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in the correct and faithful delineation of his model ;
and in the character and expression of his figures
le appears to have possessed himself of the mind
of Rubens. He was not less successful in the fine
jortraits he engraved after Van Dyck, in which
lie seems to have adapted his style to the particular
character of the person represented. His plates
are executed with the graver in a clear, bold style ;
and, though he did not possess the facility of
Bolswert, or the delicacy of Vorsterman, his plates
will ever be esteemed among the ablest pro-
ductions of Flemish art. He died in 1658. The
'ollowing are his principal works :


Paulus Du Pont, or Pontius, Engraver.

Peter Paul Rubens.

Jacob De Breuck, Architect.

Jan "Wildens, Painter, of Antwerp.

Jan van Ravesteyn, Painter, of the Hague.

Palamedes Palamdesz, Dutch Painter.

Theodoor van Loo, Painter, of Louvain.

Theodoor Rombouts, Painter, of Antwerp.

(Jornelis van der Geest, celebrated Connoisseur.

Gerard Honthorst, Painter, of the Hague.

Hendrik van Balen, Painter, of Antwerp.

Adriaen Stalbent, Painter, of Antwerp.

Daniel Mytens, Painter, of Holland.

Gerard Seghers, Painter, of Antwerp.

Simon De Vos, Painter, of Antwerp.

Gaspar De Craeyer, Painter, of Ghent.

Hendrik Steenwyck, Painter, of Antwerp.

Gaspar Gevartius, Jurisconsult, of Antwerp.

Nicolaas Rockox, Magistrate, of Antwerp.

Jan van den "\v~ouwer, Counsellor of State.

Csesar Alexander Scaglia, Abbot of Stophard.

Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden.

Mary de' Medici, Queen of France.

Francis Thomas, of Savoy, Prince of Carignan.

John, Count of Nassau.

Don Alvarez, Marquis of Santa Cruz.

Don Carlos de Colonna, Spanish General.

Don Diego Felipe de Guzman, Marquis de Leganez.

Mary, Princess of Arernberg.

Henry, Count de Berghe, in armour.

Sir Balthasar Gerbier.

Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange.


Philip IT., King of Spain. 1632.

Elizabeth of Bourbon, his Queen.

Isabella Clara Eugenia, Infanta of Spain.

Ferdinand, Infant of Spain, on horseback.

Gasparo Guzman, Duke of Olivarez.

Cristoval, Marquis of Castel Rodrigo.

Manuel de Moura Cortereal, Marquis of Castel

The Mother of Manuel, Marquis of Castel Rodrigo.


Susannah and the Elders. 1624.
The Adoration of the Shepherds.
The Murder of the Innocents. In two sheets. 1643.

Very fine.

The Presentation in the Temple.
Christ bearing His Cross.
The Crucifixion, with Angels, one of whom is overcoming

Sin and Death.
The Dead Christ supported by the Virgin, with

Mary Magdalen, St. Francis, and other figures ; very


The Descent of the Holy Ghost.
The Assumption of the Virgin.
The Virgin suckling the Infant Christ.
St. Roch interceding with Christ for the Plague-stricken ;

very fine.
Thomyris causing the Head of Cyrus to be put into a

Vessel of Blood.


The Flight into Egypt ; after Jordaens.
Twelfth-Night ; after the same.


The Adoration of the Magi ; after G. Seyhers.

The Virgin with the Infant Christ and St. Anne ; after

the same.
St. Francis Xavier kneeling before the Virgin and

Child ; after the same.
St. Sebastian, with an Angel drawing an Arrow from

his breast ; after the same.
A Dead Christ, supported by the Virgin ; after Van

St. Rosalia, receiving a Crown from the Infant Jesus ;

after the same.

The Holy Family ; after J. van Hoeck.
The Entombment of Christ ; after Titian.

DUPONT, PIERRE, a French engraver, was born
in Paris in 1730. He is often confounded with
Gainsborough Dupont.

