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turning to Sydney, he, by way of variety, proceeded
to the Caroline Islands stopped at the Ladrones
looked in upon Manilla, and finally settled himself
at Madras, and made money as a portrait painter.
Not content, he went to Pondicherry, and there
embarked for France, but stopped at the Mauritius,
and after some few more calls at various places,
found his way home." Besides a series of views
in New South Wales, he published with illustrations
in 1832, ' A Narrative of a nine months' residence
in New Zealand, in 1827 ; together with a Journal
of a residence in Tristan d'Acunha.' He exhibited
at the Royal Academy between the years 1806 and
1815, and again in 1837 and 1838, after having
accompanied Captain Fitzroy in the ' Beagle ' to
South America. The following were among his
exhibited works :

The Judgment of Midas. 1806.
The Battle of Poictiers. 1S03.
Banditti. 1811 and 1812.

AMan-of-war's BoatscuttingoutaFrenchBarque. 1814
View of the Harbour and Town of Calais. 1815.
I 2



Life on the Ocean. 1837.

Divine Service on board a Man-of-war. 1837.

A Bivouac of Travellers in Australia. 1838.

EARLE, JAMES, an American portrait painter,
was probably a brother of Ralph Earle. He was
a native of Leicester, Massachusetts, and died of
yellow fever at Charleston in 1796.

EARLE, RALPH, an American portrait and his-
torical painter, was born at Leicester, Massa-
chusetts, in 1751. He painted in 1775 four scenes
in the battle of Lexington, which are believed to
be the first historical paintings ever executed by
an American artist. After the peace he came over
to England and studied under West, but he returned
to America in 1786, and died at Bolton, Connecticut,
in 1801. He was of intemperate habits, and left
his wife and children in London when he returned
to his native country. Among his works are a
large picture of the ' Falls of Niagara,' and por-
traits of King George III., Dr. Dwight, President
of Yale College, and Governor Strong.

EARLOM, RICHARD, a mezzotint engraver, was
born in London in 1743. He was a pupil of Cipriani,
and was the first artist who made use of the point
in mezzotint work. He first engraved for Boydell,
who in 1777 brought out the ' Liber Veritatis,' com-
prising two hundred plates, executed by Earlorn
in the style of the original drawings by Claude
Lorrain, which are for the most part in the pos-
session of the Duke of Devonshire. He is especi-
ally known for his groups of flowers after Van
Huysum and Van Os. He also executed some
etchings, as well as some plates in the chalk
style. Earlom died in London in 1822. The fol-
lowing are his principal plates :

ETCHINGS.

Portrait of Rembrandt ; after Rembrandt.
Banditti and Travellers ; after Salvator Rosa.
Jacob wrestling with the Angel ; after the same.
David and Goliath ; after the same.
Venus and Adonis ; after N. Poussin.
The Death of Abel : after A. Sacchi.
zEneas saving Anchises from the Buins of Troy ; after

Tintoretto.

The Holy Family ; after Guercino.
Cupid bound ; after Guido.

PORTRAITS IN MEZZOTINT.

William Henry, Duke of Gloucester ; after Hamilton.

Thomae Newton, Bishop of Bristol ; after West.

Sir Edward Astley, Bart. ; after the same.

George Augustus Eliott, Lord Heathfield ; after Sir J.

Reynold*.

James Stuart, Duke of Richmond ; after Van Dyck.
The Duke of Aremberg on horseback ; after the same.
Rubens's Wife ; after Rubens.
Portrait of Rembrandt ; after Rembrandt.
Rembrandt's Wife ; after' the same.
Admiral Kempenfelt ; after T. Kettle.
James Mac Ardell, engraver.

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS.

The Repose, called ' La Zingara ; ' after Correaaio.

The Virgin and Infant ; after Guercino.

The Virgin and Infant, with St. John; after Carlo

Hold.

Salvator Mundi ; after the same.
The Virgin and Infant ; after Cantarini.
The Infant Jesus sleeping ; after Domenichino.
Simeon receiving the Infant Jesus ; after Guido.
Christ curing the Blind ; after Annibale Carracci.
Galatea; after Luca Giordano.
The Judgment of Paris ; after the same.
The Misers ; after Quentin Massys.
The Holy Family ; after Rubens.
Mary Magdalen washing the Feet of Christ ; after the

same.

