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of the Institute, and in 1837 became a professor of
the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. He died in Paris in
1851. Amongst his best works, which are all
conceived in the classical spirit in which he was
brought up, are:

Orpheus and Eurydice. 1817.

Ulysses carrying off Polyxeua. 1827.

The Good Samaritan. 1822. In the Lyons Museum.

The Death of Cardinal Eichelieu. 1831.

Christ disputing with the Doctors : in the church of
Notre-Dame de Lorette, Paris.

The Communion of Marie Antoinette : in the chapel of
the Conciergerie.

SLOOT or DROECH SLOOT,) a landscape and his-
torical painter of Utrecht, flourished from 1616 to
1660. In 1616 he was admitted into the Guild of
St. Luke at Utrecht, and in 1623-24 he became
its dean. He gave to the hospital of St. Job, at
Utrecht, in 1628, a picture of ' Job and his Friends,'
the landscape part of which is said to be very
beautiful : in 1638 he was named regent of the
nospital. There is a portrait of him, painted by
himself, in the manner of old Teniers ; he is


Cassel. Gallery.
Dresden. Gallery.
Hague. Museum.

Madrid. Gallery.
Modena. Gallery.
Paris. Louvre.

Petersburg. Hermitage.
Botterdam. Museum.
Vienna. Gallery.

seated at his easel, and his studio is furnished
with pictures : it bears date 1630, and he appears
about 50 years of age. Some of his works are
signed with the annexed monogram : *J fi:
As he is classed with very respectable J VO
painters of the period, by writers on whose judgment
reliance may be placed, he must not be confounded
with Nicolaas Drooch Sloot, whose works of a like
nature are known in England, and rank among the
lowest of his country. The following pictures by
Joost Drooch Sloot are in public galleries :

View ot a. Village.

View of a Village Street.

A Kermesse. 1652.

A Dutch Village. 1652.



Troops passing through a Village.

A frozen Canal in Holland.

A Village Fete. 1649.

Duel between the Dutch Ger-
hards and the French Briantes,
1600. (Painted in 1630.)

DROOCH SLOOT, NICOLAAS, was born at Dor-
drecht in 1650, and is supposed to have been a scholar
of Hendrik Mortimers. He painted village wakes
and rural assemblies, which are distinguished by a
disgusting vulgarity of character, which is not
compensated by the agreeable tone of his colouring,
or the spirit of his pencil. He died in 1702.

DROSSAART, , a Dutch painter of land-
scapes with ruins and stag-hunts, lived in the 17th

DROST, GERAERT, a Dutch painter, was born at
Amsterdam about the year 1638. He was brought
up in the school of Rembrandt, and afterwards
visited Italy, where he improved his style of design,
by studying the works of the great masters of the
Roman school. He died in 1690. The Cassel
Gallery possesses a ' Christ and the Magdalen after
the Resurrection,' by him ; and the Amsterdam
Museum has a ' Daughter of Herodias receiving the
Head of John the Baptist.' His works have occa-
sionally been mistaken for those of Rembrandt.
In the Dresden Gallery there is a profile portrait
of a man in a large hat, signed ' I. V. DORSTE,'
supposed to be by Drost ; there are also in the
same gallery, an ' Old Man teaching a Boy to
read,' and 'Argus and Mercury' both of which
are ascribed to the same master.

painter, was born in Paris in 1727. He studied at
first under his father, Hubert Drouais, and then
became a pupil successively of Nonotte, Carle Van
Loo, Natoire, and Boucher. He was received as
an Academician in 1758 upon his portraits of the
sculptors Coustou and Bouchardon, the former
of which is now at Versailles, and the latter in the
Ecole des Beaux-Arts. These led to his intro-
duction to the court, where he painted portraits of
the whole of the Royal Family, and of most of
the celebrities and beauties of the period. He ex-
hibited at the Salon from 1755 to 1775, in which
year he died in Paris. The Louvre has by him a
picture containing the portraits of the Comte
d'Artois, afterwards Charles X., and his sister,
Madame Clotilde, afterwards Queen of Sardinia,
when children. The Museum of Orleans possesses
his charming portrait of Madame de Pompadour.

DROUAIS, HUBERT, a French portrait painter,
was born at La Roque, near Pont-Audemer in
Normandy, in 1699. He at first studied at Rouen,


{Collection of the Countess of Yartorough (Baroness Conyers)



\Soutk Kensington


but subsequently came to Paris, and entered the
studio of De Troy, after whose death he was em-
ployed by J. B. Van Loo, A. S. Belle, Oudry, and
Nattier. Besides painting portraits in oil, and in
water-colours, he gained much celebrity by his
miniatures. He was received into the Academy
in 1730, and died in Paris in 1767.

