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who possessed a valuable collection of the Italian
school. He was permitted to copy and study
these, and they were a mine of instruction to the
young artist. His first essays were in historical
painting ; and he would probably have distin-
guished himself in that branch, had not the flatter-
ing invitation he received from the Elector induced
him to visit Dusseldorf, where he painted the
portraits of that prince and the principal personages
of his court, and was appointed principal painter to
the elector. This success seems to have inclined
his future course chiefly to portrait painting ; and
his talents were employed at almost every court in
Germany, where he received many honourable
marks of favour and distinction. He was also
patronized at the court of Tuscany, where the
Grand Duke placed his portrait in the Florentine
Gallery. He occasionally painted easel pictures of
historical subjects, which were correctly drawn and
well composed. Douven died at Dusseldorf in
1727. The following pictures are by him :

Cassel. Gallery. Susannah and the Elders. 1725.

Eathsheba bathing.

Clement Augustus, Elector of Co-


Florence. Uffi:i. Portrait of Elizabeth Haorey.

Portrait of Himself.

St. Anne teaching the Virgin.

Portrait of Maria Luisa de' Medici.

Munich. Gallery. Portrait of the Elector Palatine,

John William.

Portrait of a young Elector Pala-


Dusseldorf in 1688, painted in the manner of A.
van der Werff. He was employed at the court of
the Elector of Cologne, and excelled in the execution
of portraits. The Cassel Gallery has a picture of
the ' Three Graces ' by him, and in the palace at
Cassel is a ' Holy Family,' known as ' La Vierge
aux cerises,' which was taken to Paris by the
French, but returned in 1815. There is by him in
the Uffizi Gallery at Florence a picture containing
medallion portraits of the Elector Palatine John
William, and his wife Maria Luisa de' Medici,
copied from the original by Van der Werff in the
Munich Gallery.

DOUW, SIMON VAN, flourished at Antwerp, where
he was free of the Guild of St. Luke in 1653-54.
In the Lille Museum is a 'Landscape with figures'
by him, signed and dated 1677.

DOVE, THOMAS, marine painter, began life as a
house painter, but later entered the studio of
George Chambers, with whom he worked for some
time. His pictures were chiefly scenes from
Liverpool or its neighbourhood, and he became
well known in the north of England. Reduced to
poverty in his old age, he died in the Whitby
workhouse in January 1887.


DOWNES, BERNARD, an English portrait painter,
flourished in the latter half of the 18th century.













He exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1770 to
1775, and at the Incorporated Society of Artists
of which he was a member. He died before 1780.
DOWNMAN, JOHN. It is not known for certain
where this artist was born. His birthplace has
usually been given as in Devonshire, but there is
better reason for assuming him to have been a
Welshman, and to have been born close to Wrex-
ham, where he died. He was certainly born in
1750, and died at Wrexham on December 24,
1824, aged seventy-four years. He was a student
of the Royal Academy Schools in 1769, and be-
came an Associate in 1795. He studied under
Benjamin West, P.R.A., and painted a clever
portrait of his master which is still in existence.
He practised portrait painting in Cambridge in
1777, visited Plymouth in 1806; and in 1807-8
was working in Exeter. He then returned to
London and resided there for many years, after-
wards removing to Chester, and finally taking up
his abode as already stated at Wrexham, where
his daughter had married, and where she also died
in 1840. Downman married the daughter of
William Jackson of Exeter, the musical composer,
who was organist of Exeter Cathedral. He painted
subject pictures in water-colour and oil, notable
amongst which are:

A Lady at Work. 1770.

The Death of Lucretia. 1773.

RoBalind. (Painted for the Slmkespeare Gallery.)

The Priestess of Bacchus.

The Return of Orestes.


Miss Farren and Mr. King in character.

