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Dulwich. Gallery.
Edinburgh. Gallery.
Hague. Gallery.



Lille.
London.

Paris.



Museum.
Bute Coll.

Louvre.



Petersburg. Hern itage.
Vienna. Gallery.



Landscape and Animals.

The Advance Guard. 1652.

The Return to the shed.

Charlatans.

Allegory. 1663.

Diogenes and the Boy who drinks

with his hand.
Maid milking a Goat.
Ox and Goats in a Landscape.
Smith shoeing an Ox.
Peasants in a Landscape.
Halt of Horsemen.
Farrier's Shop.
Cascade in Italy. 1673.
The Spinner.
Pasturage.
Fording a Stream.
Tobit and the Angel.
Calvary. 1661.
Italian Charlatans. 1657.
The Ford.
The Pasturage.
The Grove. 1646.
Landscape and Animals. 1660.
Portrait of a Man. 1657.
Seven Landscapes.
Herdsman and Cattle.



He left about fifty-two admirable etchings of
landscapes, figures, and animals, which are exe-
cuted with uncommon taste and spirit. They are
sometimes signed with his name at length, at
other times with his initials or with a monogram.



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PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



DUJARDIN, Louis, a French engraver on wood,
was born at Rouen in 1808, and died in Paris in
1859. He executed some of the illustrations to
Charles Blanc's ' Histoire des Peintres.'

DULIN, PIERRE. See ULIK, PIERRE n'.

DULLAERT, HEINMAN, a Dutch painter, was
born at Rotterdam in 1636. He was the son
of a dealer in pictures, and having shown an
early inclination for art, he was placed in the
school of Rembrandt. Under that able instructor
his progress was such, that in a few years
some of his small pictures were painted so much
in the style of his master as to be mistaken for
Rembrandt's own. He generally painted cabinet
pictures of historical subjects and portraits, which
were deservedly admired for harmony of colour, a
vigorous touch, and a masterly effect of light and
shade. He died at Rotterdam in 1684.

DULONG, JEAN Louis, a French historical and
portrait painter, was born at Astaffort (Lot-et-
Garonne) in 1800. He was a pupil of Gros and
of Abel de Pujol, and died in Paris in 1868.

DU MAURIER, GEORGE Louis PALMELLA BUS-
SON, humorous artist, was born in Paris in 1831.
His mother was English, and his father, a son of
French emigres settled in London, was a natural-
ized British subject. Charming memories of his
childhood and boyhood, spent chiefly at Passy with
his parents, and at a Paris school, are to be found,
charmingly illustrated, in the three novels, ' Peter
Ibbetson,' 'Trilby,' and ' The Martian,' which won
him an entirely new kind of fame in the closing
years of his life. At the age of twenty he began
the study of chemistry at University College,
London, setting up shortly afterwards as an ana-
lytical chemist in Bticklersbury. But he had
found his true vocation in 1856, and after some
years of study in the Latin Quarter, and at
Antwerp, in the studio of Van Lerius (where he
gradually lost the use of his left eye, a lifelong
misfortune), he returned to London, and in 1860
submitted a sketch to ' Punch,' which immediately
won him the favour of its editor, Mark Lemon.
Critics are agreed that Du Manner's art was at
its best during the next ten years. Excellent
specimens of his work for ' Once a Week ' and
' The Cornhill,' to both of which periodicals he
was a regular contributor during this period, are
given by Mr. Gleeson White in his 'English
Illustrators of the Sixties. 1 Many of his most
characteristic drawings were done for books, be-
ginning with an edition of ' Fox's Book of Martyrs,'
published in 1865. In 1866 he illustrated Mrs.
Gaskell's ' Wives and Daughters ' ; in 1867, Jer-
rold's ' Story of a Feather' ; in 1868, Owen Mere-
dith's ' Lucile,' ' The Book of Drawing-Room Plays,'
by H. Dalton, and ' Sooner or Later,' by C. A. G.
Brooke ; and in 1869, Thackeray's ' Esmond,' to
which he added some additional vignettes ten
years later, when he also illustrated Thackeray's
' Ballads.' lie attained his highest level perhaps in
some of his drawings for ' Esmond ' ; but whatever
must be admitted in regard to his work for ' Punch,'
there is little appreciable falling-off in his book
illustrations in the seventies and eighties. In
1874 he illustrated Mr. C. W. Scott's ' Round
about our Islands,' and Mr. G. E. Sargent's ' Hur-
lock Chase' ; in 1876, 'Songs of many Seasons,'
by J. Brown ; in 1877, ' The Ingoldsby Legends '
(in collaboration), and ' Pegasus Re-saddled,' by
H. C. Pennell; in 1882, 'Prudence,' by L. C.
Lillie ; in 1889, 'As in a Looking-glass,' by F. C.
n 2



