomazzo
considers him little inferior to Gaudenzio Ferrari,
Pordenone, and even Titian. The brothers were
much employed by Alfonso I., Duke of Ferrara, and
by his successor, Ercole II. They painted the
cartoons for the tapestries in the cathedral at
Ferrara, and for those in the church of San Fran-
cesco, and in the ducal palace at Modena. Several
of Dosso Dossi's frescoes are still to be seen in
the ducal palace at Ferrara, but others were
destroyed by fire in 1718. He excelled in portraits
as well as historical subjects, and painted that
of Ariosto, who employed him to make designs
for his 'Orlando Furioso.' The poet has cele-
brated the names of the Dossi by
enrolling them with those of Leon-
ardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael,
and Titian. Dosso Dossi died at Ferrara in 1542.
The following paintings by him are known :





Ferrara. Certosa.

S. Agostino.


) jj

The Fathers of the Church in
meditation on the Mystery of
the Immaculate Conception of
the Virgin.

Portrait of a Man.

The Virgin and God the Father
in one Glory, with the Four
Doctors of the Church below.

The Virgin and Child, with St.
John and two other Saints.

The Crucifixion, with the Virgin,
St. John, and St. Augustine.

The Virgin enthroned, crowned
by Angels.

St. John at Patmos.

The Annunciation.

Ferrara. Museum. Madonna with Saints. (A very

large picture in jive compart-
ments, from S. Andrea.)
Ducal Pal. Decorative paintings with three


,, The Hours of the Day.

Florence. ^~J' : '- Massacre of the Innocents.

His own Portrait.

Fitti Pal. Repose in Egypt.

London. Jfat. Gal. Adoration of the Magi.
Milan. Brera. A Sainted Bishop with two Angels.

Amlrosiana. Mary Magdalen washing Christ's

Modeua. Cathedral. Virgiu in Glory adored by Saints.

n Carmine. A Dominican Saint and a Woman


S. Pietro. Assumption of the Virgin.

Gallery. The Nativity.

' Virgin adored by SS. George and


Several Portraits, among them

that of Alfonso I. of Ferrara
(in the style of Titian).
Paris. Louvre, Holy Family.

St. Jerome.

Rome. Borghese Pal. Circe.

Doria Pal. Vanossa.

Vienna. Gallery. St. Jerome

DOSSIER, MICHEL, a French engraver, was born
in Paris in 1684, and died in the same city in 1750.
He was a pupil of Pierre Drevet, and engraved
but a very few plates, the best known of which ia
' Vertumnus and Pomona,' after Rigaud, the figure
of Pomona being a portrait of Anne Varice de
Valliere, wife of Jean Neyret de La Ravoye. The
following may also be mentioned :

The Marriage of the Virgin ; after Jouvenet

Christ healing the two Blind Men at Jericho ; after

Christ driving the Money-Changers out of the Temple ;

after the same.
The Supper at the house of Simon the Pharisee ; after

the same.
Jean Baptiste Colbert, Marquis of Torcy ; after Riyaud.

DOU, GERARD, was born at Leyden in 1613, in
the same year and the same city which had the
glory of claiming Rembrandt as citizen. His father,
Douwe Janszoon de Vries van Arentsvelt, who was a
glazier, allowed his son to follow the path to which
the boy's instincts led him, and apprenticed him,
in 1622, to the studio of the engraver, Bartholo-
meus Dolendo. Here young Gerard spent eome
time in mastering the art of drawing. After quit-
ting the engraver's desk he went, in 1624, into the
workshop of Pieter Kouwenhoven, a painter on
glass, and in 1628 he entered the studio of the
great Rembrandt van Ryn, but he borrowed little
of his master's style and manner. Dou's talent
was all his own ; his pictures, though small, are
superb specimens of the art, finished with care, and
true to nature.

After setting up for himself, Dou is reported to
have worked at portrait painting ; but his manner
was too slow and laboured to please his sitters, and
he then took as subjects for his paintings the
scenes of humble industry that the neighbouring
market-place afforded, and interiors graced by
buxom maids.

No details have been handed down to us of Dou's
life. It was probably passed happily and quietly
at his work. He resided with the exception of
two gaps, from 1651 to 1657, and again from
1668 to 1672 in his native city. That he was
a prosperous man is to be inferred from the




Brockmann photo} [Dresden Gallery



II,!ii/\t,ingl photo] [National Gallerv



Hanfstangl photo\ [Buckingham Palace




Jassel. Gallery.