His greatest works, however, were his portraits
in pencil and colour, which he painted in the
country houses of England, and in the towns where
he worked for a time. They are extremely clever
pieces of portraiture, lightly and gracefully sketched
and tinged with very charming colour. Upon
almost all of them the artist made some pencil
notes which greatly add to their value. He
generally gave the name of his sitter, the date
when the picture was painted, and in many cases
the name of the place where it was done, or some
description of the person, his occupation, char-
acteristics, position, dignity or style. In some
cases he made comments upon the way in which
the sitter behaved himself, or the number of times
which he painted the same person, or alluded to
some interesting circumstance as to himself or his
sitter, and all these notes make his works of
peculiar interest in the present day. Many of his
portraits were engraved, and of this fact he also
makes one aware by his notes. He painted in this
sketchy manner all the great ladies of his day,
the noblemen, actors, and notable personages as
well as many members of the Royal families both
of England and Prussia. Hardly any family of
quality in England has not had some of its
members painted by this hardworking and most
popular artist, and his portraits are singularly
attractive, full of character and expression, and
those of ladies and children remarkable for their
grace and charm. The largest collections of his
portraits are to be found at the Manor House,
Witley, and at Butleigh Court, Glastonbury. An
important work on the artist is now in course of
compilation, and will be issued by the publishers
of this work. Q ( C_ ^r_

DOYEN, GABRIEL FRANCOIS, a French historical

painter, was born in Paris in 1726. Before he had
attained his twelfth year he entered the studio of
Carle van Loo, and in 1746 obtained the 'grand
prix de Rome.' On his return to Paris in 1755, he
at once established his reputation by his ' Death of
Virginia,' exhibited at the Salon of 1759, in which
year he was received into the Academy upon his
picture of ' Jupiter attended by Hebe.' He became
a professor in 1776, and about this time he was
employed to decorate the chapel of St. Gre'goire at
the Invalides. In 1791 he went to Russia, where
he was greatly honoured by Catharine II. and Paul
I., for whom he executed many ceilings and other
works. He was also appointed director of the
Academy at St. Petersburg, in which city he died
in 1806. His best works are 'The Triumph of
Amphitrite,' now in the Louvre, and ' The Descent
of the Holy Spirit,' in the chapel of St. Genevieve
in the church of St. Roch in Paris. The sketch
for the latter is in the Louvre. The Darmstadt
Gallery possesses his ' Adoration of the Kings.'
DOYEN, PIERRE GABRIEL, a French painter,
was born in Paris in 1723, and died there in 1799.
He was a member of the Academy of St. Luke,
and may therefore be presumed to have been not
entirely devoid of talent.

DOYLE, JOHN, a caricaturist, well-known as
'H.B.,' was born in Dublin in 1797. At an early
age he studied under an Italian landscape painter
named Gabrielli, and also became a student in the
Dublin Society's Drawing Academy and a pupil of
Comerford. About 1822 he came to London, where,
not succeeding very well as a portrait painter, he
produced by lithography, and published, likenesses
of the leading men of the day ; among others the
Duke of Wellington on a white charger, and the
Duke of York. From this time he chiefly em-
ployed himself in producing caricatures of leading
members of Parliament, under the initials ' H.B.'
His death occurred in London in 1868. His political
portraits, though caricatures, were always treated
with a gentlemanly feeling, never descending to
coarseness or vulgarity. The original sketches for
610 out of the 917 to which they amounted are
in the British Museum. A portrait of Christopher
VIoore by Doyle is in the National Gallery of