DROUA1S, JEAN GERMAIN, the younger son of
Francois Hubert Drouais, was born in Paris in
1763. He studied under his father and under
Brenet, and then entered the school of David. In
1784 he astonished the Academy by his picture of
' Christ and the Woman of Canaan," which gained
the first prize, and is now in the Louvre. The
next year he accompanied David to Rome, where
he studied the works of Raphael and the antique,
sending to Paria a study of a ' Wounded Gladiator,'
' Marius at Minturnae,' now in the Louvre, and
' Philoctetes breathing forth imprecations against
the Gods,' which was his last work. He died of
fever at Rome in 1788.

DRUEFKEN, , a German engraver on wood,
who usually marked his prints with a cluster of
grapes, is mentioned by Evelyn in his ' Sculptura.'
Among other cuts, he executed one representing
the King of the Boors in Hungary eaten alive by
the rebels whom he had duped.

Dutch painter, was born at Haarlem in 1564.
Van Mander speaks in very favourable terms of
his talent as a painter of landscapes with figures,
although, being of an opulent and distinguished
family, he practised the art only for his amuse-
ment. He died in 1617.

DRUMMOND, JAMES, a Scotch historical and
genre painter, was born in Edinburgh in 1816. He
studied under Sir William Allan, and first exhibited
at the Scottish Academy in 1835, of which body he
became an Associate in 1846, and an Academician
in 1852. He became curator of the Edinburgh
National Gallery in 1868, and died at Edinburgh
in 1877. He studied archaeology closely, and his
works show great care for antiquarian details.
Amongst the best are :

The Return of Mary, Queen of Scots, "

to Edinburgh after her surrender

at Carberry Hill. (In National

King James I. of Scotland seeing his Gallery of

future wife at Windsor. Scotland.)

The Porteous Mob.
Montrose on his way to execution.

War I (B e l n 9> n y to the Queen.)
Old Mortality.
Cromwell in Edinburgh.

DRUMMOND, SAMUEL, an English portrait and
historical painter, was born in London in 1765.
He studied in the Royal Academy, of which he
became an Associate in 1808, and afterwards
curator of the Painting School. He died in 1844.
Amongst his works are :

Battle of Trafalgar.

Death of Nelson.

Admiral Duncan receiving the sword of Admiral De

Winter (G-reenwich Hospital}.
Charles Mathews, the elder.
Richard Parker, leader of the Nore Mutiny.
Sir Isambard Brunei (National Portrait Gallery).
Mrs. Fry (National Portrait Gallery).

tioned by Balkema, as being found in the cata-
logues of Hoet and Terwesten, but without any
information as to their family, or the time at which

they lived. He speaks of a ' River-scene ' painted
in the manner of Willem van de Velde, of a ' Winter-
piece with Skaters,' which was sold in 1773 under
the name of Pieter Dubbels, and of another, sold
in Van der Linden Slingelandt's sale, by Hendrik
Dubbels. This is all he could collect among his
countrymen, respecting artists who may claim rank
with the best of their school as marine painters.
In the incidental notices that occur of Hendrik
Dubbels, he is by some called the master of Bak-
huisen ; by others, the scholar ; the probability is
in favour of the former. His works bear little or
no resemblance to those of Bakhuisen or Van de
Velde, except in their subjects ; they are more
analogous to those of Van de Capelle. In the Van
der Hoop Collection at Amsterdam is one of great
excellence, and many others are to be found in rich
collections in this country, which fact proves that
his merit has been appreciated, though, unfortu-
nately for his reputation, it has been under a differ-
ent name. There is by him in the Amsterdam
Museum a ' River Scene,' and in the Copenhagen
Gallery is a ' Sea-piece.'

DUBBELS, JAN, a scholar of Bakhuisen, painted
marine subjects in the manner of his master ; he
was living in 1715. A ' Sea-piece ' in the Pitti
Palace, Florence, and a ' Calm Sea ' in the Cassel
Gallery are ascribed to him. It is not unlikely
that he is identical with Hendrik Dubbels.

