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that Jan Le Ducq is known to have been born at
Haarlem in 1636, whereas Jacob Duck resided
constantly at Utrecht from 1626 to 1646.

DUCORNET, Louis CESAR JOSEPH, a French his-
torical painter, was born of poor parentage at Lille,
in 1806. He was deformed from his birth, having
neither arms nor thighs, and only four toes to his
right foot. While still a child, he used to pick up
pieces of charcoal from the floor with his toes, and
made rough sketches on the wall, which evinced so
much promise that he received some local in-
struction. By the help of the municipality of
Lille, he was sent to Paris, studied under Lethiere
and Gerard, and for a time received a pension. He
died in Paris in 1856. His chief pictures are :


Repentance. 1828.

The Parting of Hector and Andromache. (Lille Museum.)

St. Louis administering Justice. (Lille Museum.)

Death of Mary Magdalen. 1840. (St. Andre, Lille.)

The Repose in Egypt. 1841.

Christ in the Sepulchre. 1843.

Edith finding the body of Harold. 1855.

DUCORRON, JDLES, a Belgian landscape painter,
was born at Ath in 1770. At the age of thirty-two,
he devoted himself to the art of painting under the
direction of Ommeganck, and made marvellous
progress as a landscape painter, obtaining several
gold medals. He was afterwards director of the
Academy at Ath, where he died in 1848. The
Brussels Museum has by him a ' View in the neigh-
bourhood of Irchonwelz, near Chievres, Hainault,'
and a 'Gale of Wind at Sunset.'
DDCQ, JOSEPHUS FKANCISCUS, a Flemish historical
and portrait painter, was born at Ledeghem in
1763. He studied at Bruges, and then under Suv^e
in Paris, where he obtained the second grand
prize in 1800, and a medal in 1810. He also spent
a considerable time in Italy, but returned to Bruges
in 1815, and became a professor in the Academy.
He died at Bruges in 1829. Amongst his chief
works are :

Meleager. 1804.

Devotion of a Scythian. 1810.

Marriage of Angelica aud Medora. 1812.

Venus emerging from the Sea. (Brussels Museum.)

William I., King of the Netherlands. (Bruges Academy.')

Van Gierdergom. (Bruges Academy.)

DUCREUX, JOSEPH, a French portrait painter,
was born at Nancy in 1737. He engraved his own
portrait in three different characters, which were
published in London in 1791, but he died in Paris
in the same year.

DUCROS, PIERRE, a Swiss landscape painter in
oil and water-colours, and an engraver, was born
in 1748. He lived for a considerable time at Rome,
and painted views of that city and its environs. He
executed in a masterly manner twenty-four views
of Sicily and Malta, besides numerous drawings
made during his sojourn in Italy, some of which
are of large dimensions. He died at Lausanne in

painted in the church of the Paulines at Gottingen,
in 1424, the large altar-piece which is now in the
library of that church. It represents scenes from
the life of the Virgin and the Passion, and is
signed, frater Hs. Dudstadens.

DUDLEY, THOMAS, an English engraver, was
born about the year 1634. He was a pupil of
Hollar, and though greatly inferior to that cele-
brated artist, his prints are not without consider-
able merit. He engraved a set of twenty-seven
plates for Barlow's ' Life of ^Esop,' published in
1687, as well as the following portraits:

Bichard Russell, Bishop of Portalegre.
James Sharpe, Bishop of St. Andrew's.
Titus Gates.

flourished from about 1614 to 1646, was probably
a son of either Joannes or Lucas van Duetecum.
He engraved a set of plates representing the
various habits and manners of the Indians. They
are executed entirely with the graver, in a stiff,
indifferent style.

DOETEOHDM,) who flourished respectively from
about 1559 to 1585 and 1596, were natives of

Holland, and are supposed to have been brothers.
They etched conjointly, in a bold masterly manner,
several large prints, representing the pompous
funeral of the Emperor Charles V.