DUPPA, RICHARD, was an English copyist, who
flourished in the latter half of the 18th and in
the beginning of the 19th century. He studied
for some time in Rome, and published two works
containing copies of heads by Michelangelo and
Raphael ; but he is chiefly known by his lives of
these two painters, published in 1807 and 1816

DUPRAT, , a French painter of the 18th

century, is known by a portrait of the Princess
of Asturias, Dona Maria Barbara, wife of Ferdi-
nand VI., in the Madrid Gallery. No dates are
known in connection with his life.

DUPBE, JULES, French painter, born at Nantes
in the year 1811. He learnt the rudiments of his
art whilst assisting his father, a manufacturer of
porcelain (in the village of Parmain, facing L' Isle-
Adam), in decorating his pottery. He practically
taught himself, wandering through the neighbour-
ing country, whence he brought home studies
painted on the spot with simple fidelity. Un-
trammelled by any school traditions, young Dupre 1
came to Paris, and at the age of twenty exhibited
for the first time three pictures in the Salon of
1831. Two of these, both forest scenes, were

Eainted direct from nature in La Creuse, where his
ather had undertaken the management of a china
factory belonging to the Marquis de Bonneval.
He exhibited up to 1837, and sent seven landscapes
to the Salon of 1839. After this for thirteen years
he did not contribute to the Salon, but reappeared
for the last time, in 1852, with three pictures :
' Pastures,' ' The Outskirts of a Village in the
Landes,' and ' A Sunset.' He sent a dozen works
to the Universal Exhibition of 1867, which may be
regarded as so many masterpieces, though he was
only awarded a second-class medal. He had previ-
ously obtained one at the Salon of 1833. His
'View of the Fields near Southampton,' in 1835,
had brought him congratulations from the most
celebrated painters of the Romantic school. Eugene
Delacroix was never tired of seeing and studying
this picture. Dupr6 was passionately interested
in the works of Constable, and assisted Theodore
Rousseau to become known, even taking a studio
for, and working with him. He endeavoured to
paint on the system of etchers, merging the trees
and background into the sky so as to represent
the depth of air and space. At the Centenary
Exhibition in the Champ de Mars, a fine collection
of his works, with some of his most powerful sea-
pieces were shown. These were mostly painted
during the siege of Paris, when he was shut up
in his house at Cayeux-sur-Mer. He was the last
painter of the Romantic school of landscape, and
died on October 6, 1889, at L'Isle-Adam.

DUPRE, LoN VICTOR, a French landscape

painter, was born at Limoges in 1816, and studied
under his brother, Jules Dupre. He died in 1879,
after a long and painful illness. Amongst his
works are :

Meadows in Berry.

Environs of St. Junien.

Cows Drinking. 1855. (South Kensington Museum.)

View at Argentan. 1861.

Landscape in the Indre. 1864.

DUPREEL, , was a French engraver of

whom no particulars are related, but whose works
are to be found in the 'Musfe Frangais,' the
'Galerie de Florence,' and other publications of
the close of the 18th and commencement of the
19th centuries.

scape painter, was born in Paris in 1800. He
painted chiefly views in the south of France, but
sometimes ventured on historical subjects, as the
' Battle of Re'thel ' in the galleries at Versailles.
He died in Paris in 1859.

DUPUIS, CHARLES, (or Du Puts,) a French en-
graver, was born in Paris in 1685. He was a pupil
of Gaspard Duchange, and engraved several plates
of portraits and historical subjects. They are etched
with taste, and finished with the graver in a free,
masterly style. His drawing is correct, and his
heads are full of expression and character. He
was a member of the French Academy, and died in
Paris in 1742. The following are his plates most
worthy of notice :

Louis XV. ; after Ranc.

Henry of Lorraine, Duke of Guise ; after Du Monstier.
Nicolas Coustou, sculptor ; after Le Gros.
Nicolas de Largilliere, painter ; after Gueulain.

St. John preaching in the Wilderness ; after C. Maratti.
The Marriage of the Virgin ; after Carle van Loo.
Alexander Severus giving Corn to the Romans ; after

Noel Coypel.

Ptolemy giving Liberty to the Jews ; after the same.
Two of the Elements, Earth and Air ; after Louis de


Cupid triumphing over Pan ; after Antoine Coypel.
Diana reposing, with her Nymphs ; after the same.
Einaldo and Armida ; after the same.
The Passage of the Rhine ; after Le Srun.