DOYLE, RICHARD, draughtsman and caricaturist,
was born in London, September 1824. He was
;he second son of John Doyle (H.B.), who taught
nim from early childhood, and to such purpose
that at the age of sixteen the boy was already an
accomplished draughtsman. A remarkable speci-
men of his early powers is preserved in the British
Museum. It is a MS. Journal, illustrated with a
.arge number of humorous and fanciful sketches.
'This work was published in facsimile by Smith,
Elder and Co. in 1885.) Other productions of
about the same date were, 'The Eglinton Tourna-
ment,' and ' A Grand Historical, Allegorical, and
Classical Procession.' In 1843, two years after the
establishment of ' Punch,' Doyle, then nineteen
years old, was permanently engaged on the staff.
3e soon attracted attention by his cartoons of lead-
ng statesmen, and later by a series of humorous
designs called ' Manners and Customs of ye Eng-
yshe, drawn from ye Quick by Richard Doyle."
Akin to these were the ' Bird's-eye Views of Society,'
contributed to the ' Cornhill Magazine.' One of his
lappiest contributions to ' Punch ' was the now
amiliar cover. Besides work of this importance,



Doyle further contributed to ' Punch ' innumerable
small drawings, initials, and culs de lampe. His
connection with the periodical came to an end in
1850, when conscientious scruples caused him to
resign his post. A sincere Roman Catholic, he
felt it unseemly to associate himself with attacks
directed against Papal aggression. Henceforward
he worked as an illustrator of books, and as a
painter in water-colours. His original drawings
were chiefly of Welsh and Devon scenery, into
which he loved to introduce gracefully-fantastic
figures of fairies, gnomes, and pixies. Amoog such
the most important examples are :

The Triumphant Entry, a Fairy Pageant. (Sat. Gal.,


The Witch's Home. (Two Drawings.)
The Manners and Customs of Monkeys. (Both in the

So; "*

Doyle was seized with apoplexy at the Athenaeum
Club, December 10, 1883, and died on the next
day. Among the books illustrated by him are :

Thackeray's ' Rebecca and Rowena.' 1850.

Ruskin's ' King of the Golden River.' 1851.

' The Foreign Tour of Brown, Jones, and Robinson.'

1854. (Begun in ' Punch.')
Thackeray's ' Newcomes.' 1853-5.
'In Fairy Land.' Elfin scenes, with verses by Mr.

William Allingham. 1870.
Dickens' ' Battle of Life.'
Leigh Hunt's ' Jar of Honey from Mount Hybla.'

A number of his miscellaneous sketches are pre-
served in the British Museum, and in^the Fitz-
william Museum at Cambridge.

DRAEGER, JOSEPH ANTON, an historical painter,
was born atTrevesin 1800, and died at Rome in 1833.
He studied under Kiigelgen in Dresden, but went
in 1823 to Italy and took up his quarters in Rome,
where he followed, as a nondescript in life and art,
his own peculiar style of colouring. In his desire
to attain the charm of the colours of the great
Venetians, a very faded picture of that school led
him to the conviction that they painted their pic-
tures entirely in grey before putting- on the bright
colours. Working in this way he obtained an
extraordinary clearness of colour, a good example
of which is seen in his 'Moses protecting the
Daughters of Jethro,' in the Berlin Gallery.

Genoa in 1657. He was a scholar of Domenico
Piola, whose promptness and facility he imitated
and acquired. He resided at Parma and Piacenza,
where there are several of his works. They evince
something of the design of the Bolognese school,
with the taste of Parmigiano. In the church of
San Francesco il Grande at Piacenza, is a picture
by him of the 'Martyrdom of St. James.' The
dome of Sant' Agnese, in the same city, is by this
master ; and in the church of San Lorenzo, a pic-
ture of the titular Saint. At Genoa there are some
of his easel pictures in private collections. He
died at Piacenza in 1712.

DRAKE, NATHAN, a portrait painter, flourished
at York and Lincoln in the middle of the 18th
century. He occasionally painted views, and was
a member of the Society of Artists, with whom he
exhibited from 1760 to 1780.

DRAPENTIERE, JOHN, an engraver, was pro-
bably from his name a native of France. He was
in England about the year 1691, and was employed
by the publishers in some plates of portraits and
frontispieces, which are executed with the graver


in a neat, but tasteless style. The following
portraits are by him .

William and Mary, when Prince and Princess of Orange.

John Graham, Viscount Dundee.