115



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Nymphs nnd Satyrs ; after the same.

Meleager and Atalanta ; after the same.

The Death of Hippolytus ; after the same.

Rubens's Son and his Nurse ; after the same.

Elijah restoring to Life the Widow's Son ; after Rem-
brandt.

The Presentation in the Temple ; after the same.

Susannah and the Elders ; after the same.

A Boar attacked by a Lion ; after Snyders.

The Fruit-Market ; after Snyders and Jan van Bockhorst.

The Fish-Market ; after the same.

The Vegetable-Market ; after the same.

A Fruit-piece, and a Flower-piece ; after Jan van
Huysam ; two plates ; extremely fine.

David and Bathsheba ; after A. van der Werff ; very
fine.

The Enchantress ; after 2). Tenifrs.

The Singing Master ; after G. Schalkeii.

The Interview between Augustus and Cleopatra ; after
Jt. Mengs.

The Royal Family of England ; after Zoffany.

The Eoyal Academy ; after the same.

Angelica and Medora ; afttr West.

Cupid stung by a Bee ; after the same.

Meleager aud Atalanta ; after Richard Wilson.

Apollo and the Nymphs ; after the same.

A Blacksmith's Shop ; after Joseph Wright.

An Iron Forge ; after the same.

WILLIAM EARLOM, his son, who was evincing
decided talent as an artist, was cut off in 1789, when
only seventeen years of age.

EAST/LAKE, Sir CHARLES LOCK, the youngest
son of George Eastlake, solicitor to the Admiralty
and Judge- Advocate at Plymouth, was born in that
town, November 17, 1793. He was educated at
the Plympton Grammar School, where Sir Joshua
Reynolds had previously studied, and he was one
of the first pupils of Prout, also a native of Ply-
mouth, whom he occasionally accompanied on his
excursions into the country to study nature. When
fourteen years of age, he was sent to the Charter-
house School, London, but he left in 1808 in order
to study art under Haydon, his fellow-townsman.
In 1809 he became a student in the Royal Academy
Schools, and in 1814 visited Paris for a few months.
In 1815, while Eastlake was employed painting
portraits in his native town, Napoleon arrived
there on board the ' Bellerophon,' and the young
artist took advantage of every glimpse he could
obtain of the ex-Emperor to make studies of him,
by the aid of which he painted a life-size picture
of Napoleon, standing at the gangway of the ship,
attended by his officers. This work, which is now
the property of the Marquis of Lansdowne, attracted
great attention, and was so well sold as to enable
the painter to visit Italy in 1817. He then, in 1819,
proceeded to Greece, on a commission from Mr.
Harman, his first patron, to make sketches of the
architectural remains and the scenery of that classic
soil. In some of these journeys he was accom-
panied by Brockedon, the painter, and Sir Charles
Barry, the architect. On his return, after nearly a
year's absence, and having visited Malta and Sicily
in the course of his tour, Eastlake painted a life-
size picture of ' Mercury bringing the Golden Apple
to Paris.' Shortly after the death of his father,
which had brought him hack to England in 1820,
he returned to Rome, and became much occupied in
paintiner subjects illustrative of the local features,
inhabitants, and customs of modern Italy. He
resided in Italy altogether fourteen years, chiefly in
Rome and in Perrara. He first exhibited at the
Royal Academy in 1823, his earliest contributions
being scenes in which public buildings, such as
the Castle of St. Angelo, St. Peter's, &c., were a

