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drawings have been published by Dr. Lippmann,
(' Zeichnungeu von A. D.,' Bd. i.-iv., 1883-96,) with
the exception of the Albertina drawings, which have
appeared in Schunbrunner and Meder's ' Handzeich-
nungen aus der Albertina und anderen Sammlungen '
(Vienna). H.J1.H. (CD.)

DURER, HANS, a younger brother of Albrecht
Durer, -was born at Nuremberg in 1490. When,
in 1502, they lost their father, Albrecht took the
young Hans, a boy of twelve, under his protection,
and gave him instruction in art. He afterwards
became court painter to the King of Poland, at
Cracow. His death is not recorded, though it is
thought that he may have been dead in 1538, for
in that year his brother Andreas went from Nurem-
berg to Cracow to collect debts. A few old German
paintings with the initials H. D. and a drawing of
the Crucifixion in the British Museum are attributed
to Hans Diirer, but his most certain works are a
part of the marginal drawings in that portion of
the so-called Prayer-Book of Maximilian I. which
is preserved at Besancon.

DURET, PIERRE, a French engraver, who was
living in Paris in 1767. He engraved several plates
of landscapes, principally after the Dutch masters,
among which are the following :

A View in Holland ; after Buisdael.
Two Moonlight subjects ; after Van der Neer.
The Country Blacksmith ; after Ph. Wouwerman.
An Italian Sea-port ; after Vernet.

DURINGER, DANIEL, a Swiss painter, born at
Steckborn, in Thurgau, in 1720, studied at Zurich,
and distinguished himself as an excellent painter
and etcher of animals. He died in 1786.

graver and draughtsman, was born at Vienna in

1766. He studied at the Academy of that city,
and executed after Guido Reni the ' Four Seasons,'
and after Poelenborch the ' Nativity,' which are
two of his best plates. He was still living in 1835.

DURNO, JAMES, an historical painter, was born
about the year 1752. He studied first under An-
drea Casali, and afterwards under West, and
painted two pictures for Boydell's Shakespeare
Gallery. The early productions of this artist gave
promise of great ability, which was not, however,
fulfilled. He went to Italy in 1774, and died there
in 1795.


DURR, JOHN, a native of Germany, flourished
about the year 1625. He was an engraver of
little repute, and worked chiefly for the booksellers,
for whom, among other book-plates, he engraved
some portraits, particularly those of H. J. Ernest
and his family, and J. Zimmer.

DUSART, CORNELIS, the elder, flourished in
Holland in the 17th century. In the Amsterdam
Museum is a ' Fish Market ' by him, signed and
dated 1653.

painter and engraver, was born at Haarlem in 1660.
He entered the guild of that city in 1679, and died
there in 1704. He was a pupil of Adriaan van
Ostade, whose style he imitated with considerable
success. His works, like those of Ostade, repre-
sent 'Dutch peasants regaling and merry-making.
Although not equal to his master in the richness
of his tones and the harmony of his effect, his
colouring is clear and agreeable, his compositions
are ingenious, and his touch very spirited. There is
great inequality in the works of Dusart ; but some
of his best pictures are in the following galleries :

Amsterdam. Museum. Fish Market. 1683.

n The Ambulant Musicians.

A Village Fair.

A Village Inn.

Antwerp. Museum. Interior with Peasants.
Brussels. Museum. A Dutch Kermesse.
Dresden. Gallery. Woman and Child. 1679 (his ear-
liest knoicn work).

Peasants Fighting. 1697.

Nine-pins Players. 1688.

Dulwich. Gallert/. A Peasant Family.
Frankfort. St&dellnst. A Dutch Inu. 1687.
Glasgow. Gallery. The Musicians.
Hague. Museum. Interior of an Inn.

London. Northbrook^ Famfly g cene .

Bute Coll. Boors drinking.

Petersburg. Sennit- j A Donkey . 1681 .

Interior of a Grocer's Shop.

A Peasant Family.
Vienna. Gallery. Peasants before an Inn.