Thomas White, Bishop of Peterborough.

Benjamin Calamy, Prebendary of St. Paul's.

Henry Outtes, of the Middle Temple.

Sir James Dyer, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas.

Peter Perkins, Mathematician.

Daniel Burgess, Dissenting Minister. 1691.

Benjamin Keach, Anabaptist Minister.

Elias Keach.

John Todd, A.M.

He also engraved a satirical print of a lady
shaving a gentleman; inscribed,' Le Beau Service.'

a German landscape painter, was born at Dresden
in 1822. Living in the house of a relation
whose name Franz he adopted, he frequented the
Academy of his native city, and afterwards the
studio of Ludwig Richter. After he had gained
the gold medal, he resided for some time in
Munich, and in the spring of 1843 went as exhibi-
tioner of the Dresden Academy to Rome, where
he became a member of the Academy of St. Luke,
and spent almost the entire remainder of his life.
His study of Italian nature had the greatest influ-
ence on his works, and at the same time the
impression made upon him by modern French land-
scape painters increased his desire to obtain a soft
fusion of colours. He died in Anticoli di Campagna,
near Rome, in 1875. His pictures, which were
exhibited together in 1876 in the National Gallery
at Berlin, are with few exceptions in the hands of
private persons ; there are two in the Berlin Gal-
lery a ' Landscape, with the Hunting of Diana,'
and 'An Autumn Morning in the Sabine Mountains."

DRECHSLER, JOHANN, a painter of flowers, was
born at Vienna in 1756, and became a professor
at the Academy of that city. He died at Vienna
in 1811. He painted fruit and flower pieces in
imitation of Van Huysum. There are examples of
his work in the Hermitage at St. Petersburg, and
in the Vienna Gallery.

DREUX, ALFRED DE, was born in Paris in 1808.
He was a pupil of Lon Cogniet, and became a
fashionable painter of race-horses and of equestrian
portraits. Many of his pictures have been engraved.
Among the best known are : ' The Postilion '
(1836), 'The Imperial Guard' (1855), 'Equestrian
Portrait of the Due de Nemours' (1844), and several
large hunting-pieces. He died in 1860.

DREVER, ADRIAAN VAN, a Dutch landscape
and marine painter, flourished about 1673, and
passed the greater part of his artistic life in Eng-
land. In the Vienna Gallery there is a ' Winter
Landscape ' by him.

DREVET, CLAUDE, a French engraver, the
nephew of Pierre Drevet, was born probably at
Lyons about 1705. He was instructed by his
uncle, and engraved some portraits in a highly
finished style, which renders them of considerable
merit. He died in Paris in 1781. The following
portraits are by him :

Henri Oswald, Cardinal d'Auvergne ; after Rigaud.
Charles Gaspard Guillaume de Viutimille v Archbishop

of Paris ; after the same.

Philippe Louis, Count de Zinzendorf ; after the same.
Mme. Le Bret, in the character of Ceres ; after the same.
Pierre Calvairac, Abbot of Pontignan ; afterA.LePrieur.

DREVET, PIERRE, an eminent French engraver,
was born at Loire in the Lyonnais in 1663. He was
first a pupil of Germain Audran at Lyons, but


After H. Kigaud, 1723]



afterwards finished his studies in Paris under Gerard
Audran. In 1696 he became court engraver, and
in 1707 was made an Academician, and for his
reception he engraved, although not until 1722, the
portrait of Robert de Cotte. He died in Paris in
1738. His works, which are chiefly portraits, are
well drawn and very highly finished. The following
prints are by him :

Abraham's Sacrifice ; after A . Coypel.
The Annunciation ; after the same.
The same subject ; smaller.
The Crucifixion ; in two sheets ; after the same.
The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after H. Rigaud.


Charles II., King of Great Britain.

James Francis Edward Stuart, called the Old Pretender.

Jaines Fitzjames, Duke of Berwick.