116



principal feature. These were followed by subjects
taken from Italian life in the neighbourhood of
Rome, subjects of banditti life, &c. Commissioned
by the Duke of Devonshire, he painted, in 1827, a
picture representing the story related by Plutarch
of ' The Spartan Isidas,' who, appearing in battle
naked, and armed with sword and spear, was
mistaken for a god. This picture, consisting
of numerous figures, and of medium gallery size,
occupied the painter nearly two years, and pro-
duced considerable sensation amongst the artists
and dilettanti at Rome. In England it was not
so generally appreciated ; but its merit was ac-
knowledged by the Royal Academy, of which body
he was elected an Associate in 1827, the year
of its exhibition. About this time, captivated by
Venetian colouring, he painted some subjects of
half-figures, life-size, sometimes of chivalrous
character, sometimes taken from the picturesque
peasantry of Italy. He was, in 1830, elected a
Royal Academician. In the same 3*ear he returned
to England, and established himself in London.
The subjects now treated by him were undertaken
chiefly in order to turn to account his materials
from the costume and scenery of modern Greece.
He varied his studies at this time by portrait-
painting, and by his favourite half-figures in the
Venetian style. He also occasionally treated small
fancy subjects, and historic and modern Italian
subjects. But henceforth his time was devoted to
the service of art, by advice and by writing, rather
than by any practical work. He exhibited but
five pictures at the Royal Academy after his election
as president.

In the year 1841 Eastlake was appointed secre-
tary to the Royal Commission for decorating the
new Houses of Parliament and for the promotion
of the Fine Arts, arid he conducted the business of
that commission until its dissolution after the death
of its president, the Prince Consort. In 1842 he
was made librarian of the Royal Academy, and in
the following year he became keeper of the
National Gallery, which office, however, be resigned
in 1847. On the death of Sir Martin Shee, in 1850,
he was elected president of the Royal Academy
and received the customary honour of knight-
hood. He also became a trustee of the National
Gallery, of which he was, in 1855, made director
for a period of five years. This appointment was
renewed in 1860, and again in 1865, and during his
tenure of office he was instrumental in obtaining for
the nation many of its greatest treasures.

His literary productions were all connected with
art; he edited, in 1842, a translation of Kugler's
' Italian Schools of Painting ' (subsequently re-
edited by his widow) ; but his chief works were
his ' Materials for a History of Oil-Painting '
(1847), and ' Contributions to the Literature of the
Fine Arts ' (1848).

In August, 1865, Sir Charles Eastlake left Eng-
land, exceedingly unwell, for his usual annual tour
on the continent, taken with a view of acquiring
further examples for the National Gallery. At
Milan he became seriously ill, hut rallying slightly,
pushed on to Pisa, where he died December 24,
1865. He was buried first in the English cemetery
at Florence, but was subsequently re-interred at
Kensal Green. The following are some of his
principal paintings :

The Raising of Jairus's Daughter. Brutus exhorting
the Romans to revenge the Death of Lucretia. An
Italian Goutadina and her children. (Now at South



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PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Kensington.) Girl of Albano" leading a Blind Man
to Mass. 1825. Mercury bringing the Golden Apple
to Paris. Lord Byron's Dream, (fainted at Rome
in 1827, now in the National Gallery.) Pilgrims
arriving in sight of Rome. (Royal Academy, 1828 :
repeated in 1835, and again in 1836.) Una delivering
the Red Cross Knight. 1830. Haidee, a Greek
Girl. (Royal Academy, 1831 : now in the National
Gallery.} A Peasant Woman fainting from the
Bite of a Serpent. (Royal Academy, 1831 : now at
South Kensinytun.) GreekFugitives. (Royal Academy,
1833.) Escape of the Carrara Family from the
pursuit of the Duke of Milan, 1389. (Royal Academy,
1834: a replica, of the year 1850, is in the National
Gallery.) An Arab selling his Captives, Monks
endeavouring to ransom them. 1837. Gastun de
Foil before the Battle of Ravenna. 1838. Christ
blessing Little Children. (Royal Academy, 1840.)
Christ lamenting over Jerusalem. (Royal Acutleini/,
1841 : a replica is in the National Gallery.) Hagar
and Ishmael. (Royal Academy, 1843: his diploma,
picture. )

EATON, JOSEPH 0., an American painter of
portraits and figure subjects, both in oil and in
water-colours, was born in 1829. He died at
Yonkers on the Hudson in 1875. Among his
exhibited works were :

Landscape : View on the Hudson. 1868.