Dusart executed some very spirited etchings,
and a few plates in mezzotint, which are full of
humorous character. The following are his best
prints :


An old Man playing on the Violin.

A Girl confessing to a Monk.

A Dutch Boor reading a Paper, and holding a Bottle.

Monkeys regaling.

An Indian dancing with a Girl.

A Girl dancing with a Tea-Pot in her Hand.

Twelve plates of the Months of the Year.

The Five Senses.


The Interior of an Alehouse, with Boors regaling.
The Great Fair. 1685.


The Little Fair. 1635.

The Amorous Cobbler.

The Village Surgeon. 1695.

The Village Physician. 1695.

The Inside of a Dutch Alehouse.

A Village Festival ; after himself.


DUSIGN, , a portrait painter, was a son of

Colonel Dusign. He was a pupil of Sir Joshua
Reynolds, and practised for a few years at Bath,
where his family resided. He died at Rome in

French landscape painter, who painted also a few
portraits, was born at Douai, in 1807. He studied
under Hersent and at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts,
and worked at Arras from 1830 until 1860, in
which year he removed to Paris, where he died in
1865. There are Landscapes by him in the
Museums of Lille and of Douai.

man engraver, was born at Gronau in Wurtemberg
in 1778. He studied under. Klengel at Dresden,
and is chiefly known by his landscapes after Claude,
Poussin, Annibale Carracci, P. Bril, and various
views in the Tyrol. He also copied Woollett's
print of ' Solitude,' after Wilson, and was one of
the artists employed on the ' Musee Napoleon.'
He died at Heilbronn in 1846. His son, ANTON
DUTTENHOFER, who was likewise an engraver,
and was a pupil of his father, died at Stuttgart in
1843, at the age of 31.

DUVAL, AHADRV, painter, was born at Mont-
rouge, Paris, in 1808. In 1826 he entered the
atelier of Ingres, and afterwards travelled in
Greece, where he made numerous studies and
sketches. In 1834 he exhibited at the Salon his
'Greek Shepherd discovering a Bas-relief,' and
soon becam favourably known as an able exponent
of his master's traditions. His portrait of ' Rachel
as the Tragic Muse,' contributed to the Exhibition
of 1855, attracted considerable attention. He
painted various pictures for Parisian churches,
and executed some decorations in St. Germain
1'Auxerrois. He died in December 1885.

DU VAL, CHARLES ALLEN, a portrait and subject
painter, was born in 1808. He practised at Man-
chester, and exhibited at the Royal Academy from
1836 till his death in 1872. Among his works are:

The Giaour. 1842.
Columbus in chains. 1855.
The Dedication of Samuel. 185S.
The Morning Walk. 1861.

DUVAL, MARC, called BERTIN, after his brother-
in-law, and also ' Le Sourd de Charles IX.,' a
painter and wood-engraver, was born at Le Mans,
and became court painter of Charles IX. of France.
Among his engravings, which are very rare, may
be mentioned the Brothers Coligni and Catharine
de' Medici. He died in Paris in 1581.


DUVAL, PHILIPPE, a French painter, flourished
about the year 1672. He was first a scholar of
Charles Le Brun, and afterwards studied at Venice.
He came to England in the reign of Charles II.,
and painted some historical and mythological
subjects, one of which, dated 1672, represented
' Venus receiving from Vulcan the Arms of ^neas.'
He died in London in 1709.

DU VAL, ROBERT, a Dutch painter, who has
often been called in error Nicolaas Duval, was
born at the Hague in 1644. After studying


under Nicolaas Wieling he went to Italy, and be-
came an imitator of Pietro da Cortona. On his
return to Holland he was employed by William,
Prince of Orange, afterwards king of England. It
is said that he was sent to Hampton Court to put
in order the Cartoons of Raphael ; but whether to
repaint, or, in modern phrase, to restore them, is not
stated. He was appointed director of the Academy
at the Hague, and died there in 1732.