Oliver Cromwell.

Louis XIV., full-length ; after Rigaud.

Louis XV., seated on his Throne ; after the same.

Philip V., King of Spain ; after the same.

Louis, Dauphin of France ; after the same.

Frederick Augustus, King of Poland ; after F. de Troy.

Francois Louis, Prince of Conde ; after Riyaud.

Louis Alexaadre, Count of Toulouse, with the Glove.

The same Portrait, without the Glove.

Ben6 Francois de Beauveau, Archbishop of Narbonne ;

after Riyaud.

Andre Hercule, Cardinal de Fleury ; after the same.
Marie de Neufchatel, Duchess de Nemours ; after the


Louis Antoine, Duke de Noailles ; after the same.
Louis Hector, Duke de ViUars, Marshal of France ; after

the same.

Ernest Augustus, Duke of Bruuswick-Luneburg.
Andr6 Felibien ; after Le Brim.
Nicolas Boileau Despreaux ; after De Piles.
Hyacinthe Eigaud ; from a picture ly himself.
Marie de Serre, mother of Eigaud ; after Riyaud.
Eobert de Cotte, architect ; after the same.
Nicolas Pierre Camus de Pontcarre, first President of

the Parliament of Eouen ; after Jouvenet.
Jean Forest, painter ; after JV. de Laryilliere.

DREVET, PIERRE IMBERT, the son of Pierre
Drevet, was born in Paris in 1697. He had the
advantage of his father's instruction, and at a very
arly age was distinguished by the talent which he
displayed. The works of this excellent artist may
have been surpassed in boldness and freedom, but
have hardly been equalled in the exquisite finish
and clearness of his stroke. His celebrated por-
trait of Bossuet, engraved in 1723, is one of the
finest line-engravings which has ever been executed,
whilst that of Samuel Bernard is scarcely less
admirable. About 1730 he became insane, but
engraved until the year of his death, in which he
executed the portrait of Ren4 Pucelle. He died in
Paris in 1739. The folio wing are his principal works;


Adam and Eve after their Transgression ; after A . Coypel.
The same subject ; smaller ; very highly finished.
Eebekah receiving from Eliezer Abraham's presents ;

after the same.
The Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple ; after

Le Brun. The first, work of the engraver.
The Holy Family ; after A ntoine Dieu,
The Presentation in the Temple ; after Louis de Soul-

lonane. The engraver's chef-d'oeuvre.
Christ in the Garden of Olives, with Angels ; after J.


The Eesurrection ; after J. Andre.
St. Theresa ; after J. Lingre.


Louis XIV., when young, conducted by Minerva to the
Temple of Glory ; after A . Coypel.

Louis, Duke of Orleans ; after Charles Cornel.

Mary Clementina Sobieska, wife of the Old Pretender ;

after Davids.
Francois de La Mothe Fenelon, Archbishop of Cambrai ;

after Vivien.
Francois Paul de Villory, Archbishop of Lyons ; after


Claude Le Blanc, Minister of War ; after Le Prieur.
Cardinal Dubois, Archbishop of Cambrai; after Riyaud.
J. B. Bossuet, Bishop of Meaux ; full-length ; after the


Samuel Bernard ; after the same.
Isaac Jacques de Vertamont, Bishop of Conferans ; after

De Troy.
Bene Pucelle, Abb6 and Counsellor of the Parliament ;

after Rigaud. His last work, 1739.
Adrienne Lecouvreur, in the character of Cornelia;

after Charles Coypel.

Full particulars of the works of Pierre, Pierre
Imbert, and Claude Drevet, are to be found in M. A.
Firmin-Didot's work ' Les Drevet,' Paris, 1876, 8vo.

DREW, J. P., a portrait and figure painter,
worked in London during the first half of the 19th
century. He exhibited at the Royal Academy
until 1852.

Danish landscape painter, was born in 1816 at
Assens, where he died in 1852. The Copenhagen
Gallery has a ' Landscape ' by him, dated 1839.