DUPUIS, NICOLAS GABRIEL, the younger brother
of Charles Dupuis, was born in Paris in 1696, and
was instructed in the art of engraving by Gaspard
Duchange. Although not equal to his brother, he
possessed great merit, and was admitted a member
of the Academy in 1754. He engraved several
portraits and historical subjects, in the style of his
brother. He died in Paris in 1771. There are by
him the following prints :


The Equestrian Statue of Louis XV. erected at Bor-
deaux ; after Le flfoine.

The same, from that erected at Rennes ; after the same.

C. F. Paul de Normand de Tournehem, Director General
of the Arts ; after L. Tocque.

Philips "Wouwerman, painter ; after C. D. I'isscher.

Gaspard Duchange ; after Van Loo.

Jean de Betzkoy, Russian general ; after Roslin.


The Guardian Angel ; after Domenico Feti ; for th{

Crozat Collection.
The Adoration of the Magi ; after Paolo Veronese ; for

the same.
The Holy Family; after Annibale Carracci ; for the

Dresden Gallery.



St. Sebastian ; after L. Carracci.

St. Nicholas and St. Francis ; after Pierre.

Amusement of a Pastoral Life; after Giorgione ; for

the Crozat Collection.
The Death of Lucretia ; after Gvido.
^Eneas saving his Father Anchises ; after Carle van Loo.
Nymph and Satyrs ; after L. Chiron.

DUPUIS, PIERRE FRANQOIS, an etcher and en-
graver in mezzotint, worked in Paris in the early
part of the 18th century. His best plate is the por-
trait of his grandfather, PIERRE DDPUIS, the flower
painter, who was born in 1610, and died in 1682.

DUQUE CORNEJO, PEDRO, a Spanish sculptor
and painter, was born at Seville in 1677. He was
a pupil of Pedro Roldan for sculpture, but it is not
known by whom he was instructed in painting.
The pictures which he painted in oil for the Car-
thusian priory of Santa Maria de las Ctievas, repre-
senting St. Bruno and other monks of the order,
and those which he painted in fresco for the monas-
tery of San Geronimo de Buenavista, are not with-
out merit. He had a ready invention, and produced
numerous designs, which are much esteemed at
Seville. He died at Cordova in 1757, and was
buried witli great pomp in the cathedral of that
city. His works, as a sculptor and carver in wood,
are to be seen in the cathedrals and churches of
Seville, Cordova, Granada, and elsewhere.

DUQUEYLAR, PAUL, a French historical painter,
born at Digne in 1771, was a scholar of David. Most
of the subjects painted by him are taken from the
classic poets and ancient historians, and are of an
elevated character. The ' Judgment of Minos,' and
' Belisarius,' both painted at Rome in 1804, are
described by Kotzebue in his 'Souvenirs d'ltalie.'
He was still living in 1831.

DURAMEAU, Louis JACQUES, a French historical
painter, was born in Paris in 1733. He was
painter to the king, and keeper of the pictures at
Versailles, and was received into the Academy in
1774 upon his painting of ' Summer ' on the ceiling
of the Gallery of Apollo in the Louvre. He also
painted the ceiling of the theatre in the palace of
Versailles with the subject of 'Apollo.' There are
pictures by him in the Museums of Alencon and
Besancon, and some of his historical subjects have
been engraved by Levasseur. He died at Versailles
in 1796.

DURAND, CTRILE, a French genre painter, was
born at Bordeaux in 1790, and died there in 1840.
An ' Interior ' by him is in the Museum of his
native city.

French marine painter, was born at Dol in 1814.
He studied under Gudin and Eugene Isabey, and
in 1840 accompanied the fleet which brought
Napoleon's remains from St. Helena, which island
afforded him subjects for various pictures. He
spent much of his time in travelling; he went
to Buenos Ayres with the squadron, and explored
Uruguay and Brazil ; lie accompanied the ex-
peditions to Tangiers and Mogador, and to Mada-
gascar, and he was in the Crimea during the
war with Russia. He painted views of the places
he visited, and also naval combats and sea-pieces.
He died in 1879. There are several of his works
in the galleries of Versailles.