DU VAL, S. This artist is mentioned by Pa-
pillon as an engraver on wood, who flourished
about the year 1650, and was remarkable for the
neatness and delicacy of his execution. There are
twenty cuts by him for the ' Histoire miraculeuse
de Notre-Dame de Liesse.' His other prints are
chiefly from the designs of Jacques Stella and N.
Cochin. S. Du Val is sometimes mentioned as
SEBASTIANO, and sometimes as STEFANO Du VAL ;
but there is a degree of mystification about him
which requires elucidation. He must not be con-
founded with SEBASTIANO D' VL, or D'VAL, who
lived a century earlier.

French historical and scriptural painter, the son of
Pierre Duval-le-Camus, was born in Paris in 1817.
He studied under his father, to whose style his own
has considerable affinity, and under Drolling and
Delaroche. He died in 1878. Amongst his chief
works are :

Tobit and the Angel.

Petits Dejeuners de Marly.

Kousseau writing ' Heloise.' 1S46.

The Bear-Hunters. 1853.

Macbeth and the Witches. 1855.

The Flight into Egypt. 1857.

Jacques Cleinent. 1861. (Luxembourg Gallery.)

St. Elizabeth of Hungary. 1863.

Martyrdom of St. Laurence. 1867*

DUVAL-LE-CAMUS, PIERRE, a French genre
and portrait painter, was born at Lisieux in 1790.
He studied under David, and became painter-in-
ordinary to the Duchess of Berry. He died at St.
Cloud in 1854. Amongst his works are:

The Baptism. 1819.

The Brothers of the Christian Doctrine. 1822.

Interior of a Kitchen. 1824.

Ennui. 1827.

Labourer's Family returning from school. 1827.

Halt of Huntsmen. 1837.

"Wolf-Hunting. 1838.

The Blessing of Orphans. (Louvre.)

The First Gatherings of Harvest. (Louvre.)

Pifferaro teaching his Son. (Louvre.)

An Interior. (Bordeaux Museum.)

DUVAUX, JULES ANTOINE, painter and etcher,
born at Bordeaux in 1818, was a pupil of Charlet,
and a painter of battles and military subjects
generally. Several of his pictures are in the Ver-
sailles Museum. He also worked much as an
illustrative draughtsman and etcher for various
publications. He died in 1884.

DUVEAU, Louis JEAN NOEL, a French painter,
who was born at St. Malo in 1818, studied history
and genre painting under Leon Cogniet in Paris,
and afterwards visited Italy. He was successful
in representing scenes of fisher-life in his native
country. He died in Paris in 1867. In the Lille
Museum is his ' Perseus and Andromeda ' painted
in 1865.

DUVENEDE, MARCUS VAN, a Flemish painter,
was bom at Bruges about 1674. He went to Rome
when he was very young, and became a scholar of
Carlo Maratti, in whose academy he studied four

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years. There are several of his pictures in the
churches and convents of his native city, of which
the most esteemed is the ' Martyrdom of St
Laurence' in the chapel of St. Christopher. He
died at Bruges in 1730.

DUVET, JEAN, (Master of the Unicom,) a French
engraver, was born in 1481 at Langres, and died
after 1561. Goldsmith to Francis I. and Henry
II. of France ; engraved over sixty plates, among
them the ' Apocalypse,' the ' Annunciation,' a series
of animals, and several allegorical subjects, in
which the unicorn is introduced.
DU VIVIER, IGNAZ, a painter born at Rians in
1758, was instructed by Casanova, and executed
battle-scenes in the style of his master. He after-
wards removed to Vienna and turned his attention
chiefly to landscapes ; a ' Waterfall ' by him is in
the Vienna Gallery. He also etched a large number
of landscapes and genre pictures. He died in Paris
in 1832.

DUVIVIER, JEAN BERNARD, a native of Bruges,
was a painter of historical subjects and professor
at the Normal School in Paris. After having been
instructed by Hubert, Paul de Kock, and Suvee,
he studied for six years in Italy, and his style is
distinguished for beautiful composition, correct
drawing, and bright colouring. He died in Paris
in 1837.