Greek Water-Carrier. 1872.

Lady Godiva. 1874.

Looking through the Kaleidoscope. 1875.

His own Portrait. 1875. (National Academy of Design.)

EBERHARD, KONRAD, a German historical
; painter, better known as a sculptor, was one of
the foremost artists of the so-called Nazarene
School, which at one time gathered round Overbeck
in Rome. He was born in 1768 at Hindelang in
Algau, where his father and grandfather were
sculptors and carvers. The Elector of Treves and
Bishop of Augsburg, Clement Wenceslas, often had
occasion to go to Hindelang, where he made the
acquaintance of Eberhard, and induced him to
visit the Academy of Munich in 1798 to work
under his fellow-countryman Boos. In 1816
he was appointed professor of sculpture at the
Academy. Several pictures by him exist, one of
which, ' The Adoration of the Magi,' is especially
beautiful. He died at Munich in 1859. In moat
of his works he was assisted by his elder brother,
FBANZ EBERHARD, an excellent sculptor, who was
born at Hindelang in 1767, and died of cholera at
Munich in 1836.

EBERLE, ADAM, one of the earliest and most
gifted pupils of Cornelius, was born at Aix-la-
Chapelle in 1805. He studied painting at the
Dusseldorf Academy, and afterwards went with Cor-
nelius to Munich. After commencing his career
at Dusseldorf by painting 'The Entombment of
Christ,' and 'St. Helena with two Angels,' he exe-
cuted the large fresco-painting on the ceiling of the
Odeon, representing ' Apollo among the Shepherds.'
In 1829 he went to Rome, where he died in 1832.

EBERLE, ROBERT, a German animal painter,
was born at Meersburg in 1815. He was first
instructed by Bidennann at Constance, and after-
wards went to Munich, where he studied from
nature and the works of Van de Velde and Du
Jardin. He especially excelled in painting sheep,
and there is a ' Shepherdess' by him in the Modern
Gallery at Munich. He died, through the discharge
of a pistol, at Eberfing, near Munich, in 1859.

EBERLEIN, CHRISTIAN NICOLAUS, a German
historical painter, was born at Rudolstadt in 1720.
He worked in Gottingen, Wolfenbuttel, and Salz-
dahlum, and in 1775 became inspector of the



gallery in the last-named town, and made good
copies of many of the pictures therein. He died
at Salzdahlum in 1788. His son, CHRISTIAN EBER-
HARD EBERLEIN, who was also a painter, was born
at Wolfenbuttel in 1749, and died at Gottingen in
1804.

EBERLEIN. JOHANN CHRISTIAN, was born at
Gottingen about 1770, and died there in 1815. An
' Italian Landscape ' by him is in the Modern Gallery
at Munich.

EBERMAYR, JOHANN EBERHARD, a German his-
torical painter, was born at Nuremberg in 1659.
He studied under Johann Murrer, and afterwards
at Venice. He died in his native city in 1692.

EBERT, KARL, landscape painter, was born at
Stuttgart in 1821, and studied there under Stein-
kopf, as well as at Munich. He died in 1885. In
the Stuttgart Gallery there are two pictures by
him.

ECCARDT, JOHANN ^EGIDIDS. See ECKHARDT.

ECHION. See AETION.

ECHTER, MICHAEL, a German historical and
fresco painter, was born in 1810. He studied under
Kaulhach, whom he assisted in decorating the
staircase of the New Museum at Berlin. He died
at Munich in 1879.

ECKARU, JOHANN CHRISTOPH, an engraver, was
born in 1757 at Lauffen on the Neckar, and after
studying architecture for a while, placed himself
under Guibat and J. G. von Miiller in the line
which he afterwards adopted. He engraved por-
traits and historical pictures, and worked for some
time at Dusseldorf in the illustration of various
works ; but in 1809 he obtained an engagement
at Munich as an engraver upon lithographic stones
of crests and ornamental writing. He died at
Munich after 1832.

ECKEMANN-ALESSON,LoRENZ. See EKEMANN-
ALESSON.