DURANT, JEAN Louis, a French portrait painter
and engraver, was a native of Orleans. He worked
at Geneva about 1670, but came to London about
the year 1690. He was a very indifferent en-
graver, and was chiefly employed by the book-


sellers, for whom he engraved a variety of book
ornaments and portraits. Among the latter is that
of Queen Mary II., after Kneller.

DURANTE, Conte GIORGIO, an Italian painter
of flowers and birds, was born at Brescia in 1683,
and died in 1755. His works were eagerly sought
after, no less for their exact imitation than for
their tasteful composition. They are rarely met
with out of Brescia, though several noble Venetian
families possess a few specimens, and the best are
to be seen in the royal collection at Turin.

DURELLO, SIMON, a German engraver, exe-
cuted some of the portraits for the work entitled,
' Istoria di Leopoldo Cesare,' published at Vienna
in 1674.

DURER, ALBREOHT, the great representative
artist of Germany, was of Hungarian descent, and
perhaps connected with a Hungarian family of the
name of Ajt6s, who had lived for many gener-
ations in a little village of the same name, (Eytas,
as Diirer writes it,) near Gyula. This name of
Ajt6s, derived from " ajt6" (a door), signifies the
same as the German Thiirer or Diirer, which was
probably a translation of it, and it is significant
that Diirer bore the same arms viz. the open door
under a pent-house roof that were borne by this
family. Diirer's ancestors lived, as he himself tells
us, " by tending oxen and horses." Albrecht Diirer
the elder, however, deserted this patriarchal call-
ing, and became a goldsmith, and after passing
some time with the great masters of that craft in
the Netherlands, he came to Nuremberg in 1455,
where he engaged himself to a master goldsmith,
named Hieronymus Holper (not Haller), whose
young daughter Barbara he married in 1467,
taking up about the same time his rights as
burgher and master goldsmith in the city.
Albrecht Diirer was the third of eighteen children,
most of whom died in infancy. His birth took
place on May 21st, 1471, and Anton Koberger, the
celebrated printer, was his godfather. " When I
had learnt to write and read," says Diirer, in a
brief family chronicle of his own compiling, " my
father took me from school and taught me the
goldsmith's work." But he continues, " my inclin-
ation carried me more towards painting." There-
fore, his father, giving in to his desire, bound him
apprentice in 1486 to the best Nuremberg painter
of his time Michel Wolgemut to serve with him
for three years. " During this time," writes Diirer,
" God gave me diligence so that I learnt well.
And when I had served my time, my father sent
me away, and I was absent four years, until -iy
father required me back, and as Isetoutin 1490 after
Easter, so I returned in 1494 after Whitsuntide."
This is all Diirer tells us concerning his " Lehr-und
Wanderjahre," nor have we much other record
concerning them. A portrait he drew of himself
in the looking-glass in 1484 is, however, still pre-
served in the Albertina at Vienna, and a careful
pen-drawing of the ' Virgin and two Angels,' dated
1485, is to be found in the Berlin Museum; but
this may be a copy from some earlier master.
Where Diirerjwent during his four " Wanderjahre "
is not certain. Christoph Scheurl expressly states
in one place that he made a tour through Germany,
and both he and Neudorffer affirm that he was in
Colmar in 1492, where he was entertained by
Martin Schongauer's three brothers, as also by a
fourth brother at Basle. The inscription on two
portraits from which it has been argued that he
was at Strassburg in 1494 is open to another inter-



Diirer are the 'Holy Family with the Locust' (B. 44),
and the ' Love Offer ' (B. 93), about 1495. ' The
Ravisher ' (B. 92) may be some years earlier.
His noblest conceptions belong to a later date.
Among these muy be named, ' The Prodigal Son ' ;
'The Arms of Death' (1503) ; 'Adam and Eve'
(1504); 'The Nativity' (1504); 'The Knight,
Death, and the Devil ' (1513) ; ' Melancholia '
(1514); 'St. Jerome in his Chamber' (1514);
'The Great Fortune,' and the ' St. Eustace '(or
' St. Hubert '). The two last are large plates of
early date. The beautiful series known as the
' Passion in Copper ' bears dates from 1508 to 1513.