DUBOIS, AMBROISE, was born at Antwerp in
1543. Going in 1568 to Paris, he was employed at
Fontainebleau and in the Louvre, made painter in
ordinary and ' varlet de chambre ' to the king, and
naturalized in 1601. Having been appointed painter
to Mary de' Medici in 1606, he worked at the
Luxembourg during her regency. Of his numerous
works at Fontainebleau, only those in the chapel of
St. Saturnin, the series of fifteen pictures of the
' Loves of Theagenes and Chariclea ' (one of which
is now in the Louvre), some of the eight subjects
of 'Tancred and Clorinda,' painted for the bed-
chamber of Mary de' Medici (one of which, the
' Baptism of Clorinda,' is now in the Louvre), and
a few fragments on canvas, re-painted in the time
of Louia Philippe, now remain. He died at Fon-
tainebleau in 1614. Among his pupils were his two
sons, Jean and Louis.

DUBOIS, B., (or Du Bois,) a French painter of
landscapes and an etcher, was born about 1620,
and from his etchings is supposed to have been a
scholar of Claude Lorrain. Of his works, which
are rare, may be mentioned, a ' Landscape with
cattle,' another with a storm, and a third with a
shepherd and a shepherdess.

DUBOIS, CHARLES, a French painter of historical
landscapes, flourished in the early part of the 18th
century. He was a native of Valenciennes, and
executed some works for the church of St. Gery in
that city. In 1734 he sent two landscapes to the
' Exposition de la Jeunesse ' at Paris.

DQBOIS, EDUARD, born at Antwerp in 1622,
was a scholar of an obscure artist named Groen-
wegen. He afterwards went to Italy, and was for
some time in the employment of Charles Emmanuel,
Duke of Savoy. In the reign of William III. he
came to England, and painted landscapes and
portraits, with little success. He died in London
in 1699.

DU BOIS, ELIAS, a native of France, was chiefly
employed in engraving portraits. Among others,
he engraved one of the Duke of Sully, which bears
the date of 1614.


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the novels of Sir Walter Scott, and of several other
works. He died in Paris in 1870.

painter, and an engraver, was born at Amsterdam
in 1693, and died there in 1745. He was a scholar
of De Lairesse and Jacob van Huysum. After
producing several beautiful pictures, some of which
may be seen at the Westerkerk, and the New
Church at Amsterdam, he exchanged the brush for
the graver, and executed some pretty vignettes
and other small compositions, and also etched a
number of plates from his own designs. His
collection of pictures and drawings was sold at
Amsterdam in 1776.

DU BOYS, HEINBICH, an historical painter of
the school of Rubens, was working at Cologne up
till his death in 1628. Several of the churches in
that city possess pictures from his hand, as the
' Ascension of the Virgin,' ' St. Mary at the Capi-
tol,' together with four smaller ones fixed to the
pillars opposite the high altar ; the ' Angel of the
Annunciation,' and two small Saints, in the church
of the Holy Virgin ; and the ' Taking down from
the Cross ' (1623) in that of the Greater St. Martin.

DD BREUIL, TOUSSAINT, a French painter and
pupil of Freminet the elder, was born in Paris in
1561. He painted at Fontainebleau in the Pavilion
des Poesies, ' Mars and Venus,' and fourteen pic-
tures representing the ' History of Hercules,' and in
the Galerie des Cerfs, thirteen bird's-eye views
of royal residences. He likewise decorated the
Galerie des Rois in the Louvre, but this was de-
stroyed by fire in 1661. There are many drawings
by Du Breuil in the Louvre, but all bis pictures
seem to have perished. He died in Paris in 1602.

DUBUFE, CLAUDE MARIE, a French historical
and portrait painter, was born in Paris in 1790,
and studied under David. His subjects were at
first classical, and then scriptural, but his reputa-
tion rests chiefly on bis portraits, of which he
produced a large number. Dubufe, who was the
last representative of the school of David, died
at Selle-Saint-Cloud in 1864. Amongst his chief
works are :

A Roman suffering starvation with his family rather
than touch a sum of money entrusted to him. 1810.

Christ allaying the tempest. 1819.

Apollo and Cyparissa. 1822.

The Birth of the Duke of Bordeaux. 1824. (Orleans

The Passage of the Bidassoa. 1824.

Four frescoes representing ' Egypt,' &c. (Conseil J'Klat,

The Surprise. 1828. (National Gallery, London.)

Portrait of Louis Philippe.

General Montesquiou-Fezenzac ( Versailles).
., Nicholas Koechlin. 1841.
the Queen of the Belgians.