DUFFIELD, WILLIAM, a painter of flowers,
fruit, and still-life, was born at Bath in 1816. He
studied under George Lance, and afterwards in
the schools of the Royal Academy, and under
Wappers at Antwerp. His early works were
portraits, but in 1849 he sent to the Royal
Academy a fruit-piece, his first exhibited work,
and continued to exhibit there and at the Society
of British Artists a number of pictures of a very
high degree of excellence. He settled in London
in 1857, and died there in 1863. He married, in
is well known as a water-colour painter of flowers,
birds' nests, and fish.

DUFLOS, CLAUDE, a French engraver, was born
in Paris about 1662, and died in the same city
in 1727. It is not known by whom he was in-
structed, but his style resembles that of Fran9ois
Poilly. We have by this artist a great number
of plates, executed principally with the graver,
and very neatly finished. The following are the
most deserving of notice :


Philip, Duke of Orleans ; after E. Tournieres.
Jean Francois Paul de Gondy, Cardinal de Retz.
Denis Francois de Chavjguy, Bishop of Troyes.
Nicolas Lyon, Procureur du Roi ; after Herluyson.
Jean Jacques Gaudart, Conseiller du Roi ; after Largil-

Marc Rene de Voyer; after Hyacinths Eigaud.


The Entombment of Christ; after P. Perugino ; for the

Crozat Collection.
The same subject ; after Raphael.
St. Michael discomfiting the Evil Spirit ; after the same ;

for the Crozat Collection.
Christ with the Disciples at Emmaus; after Paolo

Veronese ; for the Crozat Collection.
The Adulteress before Christ ; after If. Colombel.
Christ at table with the Disciples ; after Titian.
Bust of the Virgin ; after Guido.
The Annunciation ; after A Hani.
Christ appearing to Mary Magdalen ; after the same.
St. Cecilia ; after P. Miynard.
The Presentation in the Temple'; after Le Sueur.
The Descent from the Cross ; after the same.
The Murder of the Innocents ; after Le Brun.
Christ on the Mount of Olives ; after the same.
The Crucifixion ; after the same.
The same subject; after the same; from the print Dy

The Dead Christ, with the Virgin and St. John ; after

the same.

The Descent of the Holy Ghost ; after the tame.
The Assumption of the Virgin ; after the same.
The Penitent Magdalen ; after the same.
The Annunciation ; after A . Coypel.
The Crucifixion ; after the same.

The Magdalen at the foot of the Cross ; after the tame.
A Concert ; after Domenichitw.
The Triumph of Galatea ; after the same.
Cupid stung by a Bee ; after the same.
The same subject ; smaller and circular.
Bacchus and Ariadne ; after the same.
The Triumph of Bacchus ; after C. Natoire.
The Triumph of Amphitrite ; after the same.

DUFLOS, CLAUDE AUGUSTIN, the son of Claude
Duflos, and, like his father, an engraver, was born



in 1700. He is supposed to have died in 1784 or

engraver, was born in Paris about 1710. He
studied under De Troy, gained the ' prix de
Rome' in 1729, lived for some time in Italy, and
in 1740 painted his own portrait for the Uffizi.
He died at Lyons in 1746.

DU FOUR, N., was a native of France, who
flourished about the year 1760. Among other
prints, he engraved several small plates after
Weirotter and other masters.