ECKERSBERG, CHRISTOFFER VILHELM, a Danish
painter of historical and genre subjects, sea-pieces,
and portraits, was born at Blaakrog, Varna's, in
South Jutland, in 1783. He studied first in
Aabenraa and in Flensburg; and in 1803 entered
the Academy at Copenhagen, where he won the
gold medal in 1809 with his ' Death of Jacob.' In
the following year he went to Paris and entered
David's studio, and in 1813 he visited Rome.
Returning to Copenhagen, he was elected in 1817
a member of the Academy, to which he presented
' The Death of Balder.' In the following year he
became one of its professors, and devoted much
care, with great success, to the improvement of
the talents of rising artists. In 1827 he was made
Director of the Academy. Between the years 1818
and 1828 he executed a series of historical pictures
relating to the House of Oldenburg in the palace of
Christiansborg. He died at Copenhagen in 1853.
Amongst his works are :

Loke and Sigyn. 1810. (Copenhagen Gallery.)

Portrait of Thorwaldsen. 1815.

The Israelites crossing the Red Sea. 1815. (Copenhagen

Gallery. )

Axel and Walburg.
Christ in Gethsemane. 1S24.
A Swedish Fishing Boat. 1833.
The Sermon on the Mount. 1834.
Portrait of the Princess Vilhelniiue.
A Russian Ship. 1828. (Copenhagen

A Danish Boat. 183o. /,//,,.

Vessels in the Sound. 1848.
Sea-piece. 1848.

ECKERSBERG, JOHAN FREDERIK, a landscape

117



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



painter, was born at Drammen in Norway in 1822.
He was placed in a mercantile office in Christiania
at the age of eighteen, but having previously been
in Holland for several years, and visited Amster-
dam, he had there imbibed a taste for art, so that
after two years, against his father's wish, he
relinquished his post, and entered the technical
drawing-school at Christiania. Rapidly developing
his talent for painting, he in 1824 obtained one of
the Government stipends for young artists, and
went to Diisseldorf, where he studied landscape
painting under Professor Schirmer. He returned
to Christiania in 1848, where his works commanded
a very fair sale. He married in 1850, but two
years later he was obliged to visit Madeira for
his health, where, having first devoted his time to
portrait painting to increase his rather slender
funds, he travelled over the island, making sketches,
from which he afterwards painted his magnificent
series of pictures of Madeira. He returned to
Christiania in 1854, and in 1859 founded in that
city an Academy of Painting, which was soon after
taken under Government patronage. Every summer
from the date of his return to Norway he visited
the most grand and picturesque spots in his native
country, making sketches from which he after-
wards elaborated his pictures. Eckersberg died at
Sandvigen, near Christiania, in 1870. His 'Grand
Panoramic Scene from a Norwegian Plateau ' was
exhibited at the Paris Exhibition of 1867.

ECKERT, HEINRICH AMBROS, a German painter
of battle-pieces, was born at Wiirzburg in 1807,
and was at first instructed by Fessel. In 1825
he attended the Academy at Munich, and after-
wards visited the Tyrol and France. Between 1835
and 1840, in conjunction with Monten and Sehelver,
he published a work upon the German federal army,
with two hundred coloured lithographic plates ;
and another illustrating the return of the Russian
troops to their homes. He died at Munich in 1840,
while engaged upon a picture of the great review
near that city before the Emperor of Russia.
Besides genre subjects and battle-pieces he painted
marine views.

ECKHARDT, GEORG LUDWIO, a German portrait
painter, was born at Hamburg in 1770, and died in
1794. He was an artist of great promise, and
wrote the ' Hamburgische Kunstlernachrichten,'
published in 1794.

ECKHARDT, JOHANN MQIDWS, (or ECCARDT,)
was a native of Germany, who visited England
about the year 1740, and became a pupil of Jan
Baptist van Loo. He was much employed as
a portrait painter, about the time that Sir Joshua
Reynolds returned from Italy. There is a print
of Peg Woffington, the actress, engraved by Faber,
and another of Dr. Conyers Middleton, engraved
by the same artist, from pictures by this painter.
He died at Chelsea in 1779.