Copenhagen. Gallery.
'' ii

"Dresden. Gallery.

large sums for which he sold his paintings. The
wealthy connoisseur Van Spiring gave Dou an
annual donation of a thousand florins merely to be
allowed to have the first choice of the pictures
that the artist had completed at the close of every
year. Besides this annual grant, Van Spiring paid
the ordinary price like any other purchaser for the
pictures which he chose.

Gerard Dou died at Leyden in 1675, and was
buried in the church of St. Peter. Among his
pupils and followers were Frans van Aliens,
Schalcken, Gabriel Metsu, and Van Slingeland.
The following are his principal works :

Amsterdam. Museum. Portrait of Himself.
The Night School.

The Hermit.


Portraits of Pieter van der Werf,

Burgomaster of Leyden, and
his AYife. (Tlte portraits are
by Dou, the landscape by Claes
Pietersz Eerchem.)
Six Coll. The Dentist.

A Girl at a Window. 1667.

,. A Candle-light Effect.

Van der Hoop C. A Fish-woman.

Berlin. Gallery. The Penitent Magdalen. 1656.

Portrait of an Old Woman.

,, The Store-room,

-ussels. Gallery. Portrait of Himself.
,, Arenberg Coll. An Old Woman sitting at a table

covered with Gold.
Bust Portrait of an Old Man, with

a blue feather in his hat.
A Doctor.
A Maid. 1658 ?
Bust Portrait of a Woman.
Portrait of Himself. 1647.
A Grey Cat on a Window-sill ; in
the back-ground, Dou before
his easel. 1657.
>, ,i A Girl plucking Grapes at a

Window. 1658.
n ii Gerard Dou playing the Violin.

A School-master mending his

Pen. 1671.

,, The Dentist, with a Boy, whose

tooth he has just extracted.

., A Hermit praying.

And nine others.

Dulwieh. Gallery. A Lady playing on the Virginal,
lorence. Uffizi. Portrait of Himself. 1618.

The Pan-cake Seller.
The Young Tailoress (or, The

Young Mother). 1658.
A Young Woman holding a


Fat. Gal. Portrait of Himself.
Portrait of his Wife.

I, ,i The Poulterer's Shop.

Buckingham Pal. An Old Man.
A Kitchen-Maid. 1646.

Sridgewater Ho. The Violin Player. 1637.
,i Portrait of Himself.

Jforthbrook Coll. A Lady playing the Spinet.
Bute Collection. An Old Man reading.
Munich. Gallery. A Beggar asking Alms of an Old

Woman selling Vegetables.
>i The Bakeress.

i, Portrait of Himself . 1663.

A nd eleven others.

Paris. Louvre. The Dropsical Woman. 1663.

ii j, ASilverEwerandSalver. (Painted

on the shutter of an ebony box
which formerly contained the
painting of ' The Dropsical Wo-

The Village Grocer. 1647.

11 The Trumpeter.

t. The Dutch Cook.

Hague. Gallery.


Paris. Louvre. A Woman hanging up a Cock at

a Window. 1650.

The Gold-weigher. 1664.

The Dentist.

Heading the Bible. (Theoldman

and woman represented are said
to be portraits of Gerard Don's
father and mother.)

,, Portrait of Himself, at a Window,

holding his Palette andBrushes.

Portrait of an Old Woman read-

ing at a Table.

Petersburg. Hermitage. A Doctor and an Old Woman.
The Herring-seller.

Portrait of Himself. 1665.

A Young Peasant Woman pre-

pariug to bathe.
,i A Young Soldier preparing to


A Young Woman combing her

hair by the side of a river.
A ltd six others.
Vienna. Gallery. The Doctor aud an Old Woman.


An Old Woman watering Flowers.

Czernin Coll. Portrait of Himself.

A Party playing at Cards.

Liechtenstein C. Portrait of Himself.

DOUDYNS, WILLEM, a Dutch painter, was born
at the Hague in 1630. He was of a distinguished
family, and followed the art rather as an amateur
than a professor ; but with a zeal that enabled him
to reach a reputable rank among the painters of
his country. After receiving some instruction
from an obscure artist, named Alexander Petit,
he travelled to Italy, where he passed twelve years
studying the best productions of the art, and ac-
quired a correctness of design and an elevation of
taste, which distinguish his works. On his return
to Holland, he executed several fresco paintings,
particularly decorations for ceilings, in which, from
his perfect knowledge of foreshortening, he ex-
celled. Some of his works of that description are
in the town-hall at the Hague. Two of his most
admired easel pictures were in the possession of
M. Van Heteren, representing ' Time discovering
Truth,' and ' Wisdom triumphing over Vice and
Intemperance.' Doudyns was one of the founders
of the Academy at the Hague, of which he was
appointed the director. He died in 1697.