DU FRESNE, CHARLES, a French engraver,
executed some copies of the works of Callot and
Albrecht Diirer, besides a few other plates, among
which was ' The Interview between St. Nilus and
the Emperor Otho III.,' after Domenichino. He
flourished from about 1791 to the early years of
the 19th century.

more celebrated for his poem on the art, than for
his merit as a painter. Born in Paris in 1611, he
was destined by his father, who was an apothecary,
to the practice of physic, and, with that intention,
he received the best education possible. Bis
progress in his studies was more than usually
promising ; he soon became well versed in the
classics, and at an early period of his life showed
a marked genius for poetry. His love of paint-
ing was not less conspicuous ; and when he was
eighteen years of age he placed himself under
the tuition of FranQois Perrier, and afterwards
entered the school of Simon Vouet. After study-
ing under these masters for about three years, he
formed the project of visiting Italy, although
without any other resources than what he could
derive from the exercise of his talent. On his
arrival at Rome, his first attempts were views
of the buildings and architectural ruins in the
vicinity of that city, which, though not without
merit, he had great difficulty in introducing to
public notice. He languished at Rome for two
years, in indigence and obscurity, when Pierre
Mignard, who had been his fellow-student under
Vouet, arrived there. The meeting of the young
friends was most cordial, and from that moment
an attachment sprang up which existed during the
remainder of their lives. Mignard, who was the
more successful, divided with his friend his earn-
ings ; and although he possessed greater facility
than Du Fresnoy, he was frequently assisted by the
counsels of his friend, and his perfect acquaintance
with the theory of the art, of which he has given
ample proof in his poem, ' De Arte Graphica.'
The Cardinal of Lyons employed them in copying
the works of Annibale Carracci, in the Farnese
gallery ; and they were most assiduous in their
studies after Raphael and the antique. Felibien
lias given a particular account of his works at
Rome, of which the following are the principal :
'The Ruins of Campo Vaccino ; ' 'A young Athe-
nian visiting the Tomb of her Lover ; ' ' The filial
Piety of ^Eueas ; ' ' Mars rinding Lavinia sleeping
on the Banks of the Tiber,' one of his best pictures ;
' The Birth of Venus,' and ' The Birth of Cupid.' In
1653 he left Rome to return to France, by way of
Venice, where he was so struck with the works of
Titian, that he wrote to his friend to rejoin him in
that city, and there he remained eighteen months,
profiting greatly by his studies. In 1656 he
returned to Paris, where he painted, among other
works, a picture of ' St. Margaret,' for the church


dedicated to that saint, a saloon in the ChSteau
Raincy, and four landscapes in the H6tel d'Hervart,
afterwards the Hotel des Postes, in which the figures
were painted by Mignard. The remainder of his
life was employed in preparing for publication his
poem, which, however, did not appear until three
years after his death. He died at Villiers-le-Bel,
near Paris, in 1665. There are in public galleries
the following paintings by him :

Paris. Louvre. St. Margaret.


Vienna. Czernin Coll. The Vision of Alcmene.

DUGGAN, PETER PAUL, a native of Ireland, went
while quite young to America. He afterwards re-
turned to England, and resided for some years near
London, but died in Paris in 1861. He painted
portraits in oil, but more often worked in crayons.

DUGHET, GASPARD, (commonly called GASPARD
POUSSIN, or LE GUASPRE,) was born at Rome in
1613. His parents Xvere French subjects, who had
settled in the Eternal City. They appear to have
been people of a kindly disposition, for about 1629
they received into their house their fellow-country-
man, Nicolas Poussin, then a lonely and friendless
student in Rome, and nursed him tenderly through
a dangerous illness. This friendship brought
about the great painter's marriage with a daughter
of his hosts. Nay more, Poussin, seeing the in-
clination of the young Gaspard towards art, took
him as his pupil, and for three years carefully
superintended his instruction. Dughet owed much
to the solid foundation thus laid by his brother-in-
law, and he ever proved himself a most devoted
disciple. He was fond of hunting, fishing, and
out-door sports, and did not fail to profit by the
opportunities thus afforded him of studying nature,
and enriching his knowledge of her ever-changing
aspects. After leaving Poussin's studio, his'inde-
pendent nature led him, though scarcely yet twenty,
to set up for himself ; and the progress he made in
his art soon brought patronage.