Phillips; and in 1891, 'Luke Ashleigh,' by A.
Elwes. ' Peter Ibbetson,' ' Trilby,' and ' The Mar-
tian,' after appearing serially in ' Harper's,' were
published in volume form, respectively, in 1892,
1894, 1897. In the same year, a collection of full-
page drawings which he had contributed to ' Har-
per's' month by month, was republished under the
title ' English Society,' with an appreciative intro-
duction by Mr. W. H. Howells.

It was in 1865 that Du Maurier joined the staff
of 'Punch' regularly as Leech's successor in the
field of social satire, devoting himself chiefly, by
Mark Lemon's advice, to the " light and graceful
business," hut with occasional excursions into the
fields (outside Leech's province) of the macabre
and the grotesque. In temperament, if not in
technique, the two artists had much in common.
While Charles Keene's mirth-provoking characters
seldom arouse in one feelings either of love or
hate hardly even of like or dislike Leech's
pages, as Du Maurier himself remarked, "teem
with winning, graceful, loveable types " ; with
" here and there a hateful one to give relief." This
is equally true of Du Maurier's own work. There
is feeling as well as fun in it ; sympathy as well as
satire. To a far greater degree than Leech, he is
a critic, not merely a spectator, of life ; the philoso-
pher is as strong in him as the artist. It would
be an injustice to him, therefore, to write only
of his craftsmanship. Undoubtedly his ' Punch '
drawings, in course of time, lost something of
their first freshness and simplicity, and became
mannered and machine-made, but, at his worst, one
may fairly apply to him another of his own judg-
ments upon Leech : " If he shines more by what
he has to say than by his manner of saying it,
perhaps that is the better thing of the two to
shine by if you cannot shine by both." There may
be too much cross-hatching in the representation
of Sir Pompey Bedell's dress-clothes, but Sir Pom-
pey himself, and Sir Gorgius Midas, and Mrs.
Ponsonby de Tomkyns, will live for ever. The
flaws in Du Maurier's craftsmanship are flaws,
moreover, that are visible to experts alone. They
are like the solecisms of construction and slips of
grammar which for the too sensitive literary critic
mar the masterpieces of Thackeray and Sir Walter
Scott.

As a bachelor Du Maurier lived in lodgings in
Bloomsbury with his friend Lionel Henley, after-
wards A.R.A. In 1862 he married Miss Emma
Wightwick, and settled down in a house near
Harnpstead Heath. His ' Punch ' drawings reflect
pleasantly the nature of his life his active par-
ticipation in all the functions of London Society,
his own happy home and his holidays at Whitby
and Scarborough, Boulogne and Dieppe. His
faculty for hitting off the characteristics of racial
types, one of his most distinctive gifts as an
artist, is particularly noticeable in his various
representations of life abroad ; his Americans are
almost his only failures. In 1881 he was elected
a member of the Royal Society of Painters in
Water-Colours, to whose exhibitions he had been
contributing from time to time. In 1885 took
place the first exhibition of his works at the Fine
Arts Society. He died on October 8, 1896, and
was buried in the Hampstead Cemetery. (See also
under KEENE.) F. W, W.