DUWETT, GERKIT, (often called DE WETT, DE
WET, DE WETH, orDE WEET,) was born at Amster-
dam in 1616, and died there in 1679. He was a
scholar of Rembrandt, whose manner he imitated ;
he also painted landscapes, and was accounted a
good colourist. There is in the Copenhagen
Gallery ' Jephthah's Daughter' by him.

DUWETT, JACOB, (or DE WET,) was probably
a son of Jan Diiwett. In 1677 he entered the
Guild of St. Luke at Cologne, where he flourished
for many years.

WETH,) is said to have been born at Hamburg in
1617, but the date of his birth was probably earlier.
While quite young he entered the school of Rem-
brandt at Amsterdam, and his style partakes of
that of his master and also of that of Gerard Dou.
He produced a large number of biblical and mytho-
logical pictures, many of which have been sold as
Rembrandt's. He afterwards settled in Hamburg,
but the date of his death is not recorded. The
' Raising of Lazarus ' by him, dated 1633, is in the
Darmstadt Gallery, and ' Christ in the Temple '
(1635) and the ' Burning of Troy ' are at Bruns-
wick: other pictures by him are at Kiel and
Copenhagen. His brother, EMANUEL DUWETT, (or
DE WETT,) a native of Hamburg, who was likewise
a pupil of Rembrandt, painted landscapes in the
style of Uytenbrouck.

DUYNEN, ISAAC VAN, was a native of Antwerp,
who went in 1664 to the Hague, where he became
a pupil of Van Beyeren, and painted sea and river
fish very successfully. He died at the Hague in
1688 or 1689. There is a picture of ' Cod-fish ' by
him in the Lille Museum.

DUYSTER, W. C., a Netherlandish painter,
was the author of a painting representing ' Soldiers
playing at Tric-trac ' in the Hermitage at St. Peters-

DYCE, WILLIAM, a Scottish historical painter,
was bom at Aberdeen in 1806, and educated at

Marischal College, where he graduated at the age
of sixteen. He then studied art at the Royal
Academies of Edinburgh and London. After two
prolonged visits to Rome, which may be said to
have formed his style, he settled at Edinburgh in
1830. Here, for the next few years, he painted
portraits, and was elected an Associate of the Royal
Scottish Academy in 1835. The year 1837 saw
the publication of his pamphlet on art education,
which led to his being placed at the head of the
government Schools of Design throughout the
country. He entered into the Westminster Hall
competitions, and produced for the decoration of
the Houses of Parliament ' The Baptism of Ethel-
bert,' and the series of frescoes illustrating the
history of King Arthur. He also painted frescoes
for the church of All Saints, Margaret Street,
London, and executed decorative works for the
Queen at Osborne and Buckingham Palace. He
was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy in
1844, and an Academician in 1848. He died in
London in 1864. The following are some of the
chief works exhibited by him :

Bacchus nursed by the Nymphs. 1827.
The Infant Hercules. 1830. ~)

The Judgment of Solomon. (A National GM
cartoon.) 1836. of Scotland.

Franceses da Rimini. 1837.
James Hamilton, M.D. J

Piety and Faith. Sir Galahad and his Companions.

The Descent of Venus. 1836.
St. Dunsrtan separating Edwy and Elgiva. 1839.
The Christian Yoke. 1841.

Joash shooting the Arrow of Deliverance. 1844.
Jacob and Rachel. 1853.
Titian's First Essay in Colour. 1S57.
St. John leading home the Virgin. I860.
George Herbert at Bemerton. 1861.