He spent a year at Perugia and Castiglione with
the Duke della Cornia, who treated him with great
consideration, and escorted him back to Rome at
the conclusion of his visit. With another patron
he made a trip to Milan, and after a severe illness
the Duke della Cornia took him away again for the
recovery of his health, and procured him many
commissions. This trip was followed by visits to
Florence, where he painted some decorative works
at the Pitti Palace, and to Naples, before he once
more settled down in Rome.

This point may be said to mark the conclusion of
the first period of Dughet's art, during which the
works produced by him are to be distinguished by
a coldness and certain want of freedom. He now
came under the influence of Claude Lorrain, at
this time in the zenith of his fame at Rome. The
study of his works had a most beneficial effect on
Dughet, and to it is due the warmth and mastery
over light and air observable in the works of
his maturer period. He never married, and with
the exception of time given to sport and social
pleasures he was not a hermit-bachelor, but loved
the society of genial spirits his life was devoted
to the pursuit of his art. The better to enable
him to study the scenery of Rome and his loved
Campagna, from which the subjects of the majority
of his pictures were taken, he had four houses at
which he spent his time: two in elevated situa-
tions in Rome itself, one at Tivoli, and another at
Frascati. The facility of execution which he


acquired was marvellous, and he is said to have
required only one day to finish a large picture.
Hence his works are almost innumerable, and
specimens are found in nearly all the public and
private collections of Europe. Besides easel works,
he found time also to execute in fresco subjects
from the life of the prophet Elias at the Carmelite
Church of San Martino ai Monti at Rome. His
finest works are in the Doria Palace, and others are
in the Colonna and Borghese Palaces. It should
not be forgotten that he received much assistance
from his brother-in-law, from Pietro da Cortona,
from Filippo Lauri, and from many others, in the
figures introduced into his compositions ; but this
consideration is in no way sufficient to remove
the feeling of surprise at his wonderful fertility.
Amongst his pupils, the chief names are those of
Crescenzio di Onofrio, Vincentio, and Jacques De
Rooster of Mechlin. During his life he had saved
30,000 Roman crowns ; but his generous habits, and
an illness of two years before his death, which took
place at Rome in 1675, did not leave more than
sufficient to provide for his honourable burial.

In a brief summary of Dughet's characteristics,
his partiality for quiet lights should first be men-
tioned. He excels in the representation of effects
before sunrise, and in the reproduction of the
peaceful tones of evening. But his great strength
lies in the portrayal of tempests. D'Argenville
observes that no painter before him had been able
to reproduce the effects of wind and storm in
his pictures: the leaves seem to move, and the
trees cease to be inanimate objects under his brush.
His works now convey an impression of great
grandeur and solemnity, and this sombreness has
probably increased in the course of years by his
predilection for painting on a dark ground.

The drawings which he left are very finished in
execution : some are outlined with the pen, and
tinted with bistre or Indian ink : others are drawn
with the pencil and touched up with white, or
occasionally with black. There are also eight
etchings by him, four of which are oval, inscribed
with the Italian form of his name, Gasparo
Duche inv. sc. Romae, or G.D.s., or Gasp. Dughet

The following is a list of some of the pictures by
which he is represented in the chief collections of
Europe :


Belvoir Castle. Christ and the Disciples going to


Two other Landscapes.
St. Jerome.
Five other Landscapes.

Brocklesby Park.

i >


trilliam > Landscape.

Castle Howard. Three Landscapes.

Chatsworth House. Five Landscapes.
Clumber Park. Three Landscapes.

Corsham House. Landscape, Storm.

Dulwich. Gallery. Destruction of Niobe.

Conversion of St. Paul.

Three other Landscapes.

Edinburgh. Nat. Gal. Land Storm.
Hampton Court. Palace. Christ's Agony in the Garden.

,, The Angels appearing to the


Isleworth. Sion House. Two Landscapes.
Knowsley Hall. Two Landscapes.

London. National Gal. Abraham and Isaac.

Dido and jEneas.

Four other Landscapes.