DOUET, , a French engraver on wood, flour-
ished about the year 1530. Papillon notices a
woodcut executed by him, representing the ' Virgin
M;iry and the Infant Christ,' after Andrea del

was born at Liege in 1594, and studied for some
time at Antwerp in the school of Rubens, and
afterwards in Italy. He composed and designed
with good taste, and his historical pictures are
much esteemed. ' Pope Nicholas V. at the Tomb
of St. Francis of Assisi ' (painted in 1627), ' St.
Helena and the true Cross' (painted for the Abbey
of St. Lawrence, Liege), and two male portraits
(one dated 1624), are in the Munich Gallery. He
died at Liege in 1660.

DOUGHTY, THOMAS. This clever landscape
artist was born at Philadelphia in 1793, but did
not adopt the artist's calling until he was nearly
thirty years old, passing the earlier years of his life
in mercantile pursuits. He worked for a long
time in Paris, where he painted many of his most
popular works, but for a short time he resided in
London, finding in the suburbs of the great city
scenes adapted to his pencil and brush. He then



returned to America, and there he died in 1856.
His pictures have steadily increased in value, and
year by year their charm has been more readily
recognized. Some of the more delightful scenes,
which he depicted with silvery tone, grey light
and soft harmonious colouring, were taken from
the banks of the Susquehanna and amongst the
Catskill Mountains. Doughty was one of the
earliest American landscape artists who gained a
European celebrity, and his pictures being few in
number and executed with the utmost skill and
great poetic feeling, will always be admired and

DOUGHTY, WILLIAM, apainterandengraver, was
a native of York. In 1775 he became a pupil of Sir
Joshua Reynolds, and after an unsuccessful attempt
as a portrait painter in Ireland, he in 1779 settled
down in London ; but in the following year he set
sail for Bengal, having just married a servant girl
from Reynolds's house. His ship, however, was
captured by the French and Spaniards, by whom
he was brought to Lisbon, where he died in 1782.
Two paintings which he exhibited were a ' Circe '
and a portrait of Sir Joshua Reynolds ; but he was
more successful with his etchings and mezzotint
portraits, among which are the following :

Thomas Beckwith, the Antiquary of York.
Thomas Gray, the Poet.
Admiral Keppel ; after Sir Joshua Reynolds.
William Mason, the Poet ; after the same.
Mary Palmer, the niece of Sir Joshua Reynolds, after-
wards Marchioness of Thomond ; after the same.
Dr. Samuel Johnson ; after the same.

Edinburgh in 1822. After ten years of business life,
whose leisure hours were devoted to art, his father,
an accomplished amateur water-colour painter, con-
sented to his following his bent and studying at the
Academy. He had, however, only a few months'
regular training. His pictures at the Royal Scottish
Academy Exhibitions soon attracted attention, and
he was elected an Associate of the Royal Scottish
Academy in 1851, and Royal Scottish Academician
in 1854. He visited Italy in 1857. He first sent
to the Academy in London in 1862. In 1869 he
was secretary to the Royal Scottish Academy for a
short time, and in 1877 he was appointed curator
of the Scottish National Gallery, succeeding Sir
Daniel Macnee as President of the Royal Scottish
Academy in 1882. In that year he was knighted,
and in 1884 he received the honour of LL.D.
from Edinburgh University. He died at Newhurgh,
Fife, in 1891. He was early attracted to romantic,
antiquarian and occult subjects, as the titles of his
works indicate. Of these perhaps the best are :
' The Astrologer,' ' The Bibliopolists ' (now in
South Kensington), ' In the Scriptorium,' ' Vesalius,'
'The Old Curiosity Shop, Rome,' 'The Alchemist
on the Verge of a Discovery,' ' The Spell,' and ' The
Summons to the Secret Tribunal.' He painted also
genre and historical subjects, a few landscapes in
oil, and, late in life, some charming landscapes in
water-colour. He has been termed the greatest
Scottish painter of still life ; and the care and skill
with which he painted old ivories, time-stained
parchments, rich bindings, and old furniture, and
harmonized their mellow colours, justify the title.
His draughtsmanship was masterly, his colour at
its best rich and glowing, and his composition
varied and agreeable. He was, besides, a man of
rare accomplishment, a learned antiquarian and
historian. An illustrated monograph on him was


published by the Society for the Promotion of the
Fine Arts in Scotland. J. H. W. L:

at Roermond, in the Duchy of Guelders, in 1656.
His father dying when he was young, he was
placed under the care of a painter of Liege, named
Gabriel Lambertin, who had studied in Italy, and
had formed a collection of studies and drawings,
which were of great utility to the progress of his
pupil. On leaving that master he was taken into
favour by a Spanish nobleman residing at Roermond,

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