DYCK, ANTHONIS VAN, the eminent portrait
painter, was born of good family at Antwerp, on
the 22nd of March, 1599. He was the seventh
child of a family of twelve ; his father, Frans van
Dyck, was a silk merchant, and his mother, Maria
Cuypers, was skilled in embroidery and other arts.
Van Dyck was apprenticed to Hendrik van Balen
when he was but ten years old, and in 1615 entered
the academy of the great painter Rubens, with
whom he remained till 1620 as his assistant. In
1618 Van Dyck was admitted into the Guild of
St. Luke at Antwerp. In 1620 he paid a _short
visit to England, and worked in the service of
James I., from whom he received 100 for special
services. In 1621 he was back in Antwerp, and
by the advice of Rubens, set out for Italy, where
he arrived in November 1621, and executed many
important works. He stayed chiefly at Genoa, but
also visited Rome, Venice, and Palermo. On his
return to Antwerp in 1626, Van Dyck at once
became famous as a painter both of historical
subjects and of portraits. Among the chief his-
torical works which he then executed were a
'Crucifixion' for the church of St. Michael at
Ghent, and a ' St. Augustine ' for the church of
the Augustines at Antwerp. He was now loaded
with commissions, and became even a rival to

In 1630 Van Dyck visited the Hague whither
he had been invited by the Prince of Orange and
is said to have gone to London, but, as he did not
meet with the encouragement which he had been
led to believe he should receive from the English
monarch, to have returned to Antwerp. Charles I.,



on seeing a portrait of the musician, Nicholas
Laniere, in 1632 invited the painter to return.
Van Dyck was most graciously received by Charles,
who gave him apartments at Blackfriars, where he
was often honoured with a visit from the king,
who frequently sat to him. He was styled " Prin-
cipal Painter in Ordinary to their Majesties at St.
James's,' and on the 5th of July, 1632, he received
the honour of knighthood. In the same month he
received 280 for " diverse pictures by him made
for his Majestye," and in the following year he was
granted an annual salary of 200. From this time
Van Dyck became the favourite painter in England :
not only the monarch, and his wife and children,
but all the court sat to him. He was wont to
receive, Walpole tells us, 60 for a full-length, and
40 for a half-length portrait. " He was inde-
fatigable," adds that author, " and, keeping a great
table, often detained the persons who sat to him,
for an opportunity of studying their countenances,
and of retouching their pictures again in the after-
noon." In the State Paper Office there is preserved
a document which shows that Van Dyck charged
Charles I. on an average about 50 for a portrait.
He lived in a grand and almost regal manner, in
the summer at Eltham, and in the winter at Black-
friars. In 1634-5 Van Dyck visited Brussels and
executed some of his finest paintings. After the
death of Rubens in 1640 Van Dyck returned
to Antwerp, but went to Paris in the hope of a
royal commission there. Disappointed in this, and
broken in health, he returned to England.

Van Dyck died in Blackfriars, London, December
9, 1641. Two days afterwards he was buried in the
old cathedral of St. Paul, near the tomb of John of
Gaunt. He bequeathed to his wife, Mary Ruthven,
a grand-daughter of William, first Earl of Gowrie,
and to his daughter Justiniana, all his goods, effects,
and moneys due to him in England from King
Charles, the nobility, and all other persons what-
ever, to be equally divided between them. He also
left other legacies to his executors, to his trustees, to
his daughter, to his sisters, to his natural daughter
Maria Theresa, to his servants, and to the poor of
St. Paul's and St. Anne's, Blackfriars. Lady Van
Dyck married, as her second husband, Sir Richard
Pryse, Bart.

In the Museum of Antwerp the precious tables
are still preserved in which the names of the Deans
of the Corporation of Painters were successively
inscribed from its foundation in 1454 until its
extinction in 1778. Two names only in this long
list are inscribed in capital letters that of Rubens,
under the date 1631, and that of Van Dyck, under
the date 1634.

It is, perhaps, without example in the history of
the art, that a painter, cut off in the vigour of his
life, should have left such a multiplicity of works,
the number of which is perhaps not exceeded by
those of Rubens. If we cannot, in a general view,
place him on an equality with Rubens as an his-
torical painter, it will be allowed that he surpassed
him in the correctness of his design, in the delicate
expression of his heads, in the truth and purity of
his colouring, and in the tender blending of his
tones. If he had less boldness of conception, and
less fecundity of invention, his compositions are
regulated by judgment and propriety, and it may
be reasonably presumed, that if, like his illustrious
instructor, he had devoted himself to that branch,
and had not been chiefly engaged in portrait-paint-
ing, he possessed the genius, as well as every other


requisite, to have reached the highest rank among
the painters of history.