ECKMAN, EDDARD, a Flemish wood-engraver,
was born at Mechlin about the year 1610. He
engraved some wood-cuts, which are admired for
the neatness of their execution and the correct
drawing of the small figures. He appears to have
taken the prints of Callot for his model, and has
copied some of them in wood-cuts with surprising
delicacy and spirit, particularly the plate of the
' Fireworks on the River Arno.' He also engraved
after Businck and Abraham Bosse. The work of
Eckman consists of upwards of a hundred prints.

ECKSTEIN, JOHANN, a German modeller and
painter, lived in the 18th century, and studied

118



at the Royal Academy in London, where he spent
the greater part of his life. He stayed some time
at Potsdam, and was practising in Birmingham in
1792. In 1796 he painted 'The Soldier's Return,'
and a ' Family Gathering.' The Berlin Museum
has two beautiful reliefs, signed J. E., which are
said to be by this artist. He died in London in, or
soon after, the year 1798.

ECKSTEYN, GEORG DAVID, a German engraver,
resided at Nuremberg about the year 1721. He
engraved some of the portraits for the ' Icones
Bibliopolarum et Typographorum,' published by
Roth-Scholtz at Nuremberg in 1726-42.

ECLECTICS. A name given to the Carracci
Family.

ECMAN, JEAN, a French miniature painter, was
born about 1641. He was received into the Academy
in 1675, and died in Paris in 1677.

EDDELIEN, MATTHIAS HEINRICH ELIAS, was
born at Greifswalde in 1803, and in 1819 went as
a journeyman painter to Copenhagen, where he
attended the Academy, and executed works in gri-
saille for Christiansborg. In 1837 he won the large
gold medal for his picture of ' David amusing Saul
by playing on the Harp,' and afterwards obtained a
travelling allowance for a competitive painting of
' Christ making Himself known to His Disciples.'
In 1839 he went to Rome, and while there painted
for the church at Kronborg ' Christ blessing Little
Children.' After his return he executed his chef
d'oeuvre, consisting of the frescoes in the chapel
of Christian IV., in the cathedral of Roskilde ;
but becoming paralysed he was unable to com-
plete them. He died in 1852. There is in the
Copenhagen Gallery a ' Faun plucking Grapes/
dated 1830.

EDDIS, EDEN UPTON, was a portrait painter, a
fellow-student and life-long companion of George
Richmond, and divided, at one time, the world of
fashion with his friend. He was a pupil of Sass,
and afterwards at the Royal Academy Schools,
and one of the medallists. At one time he was
disposed to take up landscape work, but was
persuaded to try portraiture, and so quickly
obtained a success in that branch of art, that he
relinquished all other work in its favour. His
cleverest works were portraits of children, but
amongst notable men whom he painted were Sydney
Smith, Theodore Hook, and Macaulay. He was
remarkable also for his pencil portraits, which
were of great refinement and beauty. The last
fifteen years of his life were passed at Shalford
near Guildford, where he died in 1901 at the age
of eighty-nine. He became very deaf as he grew
old, and this deafness was one of the reasons for
his retirement, but he was very popular as a
raconteur down to the end of his life, as he had
a wealth of anecdote, and a charming wit at his
disposal, and was one of the kindest and most
generous of men to children, and was always a
great favourite with them. G.C/W.

EDELINCK, GASPARD FRANCOIS, the youngest
brother of Gerard Edelinck, was born at Antwerp
in 1652. He was instructed by his brothers, Ge'rard
and Jean, but. did not long pursue the art of en-
graving. He died in Paris in 1722, leaving behind
him no work of note, except the plate of ' The
Deluge,' after Alessandro Veronese, which had been
commenced by his brother Jean, and was finished
by him under the direction of Gerard Edelinck.

EDELINCK, GERARD, a French engraver, was
born at Antwerp in 1640, and received his instruc-



GERARD EDELINCK




After Kneller]



JOHN DRVDEN



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



tion from Cornells Galle. In 1666 he went to
Paris, where he entered the studio of Frangois de
Poilly, and was taken into the service of Louis



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