DU MESNIL, Louis MICHEL, a French his-
torical painter, became in 1750 professor at the
Academy of St. Luke at Rome. He painted the

99



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



' Visitation of the Virgin ' for the church of St.
Jean-en-Gre've at Paris, and one of the ' Beatitudes '
in the chapel of M. Turgot. A picture of his,
' Belle, quel est votre dessein ? ' was engraved by
C. Dupuis. His son, PIERRE Louis Du MESNIL,
who was born in 1698, and died in Paris in 1781,
was also professor at the Academy of St. Luke, of
which he became rector. He usually painted sub-
jects of every-day life, some of which have been
engraved.

DU MONSTIER, DANIEL, (Du MOUSTIER, or Dn
MOTJTIER), the best known of his family, was born
in Paris in 1574. He was the son of Cosme and
grandson of Geoffroy Du Monstier, and worked in
crayons and pastels at the courts of Francis I.,
Henry IV., and Louis XIII., executing portraits of
all the most distinguished personages of his time.
His master is unknown, but as his style resembles
that of Primaticcio, he probably studied under one
of the Italians at the court of Francis I. He
died in Paris in 1646. NICOLAS Dn MONSTIER, a
eon of Daniel, followed in his father's footsteps.
He was born in Paris in 1612, was received into
the Academy in 1665, and died in 1667.

DU MONSTIER, GEOFFROY, a French miniature
painter, born early in the 16th century, and still
living in 1547, was much employed at Fontaine-
bleau by II Rosso. He likewise painted upon
glass, and etched several plates which are described
in Robert-Dumesnil's ' Peintre-Graveur Franpais,'
vol. v. He is supposed to have painted in
grisaille the following miniatures in manu-
scripts : ' Francis I. conversing with Julius Caesar,'
in the British Museum, and 'The Triumph of
Petrarch,' in the Library of the Arsenal at Paris.

DUMONT, JACQUES, called LE ROMAIN, on ac-
count of a long sojourn which he made at Rome,
was born about 1700. He was an historical and
genre painter, whose best work was his picture of
' Hercules and Ornphale,' which he painted for his
reception at the Academy in 1728, but he had more
reputation than talent. Some of his works were
engraved by his contemporaries. His drawing and
composition are good, but his colour is mediocre.
He died in Paris in 1781.

DD MOUSTIER. See Du MONSTIER.

DUNCAN, EDWARD, a water-colour painter, was
born in London in 1803. He was articled to Robert
Havell, the aquatint engraver, and was thus afforded
frequent opportunities of studying, and occasionally
of copying, the works of William Havell. These
developed his taste for drawing and the use of
colour, and in 1831 he became a member of the
New Society of Painters in Water-Colours, but he
afterwards withdrew, and in 1849 was elected an
Associate of the Society of Painters in Water-
Colours, and a full member in the following year.
He died in London in 1882. His drawings com-
prise a wide range of subjects, treated with much
grace and great truthfulness to nature, but his
larger and more important works are chiefly coast
scenery, with shipping and craft admirably charac-
terized. Among the best of them are the following :

The Shipwreck. 1859.
The Life-Boat. 1860.
Blue Lights.

Oyster Dredgers Swansea Bay.
Landing Fish on the Sands at W hitby.
Fishing Boats making for the Harbour of Boulogne
early morning.

DUNCAN, THOMAS, was born in 1807, at Kin-
claven, in Perthshire, but was educated at Perth,
100