Diirer produced six etchings during the years
1515-18, and four dry-point plates, one of which
is dated 1510 and two 1512 ; all the rest were en-
graved with the burin.

Diirer's connection with the Emperor Maxi-
milian I. began in 1512, and continued till his
patron's death in 1519. The principal works
which he executed for him are the marginal
drawings in an incomplete copy (at Munich) of a
printed prayer-book intended for the use of the
Order of St. Georj;e(1515); theimmense'Triuinphal
Arch,' composed of ninety-two blocks, dated
1515, designed by Diirer but carried out in a large
measure by his pupils ; the small Triumphal Car
with the Burgundian Marriage in the ' Triumphal
Procession,' and the large 'Triumphal Car,'
designed in 1518 but not published as a woodcut
till 1522. Diirer drew the Emperor's portrait
at the Diet of Augsburg in 1518, and made both a
picture and a woodcut from the drawing.

In 1520-21 Diirer, accompanied by his wife,
iindertook a journey to the Netherlands, of which
he has left us a detailed account in a journal he
kept during his travels. This journal, with the
letters written from Venice, and other correspond-
ence and memoranda by Diirer, has been published
in full in ' Diirer's Schriftlicher Nachlass,' edited by
Lange and Fuhse, 1893. It is translated into
English in the lives of Diirer by W. B. Scott and
Mrs. Heaton. After his return from this journey,
which appears to have been chiefly undertaken in
order to get a ratification from the Emperor
Charles V. of a pension that had been granted him
by Maximilian, Diirer remained quietly working
in Nuremberg until his death, which took place
on April 6th, 1528. His last great work had
been the painting of the ' Four Apostles,' grandly-
conceived figures of SS. Peter, John, Paul and
Mark, typifying the Four Temperaments, which he
presented to his native city in 1526. They are
now in the Munich Gallery.

Besides his artistic works Dtirer wrote several
treatises -the most important being-, ' The Art of
Mensuration' (1525) ; 'Instruction on the Fortifi-
cation of Towns, Castles, and Places ' (1527) ; and
the ' Treatise on Proportion,' published after his
death in 1528. The plastic works attributed to
him are probably without exception apocryphal.

Durer's art is essentially German in character,
and those who only admire the Italian ideal find
nothing in it to desire. It is the lament of many
writers that he did not receive Italian training ;
but those who truly appreciate his art rejoice that,
in spite of various influences that might have
affected it, his style remained thoroughly individual
and German. " In creative richness of fancy, in
extensive power of thought, and in moral energy
and earnest striving, Diirer," writes Liibke, "must
be called the first of all German masters; and as


regards artistic gifts, need fear no comparison with
any master in the world, not even with Raphael
and Michelangelo. Notwithstanding, in all that
concerns the true means of expression the cloth-
ing of the idea in the garment of exquisite form
he lies so deeply fettered within the bonds of his
own limited world that he rarely rises to the same
height of thought or expression."

This is no doubt true to some extent. We do
not find in Durer's art the classic ideal of the per-
fection of man's physical nature, nor the spiritual
ideal of the early religious painters, nor the calm
dignity and rich sensuous beauty of the great
masters of the Italian Renaissance, but in it we
find a noble expression of the German mind, with
its high intellectual powers, its daring speculative
philosophy, its deep-seated reverence, its patient
laboriousness, and its love for the weird and
grotesque. Diirer was the companion of some of
the most learned and thoughtful men of his day.
Luther and Melanchtbon were among the number
of his friends, and there is no doubt but the reform-
ing spirit of the age was powerfully at work within
him, affecting his thought and art. Melanchthon
bears testimony to his rare worth as a man by
saying, "His least merit was his art. 1 '


Ifeudorffer, ' Nachrichten von den vornehmsten Kiinst-

lern und AYerkleuten so innerhalb hundert Jahren

in Nurnberg gelebt haben.' Niirnberg, 1547.

(Edited by Lochner, 1875. The earliest account we

have of Diirer.)
Vasari, ' Vite de' piu eccellenti Pittori,' &c. (Edited by

Milanesi.) 1878-82.