London. Bridgewater \
House, j

Buckingham )
Palace. J


Dorchester )

House, j

Stafford House.

Hertford House.

Bath House.

Longford Castle.
Osterley Park.
Panshanger House.
Petworth House.
Wardour Castle.
Welbeck Abbey.
Wilton House.
Windsor. Castle.

A Storm.

Three other Landscapes.


View of Tivoli and the Temple ol

the Sybil.
Two other Landscapes.

Four Landscapes.

View of Tivoli.
Tsvo Landscapes.
Four Landscapes.
Two Landscapes.
One Landscape.
Two Landscapes.

Jonah (fyures by JV. Poussin).

Landscape, known as " Solitude."

Two other Landscapes.

Woburu Abbey. Four Landscapes.


Ajaccio. Museum. Two Landscapes.

Avignon. Museum. Four Landscapes.

Basle. Museum. Three Landscapes.

Berlin. Gallery. Italian Landscape.

Bordeaux. Museum. Two Landscapes.

Cassel. Gallery. Three Landscapes.

Cherbourg. Museum. One Landscape.

Dijon. Museum. Alpheus and Arethnsa.

., Apollo and the Cumiean Sybil.

Dresden. Gallery. View on a Lake.

Three other Landscapes.

Florence. Vffizi. The Fishermen.

Pitti Pal. Several Landscapes.

Gotiia. Gallery. Landscape.

Hague. Museum. Landscape.

Lausanne. Arlaud, Mus. Three Landscapes.

Lille. Museum. One Landscape.

Lyons. Museum. Hagar.

Madrid. Gallery. St. Jerome.

St. Mary Magdalen before the


n Five other Landscapes.

Milan. Pinacoteca. St. John the Baptist as a child.

Montpellier. Museum. Apollo and Daphne.

Temple of the Sybil at Tivoli.

Nine other Landscapes.

Munich. Gallery. Temple of the Sybil at Tivoli.

., Mountainous Landscape.

One other Landscape.

Museum. Three Landscapes.

Museum. Landscape.

Nar bonne.

Museum. Landscape.


Louvre. A Landscape.
Petersburg. Hermitage. Five Landscapes.
Museum. Flight into Egypt.

One other Landscape.

Quimper. Museum. Finding of Moses.
Rome. Barberini ) _,, T

Palace, j Tbree Landsca Pes.
Boryhese Pal. Several Landscapes.
Colonna Pal. Several Landscapes.
Corsini Pal. Several Landscapes.
Doria Palace. St. Mary of Egypt.

A Forest.

The Flight into Egypt.

St. Augustine on the sea-shore

with an Angel.
Stockholm. Gallery. Death of Adonis.

, ' Temple of the Sybil at Tivoli.
View of Nemi.
Seven other Landscapes.
Turin. Gallery. The Cascades of Tivoli.

Venice. Academy. Landscapes.
Vienna. Gallery. The Tomb of Cecilia Metella,

A Landscape.

A Wooded Landscape.



Vienna. Archduke )

Albrecht's Gal. f
Liechtenstein ? mi T *

Gattery. j Three Landscapes.
Harrach Gallery. Landscape.
Czernin Gallery. Two Landscapes. Q. J. D.

DUGHET, JEAN, a brother of Gaspard Dughet,
was bom at Rome in 1614, and studied under
Nicolas Poussin, after whose works he engraved.
He died in 1676. Of his prints the following are
the most worthy of notice :

The Seven Sacraments ; from the pictures painted by
Nicolas Poussin for the Cavaliere del Pozzo, differing
from those formerly in the Orleans collection.

Mount Parnassus ; after the same.

The Birth of Bacchus ; after the same.

The Judgment of Solomon ; after the same.


Louis (1660 >b. 1620).

Alexandra (fl. ab. 1600).

I .

Louis (16141659). Aleinudre (d. 1656). Pierre (16241674).