whither his parents had removed shortly after his
birth. He showed very early signs of a peculiar
faculty by employing every moment in drawing
such objects as struck his fancy, especially the
portraits of his young companions ; and while still
at school he painted the whole of the scenery for
a dramatic representation of ' Rob Roy,' which he
and his schoolfellows performed in a stable-loft.
His parents, however, considered this use of his
pencil an unprofitable waste of time, and placed
him in the office of a law-writer. Released in
time from the drudgery of the desk, and more
than ever desirous of accomplishing his favourite
object, he at length procured the consent of his
father to his visiting Edinburgh, where he was
placed under the able instruction of Sir William
Allan, then master of the Trustees' Academy for
the study of art, an establishment endowed by
Government. Duncan's talent, fostered and di-
rected by such a master, speedily developed itself,
and he made rapid progress in the drawing of the
human figure. The first picture which brought
him into general notice was his ' Milkmaid ' ; and
shortly after he exhibited his 'Old Mortality' and
' The Bra' Wooer.' He was appointed, at an un-
usually early age, to one of the professorships that
of colour at the newly-established Royal Scottish
Academy, and subsequently, on the death of Allan,
to the well-endowed mastership of the Trustees'
Academy. In 1840 he sent to the Royal Academy
his fine work, ' Prince Charles Edward and the
Highlanders entering Edinburgh after the Battle
of Preston Pans.' This picture brought the painter
at once into most favourable notice. In 1841
Duncan exhibited a most touching picture from
the ballad of 'Auld Robin Gray,' termed 'The
Waefu' Heart' (now in the Sheepshanks Collec-
tion in the South Kensington Museum) ; in the
following year, ' Deer-stalking ' ; and in 1843,
' Charles Edward asleep after the Battle of Cullo-
den, protected by Flora MacDonald.' In 1844
Duncan exhibited ' Cupid,' and ' The Martyrdom of
John Brown of Priesthill, in 1685.' This, which is
now in the Corporation Galleries at Glasgow, was the
last picture by the artist exhibited in London, ex-
cepting a portrait of himself, which, to the honour
of his Scottish professional brethren, was purchased
by subscription, and presented by them to the Royal
Scottish Academy. Duncan was elected an
Academician of the Royal Scottish Academy in
1830, and an Associate of the Royal Academy in
1843, but he did not long survive the latter honour,
as he died at Edinburgh in 1845. Had his life
been prolonged, there is no question but that he
would have achieved a lofty position in historical
painting ; as a colourist, indeed, he had few
superiors. His portraits deserve mention as being
faithfully and skilfully rendered.

The following works by him are in the National
Gallery of Scotland :

Thomas Duncan.

Anne Page inviting Slender to dinner.

Jeannie Deans and the Robbers.

Portrait of Lady Stuart of Allanbank.

John M'Neill of Colonsay.

Lord Colonsay.

Bran a celebrated Scottish Deerhound.

The two Friends, Child and Dog.

DUNKARTON, ROBERT, a mezzotint engravei,
was born in London in 1744. He was a pupil of
Pether, and painted a few portraits, some of which,
as also some portraits in crayons, were exhibited



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



at the Royal Academy and at Spring Gardens until
1779. But his greatest success was gained as a
mezzotint engraver. His plates are dated from 1770
to 1811, after which year there is no record of him.
He engraved in a clear, finished style several por-
traits and historical subjects, of which the follow-
ing are the principal :

PORTRAITS.

George, Lord Lyttelton ; after TTest.
Jonas Hallway: after E. Edwards.
Dr. Arne ; after O. Humphrey.
Miss Horneck; after Sir Joshua Reynolds.
John Elliot ; after N. Dance.
Miss Bamfylde ; after W. Peters.
James Brindley, engineer; after Parsons.
Miss Catley, in the character of Euphrosyne ; after
Laicrenson.

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS.
Lot and his Daughters ; after A . de Gelder.
Christ and the Disciples at Emmaus ; after Guercino.
Four subjects from the Life of Joseph ; after the same.

DUNKER, BALTHASAR ANTON, a landscape
painter and etcher, was born at Saal, near Stralsund,
in 1746. He was a pupil of Jakob Philipp
Hackert and of Vien, and was more distinguished
as an etcher than as a painter. His works are after
Roos, Van der Does, Hackert, and Schutz, and
consist of costumes and manners of the French
before the Revolution, illustrations of books, and
other miscellaneous subjects. Among them were
some excellent landscapes, as the ' Environs of
Berne,' and views of Leghorn. He died at Berne
in 1807.

DUNKER, PHILIP HEINRICH, son of Balthasar
A. Dunker, was also an engraver, and a painter in
water-colours. In both pursuits it seems that he
was a copyist, as his drawings are after Kobell,
Roos, Weenix, and others, and his engraving after
a picture by Demarne is traced to one by Geisler.
He died in 1836.