In portraiture Van Dyck will not be denied the
most honourable place after Titian, and it will even
then be admitted that Titian is superior only in
the heads of his portraits, but that in the hands
and accessories he is inferior to Van Dyck, both, in
correctness and in elegance. Van Dyck's attitudes
are easy and natural, and they captivate by an air
of unaffected simplicity for which his portraits are
singularly remarkable. His heads are full of life
and expression, without anything of the coldness
and insipidity which are frequently found in the
productions of the portrait painter. The pictures
which he painted in Italy have more of the
Venetian colouring than those of a subsequent
period. The influence of Titian is paramount,
and at this period even stronger than that of
Rubens. On his return to Antwerp he recurred to
the Flemish mode, although he occasionally blended
the two. The earlier portraits which he painted
in England are brilliantly coloured and carefully
finished in all their parts ; but as business in-
creased they were executed with more despatch,
and much of the subordinate portion was left to be
completed by his pupils or assistants, the head only
being painted by the master. Besides the many
admirable pictures which he painted of the king
and the royal family, there are in England many
fine portraits of distinguished personages, which
are among the chief ornaments of the mansions of
the nobility.

There were no less than seventy-two portraits of
the English nobility attributed to Van Dyck exhi-
bited in the National Portrait Exhibition of 1866,
and Smith, in his ' Catalogue RaisonneY gives a list
of upwards of nine hundred and fifty works by
this painter. There are many unnamed portraits
in the public galleries of Europe as well as in
private collections which are not mentioned in the
following list. Many of these portraits, however,
are only the work of his pupils and assistants.


Arundel, Thomas Howard,

Earl of, and his grandson

Thomas (afterwards 5th

Duke of Norfolk)
Balbi Children
Baltimore, Anne Arundell,

Lady. Bust
Basset, Admiral Sir Francis.

Full length ....
Bedford, Ann Carr, Countess of
Bentivoglio, Cardinal
Berg, Count Henry de
Bolingbroke, Family of the

first Earl of. Seven half-
length portraits in a garden .
Brignole, La Marchesa de, and

Child. Full length
Brignole Family
Bristol, George Digby, Earl

of, and William Earl of

Bedford. Full length .
Brueghel, Jan ....

Duke of Norfolk.
Earl Cowper.
Lord Arundell of War-

Mr. J. F. Bassett.
Duke of Bedford.
Pitti Palace, Florence.
Madrid Gallery.

Earl of Morley.

Earl of Warwick.
Palazzo Brignoli.Genoa.

Buckingham, George Villiers,
Duke of, and his Brother
Francis, as boys, full length

Burlington, Kichard Boyle,
first Earl of ...

Cante Croix, Beatrice de Cu-
sauce, Princess de .

Carew, Thomas, the poet, and
Sir William Killigrew .

Earl Spencer.
Hermitage, St. Peters-

Windsor Castle.
Duke of Devonshire.
Windsor Castle.
Windsor Castle.





Carignan, Thomas Francois de,

Prince of Savoy
Carignan, Prince Thomas of,

on horseback ....
Carlisle, Countess of
Carlisle, James Hay, Earl of.

Full length ....
Chaloner, Thomas

Charles I. Full length, with
horse and attendants

Charles I. Full length, wear-
ing the collar and badge of
the Order of the Garter.
Dated 1636 ....

Charles I. Full length .

Charles I. in, armour, mounted
on a dun-coloured horse, his
equerry, Sir Thomas Mortem,
holding the king's helmet

Charles I. in armour. For the
picture at Blenheim

Charles I. Equestrian portrait.
M. St. Antoine, bearing, the
king's helmet, is on foot by

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