DU GUERNIER, ALEXANDRE, the elder, son of
Louis Du Guernier the elder, and like him a painter
of portraits and miniatures, flourished about the year
1600. His portraits, equal to those of his father,
are rare and much sought after. Being a Protest-
ant, he went abroad in consequence of the revo-
cation of the Edict of Nantes, and died in exile.

DU GUERNIER, ALEXANDRE, the younger, a
landscape painter, was a younger son of Alexandra
Du Guernier the elder. He died in Paris in 1655,
being cut short in a career of great promise.

DU GUERNIER, Louis, the elder, a French
miniature painter, born in 1550, executed numerous
drawings for books of hours and breviaries, as well
as portraits of many of the most noted persons of
his time. He painted for the Duke of Guise a book
of prayers, in which the ladies of the court were
represented with the attributes usually given to
the saints. He ordinarily worked on vellum, stip-
pling without making use of white. He died about

DU GUERNIER, Louis, the younger, the eldest
son of Alexandre Du Guernier the elder, was born
in Paris in 1614. He was added to the foundation
members of the Royal Academy of Painting in
1651, became professor in 1655, and died in Paris
in 1659. His sister, Siisanne, married the cele-
brated historical painter, St^bastien Bourdon.

DU GUERNIER, Louis, a French engraver, was
born in Paris in 1677, and came to England in
1708. He assisted Du Bosc in engraving the
battles of the Duke of Marlborough, and executed
some illustrations to the works of Spenser and
Gay. He died in 1716.

DU GUERNIER, PIERRE, who was considered
the best enamel painter of his day, was a younger
son of Alexandre Du Guernier the elder. He
was born in Paris in 1624, became an acade-
mician in 1663, and died in Paris in 1674. His
portraits are distinguished by a freshness and
brilliancy of colour, afterwards surpassed by
Petitot alone.

DUGY, , a French engraver, flourished

about the year 1760. He engraved several slight
prints, after the works of Frangois Boucher and
other masters.

DU HAMEEL, ALART, a goldsmith and engraver
of the 15th century, is known by a plate of ' The
Last Judgment,' after Jerom Bosch, and a ' Church


DU HAMEL, A. B., a French engraver, flour-
ished about 1760. He resided in Paris, and was
employed chiefly by the booksellers in engraving
book-plates and portraits, among the latter being
those of Jolyot de Crebillon and Jean Jacques

DUIVEN, JAN, born at Gouda in 1600, was a
scholar of WouterCrabeth, and had a great reputa-
tion as a portrait painter. He died in 1640.

DU JARDIN, KAREL, was born probably at
Amsterdam about 1625. He was a pupil of
Nicolaas Berchem, and was unquestionably the
ablest scholar of that celebrated master. His
progress was extraordinary, and to perfect him-
self he travelled to Italy when he was still very
young. On his arrival at Rome he was received
into the Bentevogel Society, where the title of
' Barbe de Bouc ' was conferred on him. His
studies were assiduous and constant, and his
pictures acquired estimation in Rome, where they
were admired beyond those of any artist of his
country. After a residence of several years at
Rome he returned to Holland, where his pictures
were not less admired than they had been in Italy,
and he met with great success. Notwithstand-
ing this flattering encouragement, his desire of
revisiting Italy was so great that he left home for
Venice, where he died in 1678. The pictures of
Du Jardin are more conformable to the taste of
Italy than to that of Holland, and they generally
exhibit a warmth and brilliancy of atmosphere,
with clear and sparkling skies. His landscapes
are always pleasing in their scenery, and they are
decorated with charming figures and animals, in
which, to the truth and finish of Paul Potter, he
unites a taste which is not found in the works of
that celebrated cattle painter. As he died young,
and his pictures are highly wrought up, they are
scarce, and very valuable. The following are
some of the best :


Museum. Young man tasting wine. 1664.

Bordeaux. Museum.
Brussels. Museum.

Cassel. Gallery.

Copenhagen. Gallery.
Dresden. Gallery.

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