D'UNKER-HENNING-LUTZOW, KARL HIN-
DRICK, a genre-painter, was born at Stockholm in
1829. Up to 1851 he was an officer in the Swedish
Guards ; he afterwards studied at the Diisseldorf
Academy under K. Solm, and visited Paris and
Amsterdam. Having by an accident lost the use
of his right arm, he quickly learnt to paint with
his left, but he soon after succumbed to a chest
disease, and died at Diisseldorf in 1866. He was
Swedish court painter, and a professor and honor-
ary member of the Royal Academy at Stock-
holm. The Berlin National Gallery possesses an
'Announcement of Arrest ' by him.

DUNLAP, WILLIAM, an American painter, was
born at Perth Amboy, in New Jersey, in 1766.
When only seventeen he painted a portrait of
Washington. A group of himself and his parents,
done in 1788, is in the collection of the New York
Historical Society. He published in 1834 his
' History of the Arts of Design in the United
States,' and died in New York in 1839.

DUNOUY, ALEXANDRE HYACINTHE, a landscape
painter, born in Paris in 1757, was a pupil of Briand.
He exhibited at the Musde Royal in 1800 'Plusieurs
eludes d'apres la nature prises a Villers-Paul et
Hyeres,' and during succeeding years many land-
scapes and views ; in 1830 at the Luxembourg he
exhibited ' Etudes d'apres nature a Montmorency :
Autres prises a Jouy.' He also engraved a series
of thirty landscapes from his own compositions,
and some views in Italy and in the environs of
Paris. He died in 1843.



DUNSTALL, JOHN, who lived in London about
the year 1660, engraved a few portraits and other
plates, which are etched and finished with the
graver in imitation of the style of Hollar. In
1662 he published a book of birds, beasts, flowers,
fruit, &c., from his own designs. Among other
portraits we have the following by him :

Mary, Queen of James II.

King William and Queen Mary.

Samuel Clarke, prefixed to his ' Puritan Divines.'

James TJssher, Archbishop of Armagh.

DUNTHORNE, JOHN, father and son, were two
painters who practised at Colchester in the latter
part of the 18th century. The father painted
portraits, whilst the son painted genre subjects,
several of which appeared at the Royal Academy
between 1783 and 1794.

DUNWEGE, VICTOR and HEINRICH, who were
brothers, and painters of the school of Westphalia,
executed conjointly a large altar-piece for the
parish church of Dortmund. Though painted in
the year 1523, it recalls the art of the 15th
century, having a gold background, and being
symmetrical in composition, but somewhat crude
in colouring. It represents, in the centre, 'The
Crucifixion ' ; on the interior of the wings, ' The
Adoration of the Kings,' the ' Infant Jesus,' the
'Virgin and several of her kindred;' and on the
exterior ' The Donor kneeling before Christ,' who
is surrounded by Saints. Similar in character
to this altar-piece are a ' Holy Family ' in the
Antwerp Gallery (formerly in the church of
Calcar), and a ' Crucifixion ' in the Berlin Gal-
lery (not now exhibited), which are ascribed to
the brothers Diinwege. The ' Adoration of the
Kings,' dated 1512, in the Naples Museum, is
by a Westphalian master, resembling these artists
in style.

pUPERAC, ETIENNE, (or Du PEBAC,) a French
painter, architect, and engraver, was born at Bor-
deaux about 1525. He studied at Rome, and en-
graved the ' Last Judgment,' after Michelangelo,
and the 'Judgment of Paris,' after Raphael. He
etched in the manner of Fontana forty plates,
entitled 'I Vestigj dell' Antichita di Roma,' and
published in Rome in 1575. Henry IV. appointed
Duperac architect at Fontainebleau, where he
painted the bath-room with ' Marine Deities ' and
the ' Loves of Jupiter and Calisto,' but these works
were destroyed by fire in 1697. He died in Paris
in 1604.

DUPERREUX, ALEXANDRE Louis ROBEBT
MILLIN. See MILLIN DUPERREUX.