DUBUFE, Louis EDOUAED, a French portrait
painter, the son of Claude Marie Dubufe, was born
in Paris in 18'20. He was a pupil of his father
and of Paul Delaroche, and made his d^but at the
Salon of 1839, with an ' Annunciation,' and a
'Huntress.' His earlier works were mostly of a
religious character, the chief of them being ' Christ's
Entry into Jerusalem' (1845), and two scenes from
'Clarissa Harlowe ' (1847), but from 1848 he de-
voted himself almost exclusively to portraiture,
for which he possessed a talent like that of his
father. Among his best known portraits are those
of the Empress Eugenie, the Princess Mathilde,
Madame Roul ler, the Princess Ghika, General Fleury,
the Count of Nieuwerkerke, M. Gounod, Jules Ja-
nin, Alexandre Dumas the younger, Emile Augier,

and Philippe Rousseau, the painter. His large
picture of the 'Congress of Paris in 1856,' now at
Versailles, the ' Prodigal Son,' exhibited in the
Salon of 1866, and the ' Death of Adonis,' in that of
1877, are the most important of his other works.
He died at Versailles in 1883.

DUG, ANTON, who flourished in the middle of the
17th century, would, but for two or three works by
him which are known, have remained in obscurity.
One signed A. Doc is in the Vienna Gallery ; it
represents a ' Lady and Gentleman asking mercy
of some infantry officers, who are plundering their
house.' Another, of a similar character, is in the
Dresden Gallery ; it bears the monogram L. D.
(interlaced), and represents a ' Peasant and his Wife
begging for mercy of a soldier who threatens the
life of the husband.' The Marquis of Bute pos-
sesses a third: a 'Guard- Room, with ladies and
officers playing tric-trac.' These works are well
executed in the style of Palamedes.


DUCCI, VIRGILIO, a scholar of Albani, flourished
about 1660 ; he imitated the manner of his master,
and painted in the cathedral of Citta di Castello
two pictures of Tobias, which are said to be
executed in an elegant style.

DUCCIO, the son of Buoninsegna, was the first
of the Sienese painters who abandoned the Byzan-
tine manner. He is said to have been born about
1260, but the earliest mention of him is in 1282.
He is also reported to have been a pupil of Segna
di Buonaventura, but the works of the latter, and
their dates, which are between 1305 and 1326,
show him to have been, on the contrary, Duccio's
scholar. In 1285 he made a contract with the
Fraternity of Santa Maria in Florence to paint an
altar-piece of the 'Virgin and Child, with Saints,'
for their chapel in Santa Maria Novella, but this
picture and the ' Annunciation,' which he painted
for Santa Triniti in Florence, no longer exist.
In 1302 he painted a ' Madonna ' for the chapel of
the Palazzo Pubblico of Siena, which is now lost.
In 1308 he commenced his famous altar-piece for
the high altar of the cathedral of Siena, which was
finished and carried to its place with great cere-
mony in 1311. For this painting he had agreed
to be paid at the daily rate of sixteen soldi, but,
owing to the enormous amount of gold and ultra-
marine expended on it, the cost mounted up to
2000, or.Jas others say, 3000 gold florins. This picture
was fourteen feet long, by seven feet high, and
was painted on both sides the front showing the
'Virgin and Child, surrounded by various Saints
and Angels' ; and the back twenty-seven subjects
from the life of Christ. These latter designs were
paid for by a separate contract, which is likewise
preserved, at the rate of two and a half gold florins
each. It has now been moved from its original
position, and the two portions of which it consisted
have been separated and hung "in the Gallery of the
Opera del Duomo" of the cathedral. It is the only
undoubted work by Duccio which remains. The-
date of Duccio's death is unknown, but it was pro-
bably soon afier 1339. His pupils were Segna,
Martini, the two Lorenzetti, and perhaps Ugolino.
The following paintings are also ascribed to him :

Cologne. Eamboux Coll. St. John the Baptist preaching.
Two panels : St. Peter and St.


London. National Gall. The Madonna and Child, with
Angels ; and David with sis
Prophets above; SS. Dominic


and Catharine on the doors.
(A triptych.)
Siena. Academy. Triptych The Virgin, Child, and

Virgin and Child, with four


Hospital of Santa Triptych The Flagellation, The
Maria della Scala. Crucifixion, The Entombment

(spoiled by restoration).

Windsor. Castle. An Altar-piece: the Virgin and
Child, the Crucifixion, and other



DUCHANGE, GASPARD, a French engraver,
was born in Paris in 1662. He was a pupil
first of Guillaume Vallet and afterwards of Jean
Audran, and was received into the Academy in
1707. He died in Paris in 1757. Duchange may
be ranked among the ablest artists of his country,
particularly for the mellowness and harmony with
which he has combined his etching with a taste-
ful management of the graver. His plates after
Correggio are peculiarly expressive of the admir-
able style of that painter. The number of his
works is considerable ; the following are the most
esteemed :


Francois Girardon ; after Rigaud ; presented for his
reception into the Academy in 1707.