Caret van Mander, ' Het Schilder-Boeck.' 1604.
Sandrart, ' Teutsche Academic.' 1675-79.
Friedrich Campe, ' Reliquien von Albrecht Diirer ' (con-
taining his letters and journal). 1828.
Joseph Heller, ' Das Leben und die Werke Albrecht

Durer's.' 1827. (Only the second vol. of this work,

containing descriptive catalogues, was published.)
August von Eye, ' Leben und Wirken Albrecht Durer's.'

W. B. Scott, 'Albert Diirer: his Life and Works.'

Mrs. Heaton, ' Life of Albrecht Diirer.' 1869. (Second

edition, 1881.)
Lochner, 'Die Personen-Namen in Albrecht Durer's

Briefen aus Venedig.' 1870.
Moritz Tkausing, ' Diirer's Briefe, Tagebiicher, und

Reime.' 1872.
Moritz Thavsiny, ' Diirer, Geschichte seines Lebens

und seiner Kunst.' 1876. (Second edition. 1884.)
Moritz Thausing, ' Albert Diirer, his Life and Works.'

Edited by F. A. Eaton.' 1882.

Charles Ephrussi, 'Albert Diirer et ses dessius.' 1882.
W. M. Conway, ' Literary Remains of A. Diirer.'


A nton Springer, ' Albrecht Diirer.' 1892.
Daniel Rurckhardt, ' Albrecht Durer's Aufenthalt in

Basel.' 1892.
Gabriel von Terey, 'Albrecht Diirer's Venetianischer

Aufenthalt.' 1892.
Lange und Fuhse, ' Durer's Schriftlicher Nachlass.'

H. Knackfuss, ' Durer.' (Editions 2-6, 1895-99, English

Translation, 1900.)
Lionel Cust, ' A. Diirer. A study of his Life and

Works.' 1897.

S. R. Koehler, ' Chronological Catalogue of the Engrav-
ings, etc., of Albert Durer.' 1897.
.V. Zucker, ' Albrecht Durer.' 1900.
Ludwiq Justi, ' Konstruirte Figuren und Kopfe unter

den Werken A. Diirer's.' 1902.
' Studien zur Deutschen Kunstgeschichte,' nos. 6, 19, 23,

27, 38, 39, 41. No. 41, ' Versuch einer Diirer-Biblio-

graphie,' by H. W. Singer, enumerates about 1300

books and articles relating to Diirer.












Woodcut, 1510]



Virgin and Child with SS. Antony and Sebastian.


Adoration of the Magi. 1504. ( Uffizi, Florence.)
Feast of the Rose-Garlands. 1506. (Monastery of

Strahow, near Prague.)

Virgin crowned by two Angels. 1506. (Berlin).
Crucifixion. 1506. (Dresden).

Martyrdom of the Ten Thousand. 1503. (Vienna.)
Adoration of the Trinity. 1511. (Vienna.)
Figures of the Four Apostles. 1526. (Munich.)
Madonnas at Augsburg, Berlin, and Vienna.


Portrait of Himself. 1493. (Late in the Felix Collec-
tion, Leipzig.)

1498. (Madrid, copy at Flor-


1508? (Munich.)

Albrecht Diirer the Elder. 1494. (Uffizi.)

,, 1497. (Three replicas at

Frankfort, Schleissheim, and Sion House.)
A Young Man ; probably Hans Diirer. 1500.


Oswald Krell. 1499. (Munich.)
Michel Wolgemut. 1516. (Munich.)
A man unknown (Hans Irahof ?). (Madrid.)
Bernard van Orley. 1521. (Dresden.)
Hieronymus Holzschuher. 1526. (-Berlin.)
Jacob Muffel. 1526. (Berlin.)


The richest collections are those of the Albertina,
Vienna, the Koyal Print Cabinet at Berlin, and the
Print Boom at the British Museum. Other import-
ant drawings are at Bremen, Hamburg, Florence,
Milan, The Louvre, Windsor Castle, Chatsworth, the
Blasius Collection at Brunswick, the Bounat Collec-
tion at Paris, etc. Reproductions of nearly all the

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