DUPLESSI - BERTAUX, JEAN, a French
draughtsman and engraver, was born in Paris in
1747. He engraved many plates for the 'Voyage
a Naples et dans les Deux-Siciles ' of the Abb6 de
Saint-Non, and for the ' Voyage en Grece ' of
Choiseul-Gouffier, and etched some of the plates of
the ' Galerie du Palais-Royal.' His best-known
works, however, are those which he executed for
the ' Tableaux historiques de la Revolution, ' some
of which are from his own designs, and the
' Campagnes d'ltalie,' after the drawings of Carle
Vernet. There are also plates by him in Denon's
' Voyage en Egypte,' the ' Musee Francais,' and the
' Musee Filhol.' He died in 1818 or 1819.

DUPLESSIS, JOSEPH SIFREDE, a French portrait
painter, was born at Carpentras, near Avignon, in
1725. He was destined for the priesthood, but at
an early age he showed his inclination for the arts.
He was taught by his father, Duplessis the elder,

101



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



and afterwards by Frere Imbert. He visited Rome
in 1745, and studied there under Subleyras ; and
on hie return home, after a short stay at Lyons,
he established himself in Paris, and was received
into the Academy in 1774. Losing his fortune in
the Revolution, he accepted the post of conservator
of the Museum of Versailles, where he died in 1802.
He possessed a high reputation for his portraits,
among which are those of Gluck (now in the
Vienna Gallery), Franklin, Marmontel, the Abb<5
Bossuet, and M. and Mme. Necker.

DUPLONICH, VEDASTUS, a Dutch engraver,
flourished about the year 1660. Among other
prints, we have a few plates by him representing
views in Holland, which are neatly engraved.

DUPONCHEL, CHARLES EUGENE, a French en-
graver, born at Abbeville in 1748, was a scholar
of Jacques Tardieu. He resided in England about
the year 1779, and among other prints engraved a
view of Waterford, from a drawing by Paul Sandby,
the 'Madonna della Seggiola' of Raphael, a 'Holy
Family ' after Andrea del Sarto, and several other
historical subjects and portraits. He was living
in 1804.

DUPONT, FRANCOIS LEONARD, called DUPONT
WATTEAU, a French painter, was born at Moorsel in
1756, and studied at Lille under Louis Watteau,
whose daughter he married in 1782. In 1798 he
gave up art for mechanics, with the study of
which he had begun life. He died at Lille in 1824.
During the years devoted to art, Dupont painted
in all mediums and all subjects portraits, genre
subjects, &c. In the Lille Museum is a picture by
him, dated 1785, of the 'Attributes of the Fine
Arts,' and in the Glasgow Corporation Galleries is
' The Vintage.'

DUPONT, GAINSBOROUGH, the nephew and pupil
of Thomas Gainsborough, R.A., was born in 1767.
He painted portraits and landscapes in imitation of
the style of his uncle, and also landscapes with
architectural ruins, in which he imitated Nicolas
Poussin. His principal work is a large picture
containing the portraits of the Trinity Masters,
which is in their court-room on Tower Hill. He
is, however, more distinguished as an engraver in
mezzotinto, and his engravings of some of Gains-
borough's portraits are imbued with the very spirit
of the painter. He died in London in 1797. The
following are his best plates :

George III., full length ; after Gainsborough.
Queen Charlotte, full length ; after the same.
The Princess Eoyal, and the Princesses Augusta and

Elizabeth, full length ; after the same.
George, Lord Rodney, full length ; after the same.
General Conway, full length ; after fhe same.
Colonel St. Leger, full length ; after the same.
Rev. Sir Henry Bate Dudley, Bart., full length ; after

the same.
Bev. Richard Graves, half-length, oval ; after the same.

DU PONT, NICOLAS, who was born at Brussels in
1660, painted landscapes and architecture. The
figures in his landscapes are attributed to Pieter
Bout, the coadjutor of Bodewyns, in conjunction
with whom lie painted the perspective of a grand
palace, now in the Museum at Ghent. He died at
Brussels in 1712.

DU PONT, PAULUS (better known as PAULD:
PONTIUS), an eminent Flemish engraver, was born
at Antwerp in 1603, and was instructed in the
art of engraving by Lucas Vorsterman ; but he
improved his designs by the advice and friendship
of Rubens, from whose works he engraved many
admirable olates. Few artists have equalled him



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