Charles de La Fosse, painter ; after the same ; presented
upon the same occasion.

Antoiue Coypel, with his Son ; after a picture by him-


Jupiter and lo ; after Correqffio.

Jupiter and Danae ; after the same.

Jupiter and Leda ; after the same.

[The best impressions of the above fine prints are before

the name of Sornique, who letouched the plates, and

added draperies.]

The Entombment of Christ ; after Paolo Veronese.
Mary Magdalen washing the Feet of Christ after

Christ driving the Buyers and Sellers from the Temple ;

after the same.

The Sacrifice of Jephtha ; after A. Coypel.
Tobit recovering his Sight ; after the same.
Venus sleeping, with three Loves and a Satyr ; after the


The Death of Dido ; after the same.
The Bath of Diana ; after the same.
Solon explaining his Laws to the Athenians ; after IP.


Trajan dispensing Justice to the People"; after the same.
Diana disarming Cupid ; after Desormeaiai.
The Birth of Mary de' Medici ; after Kubens.
The Landing of Mary de' Medici at Marseilles ; after

the same.
The Marriage of Henry IV. and Mary de' Medici ; after

the same.
The Apotheosis of Henry IV. and Regency of Mary de'

Medici ; after the same.
The Interview of Mary de' Medici and her son, Louis

XIH. ; after the same.

The five last plates were engraved for the Luxembourg

Flemish painter, born at Brussels in 1616, is said
to have been a pupil of David Teniers the younger,
whose style he followed in some of his pictures,
representing village festivals ; but he is more known
for his small family portraits and conversations
in the manner of Gonzales Coques, and his
pictures are not unfrequently taken for those of
that master. He is said to have worked also in


Paris in conjunction with Van der Meulen. His
most considerable work is a large picture in the
Museum at Ghent, representing ' The Inaugura-
tion of Charles II., King of Spain, as Count of
Flanders, in 1666, in the Marche au Vendredi at
Ghent ; ' it is dated 1668, and has been engraved
by Lucas Vorsterman. Duchatel's works are very
rare : there is in the Louvre ' A Cavalier and two
other persons ; ' in the Museum at Avignon, ' The
Interior of a Guard-House;' in the Brussels Gallery,
1 Portraits of two little Girls ; ' and in the Copen-
hagen Gallery, ' Tric-Trac Players.' The ' Panorama
of Valenciennes,' in the Antwerp Gallery, though
ascribed to Teniers, is set down by some critics to
Duchatel. He died in 1694.

DUCHEMIN, CATHERINE, a French flower and
fruit painter, was born in Paris in 1630, and died
there in 1698. She married, in 1657, the sculptor
Girardon, and in 1663 was received into the Aca-
demy, being the first lady on whom this honour
had been conferred.

DUCHESNE DE GisoRS, a French painter of minia-
tures and enamels, was born atGisors in 1770. He
was the son of Jean Baptiste Duchesne, a sculptor,
and a pupil of Vincent. He exhibited at first under
the name of DUCHESNE, afterwards under that of
DUCHESNE DBS ARGILLEHS, and finally, from 1833
until his death, under that of DUCHESNE DE GISORS.
He died at Gisors in 1856.

DUCHESNE, NICOLAS, who was first painter to
the Queen Mother, Mary de' Medici, was a mediocre
painter in all but the direction of others. He was
superintendent of the decorative works at Fon-
tainebleau, where he maltreated all the artists in
his charge. He died in 1627.



DUCIS, Louis, born in Paris in 1773, was in-
structed by David, whom he partly imitated in his
historical pieces, besides which he devoted himself
also to genre and portrait painting. His 'Mary
Stuart ' and ' The Debut of Talma ' were formerly
in the Luxembourg Gallery. He died in 1847.

DUCK, JACOB, a Dutch genre painter, entered
the Guild of St. Luke at Utrecht in 1626. He
gave a picture, representing a musical reunion, to
the hospital of St. Job in that city. He painted
military conversation pieces in the taste of Jan Le
Dueq, but with less delicacy of touch and finish ;
they are nevertheless of great beauty. His paint-
ings are to be met with at Vienna, at Dresden, and
at Christiania, where there is also an etching by
him of the ' Adoration of the Kings.' Many writers
state that this artist was the father of Jan Le
Ducq, but this is extremely doubtful, as well by
reason of the variation in the name, as by the fact

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