DRIELST, EGBERT VAN, born at Groningen in
1746, practised under several masters ; the last
were H. Meyer of Haarlem, and J. Cats of Am-
sterdam. He particularly studied the works of
Hobbema, Ruisdael, and Wynants, and compared
them with nature. By this course his pictures
approached nearer to the manner and taste of the
great masters of the preceding century than to
those of his own time. The subjects he represented
were well-wooded landscapes, with farms and
cottages, which he ornamented with figures and
animals, correctly designed. He was fond of the
picturesque effects of ruined hovels, old broken
and uprooted trees, and barren heaths. These he
depicted with a thorough knowledge of light and
shade, and with a colour suited to the objects.
Sometimes, however, there is a certain degree of
negligence or inattention to be observed in his
pictures ; and here and there he appears to be a
mannerist. He died in 1818. His son, JAN VuuRlNG
VAN DRIELST, an artist of much promise, was born
in 1790, and studied under his father, but died in

DRILLENBURG, WILLEM, a Dutch landscape
painter, was born at Utrecht in 1625. He was for
some time a scholar of Abraham Bloemaert, but
abandoned the style of that painter in order to
imitate the charming landscapes of Jan Both.
Although he never approached the excellence of
that master, his pictures are said by Houbraken,
who was his scholar, to possess great merit.


DROESHOUT, JAN, an engraver, was perhaps,
from the date at which he flourished, a relation of
Marten Droeshout. There are by him a few portraits,
frontispieces, and other works for the booksellers,
among which are :

The Portrait of Bichard Elton ; prefixed to his ' Compleat
Body of the Art Military,' 1650.

The Portrait of John Danes ; engraved for his ' Para-
lipomena Orthographise,' 1038.

Two plates for Heywood's ' Hierarchic of the blessed
Angels,' 1635.

DROESHOUT, MARTEN, an engraver, who was
probably a Dutchman, resided in England about the



year 1623. He was chiefly employed by the book-
sellers, and engraved some portraits, which, if they
cannot be admired for the beauty of their execution,
are valued for their scarcity. His best known por-
trait is that prefixed to the first folio edition of
' Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories,
& Tragedies,' published in 1623. The excellence
of this likeness of the great dramatist is attested
by the following verses of Ben Jonson, which are
printed opposite to it :

To the Header.

This Figure, that thou here seest put,

It was for gentle Shakespeare cut ;
Wherein the Grauer had a strife

"With Nature, to out-doo the life :
O, could he but haue drawne his wit

As well in brasse, as he hath hit
His face ; the Print would then surpasse

All, that was euer writ in brasse.
But, since he cannot, Eeader, looke

Not on his Picture, but his Booke.

Other portraits by Droeshout are :

James, Marquis of Hamilton.

Thomas, Lord Coventry.

John Donne, Dean of St. Paul's.

Helkiah Crooke, M.D.

John Fox, the Martyrologist.

John Howson, Bishop of Durham.

Lord Mountjoy Blount, afterwards Earl of Newport.

DROLLING, MARTIN, a native of Oberbergheim,
near Colmar, was born in 1752. He received his
first lessons in art from an obscure painter of
Schlestadt, but afterwards went to Paris and entered
the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. He gained a momentary
celebrity by his ' Interior of a Kitchen,' painted
in 1815, exhibited at the Salon of 1817, and now
in the Louvre. He usually painted interiors and
familiar subjects of general interest. Although
faulty in drawing and never above mediocrity, his
works were popular during his lifetime, and many
of them were engraved and lithographed. He died
in Paris in 1827. The Louvre has by him a
' Woman at a window ' and a ' Violin- Player.'

torical and portrait painter, was born in Paris in
1786. He studied under his father, Martin Drolling,
and under David, and obtained the ' grand prix de
Rome ' in 1810. In 1833 he was elected a member

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